Tuesday, October 2, 2018

Chronology of the 18th Century

23 January 1698–11 June 1727 – George I is Elector of Hanover

c. 1700 – ancestor of Baron Vordenberg moves Carmilla’s tomb

22 February 1700–10 September 1721 – Great Northern War between Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway (defeated 1700), Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania (defeated 1706) and Sweden under Charles XII

13 July 1700 – Treaty of Constantinople between Russia and the Ottomans in which the Sultan ceded Azov, the Taganrog fortress, Pavlovsk and Mius to Russia

1701
July 1701–August 1714 – War of the Spanish Succession (after the death of the childless Charles II of Spain) between Austrian Habsburgs and France

8 July 1709 – battle of Poltava between Peter the Great and the Swedish army under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld

1 August 1714–11 June 1727 – George I is King of Great Britain and Ireland:
22 June 1727–25 October 1760 – George II
25 October 1760–29 January 1820 – George III
15 August 1714 – execution of Constantin Brâncoveanu in Constantinople

1 September 1715–10 May 1774 – Louis XV is king of France

1719 – Wenzel Carl Graf Purgstall purchases Schloss Hainfeld from Count Leopold Josef Orsini-Rosenberg:
1275 – castle Hainfeld first documented, held by vassals of the Wildoner in Riegersburg
1332 – castle Hainfeld and its estate passes by marriage to Ulrich Winkler
1573 – Wolf Zwickl acquires castle Hainfeld
1550–1600 – Winkler family replaces castle with a fortified four-wing Renaissance castle
1719 – Wenzel Carl Graf Purgstall purchases Schloss Hainfeld from Count Leopold Josef Orsini-Rosenberg
c. 1721 – Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi writes “The Four Seasons” (“Le quattro stagioni”), four violin concerti

7 May 1724–17 May 1727 – Catherine I is Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias

1725 – Antonio Vivaldi’s “The Four Seasons” first published in Amsterdam

18 May 1727–30 January 1730 – Peter II Alexeyevich is Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias

22 June 1727–25 October 1760 – George II is King of Great Britain and Ireland and Elector of Hanover

30 January 1730–28 October 1740 – Anna Ioannovna is Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias

31 May 1740–17 August 1786 – Frederick the Great is King of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg

28 October 1740–6 December 1741 – Ivan VI Antonovich is Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias

6 December 1741–5 January 1762 – Elizabeth Petrovna is Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias

13 September 1745–18 August 1765 – Maria Theresa is Holy Roman Empress

1750
1750–March 1752 – François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) moves to Prussia

20 January 1752 – foundation stone of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Reggia di Caserta) laid, in Caserta, southern Italy, constructed for the Spanish Bourbon kings of Naples

20 January 1752–1774 – construction of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Reggia di Caserta), Naples, with the exterior completed in 1774

1760s
25 October 1760–29 January 1820 – reign of George III

5 January–9 July 1762 – Peter III is Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias

9 July 1762–17 November 1796 – Catherine II the Great is Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias

18 August 1765–20 February 1790 – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor

1770s
17 December 1770 – birth of Ludwig van Beethoven in Bonn

1772
August 1772 – First Partition of Poland: Russian, Prussian and Austrian troops invade Poland and divide the provinces among themselves

5 August 1772 – treaty signed between Russia, Prussia and Austria to partition Poland

22 September 1772 – Polish partition treaty ratified

1773
16 December 1773 – Boston Tea Party, protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, against the Tea Act of May 10, 1773, which allowed the British East India company to sell tea from China in American colonies without paying taxes apart from those imposed by the Townshend Acts

10 May 1774–4 September 1791 – Louis XVI is King of France

October 1774 – Austrians occupy Bukovina

January 1775 – Bukovina formally annexed by Austria

19 April 1775–3 September 1783 – American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies (allied with France)

4 July 1776 – United States Declaration of Independence, ratified by the Second Continental Congress at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

1780s
29 November 1780 – death of Maria Theresa

March 1781 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart summoned to Vienna, where Archbishop Colloredo was attending the celebrations for the accession of Joseph II

1786
17 August 1786 – death of Frederick II the Great at Sanssouci

17 August 1786–16 November 1797 – Frederick William II is King of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg

1787
19 August 1787–9 January 1792 – Russo–Turkish War

February 1788–4 August 1791 – Austro-Turkish War

21 June 1788 – United States Constitution ratified by the minimum of nine states required under Article VII

13 September 1788 – US Continental Congress passes a resolution to put the new Constitution into operation

1789
c. 1789–1792 – fictional dates when Victor Frankenstein studies at the University of Ingolstadt

30 April 1789–4 March 1797 – George Washington is first President of the United States

5 May 1789–9 November 1799 – the French Revolution

1790s
1790
20 February 1790 – death of Joseph II

autumn c. 1790 – fictional date of Washington Irving’s short story “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”

30 September 1790–1 March 1792 – Leopold II is Holy Roman Emperor

1791
6 September 1791 – premiere of La clemenza di Tito (The Clemency of Titus, K. 621) an opera seria in 2 acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian libretto by Caterino Mazzolà, at the Estates Theatre, Prague

30 September 1791 – premiere of The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte, K. 620), an opera in 2 acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder, at Schikaneder's theatre, the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden, Vienna

5 December 1791 – death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in Vienna

1792
1792 – Matei Cantacuzino moves to Russia

9 January 1792 – signing of the Treaty of Jassy

November 1792 – Ludwig van Beethoven leaves Bonn for Vienna

c. 11 September 1797 – fictional date of the death of Victor Frankenstein

16 November 1797–7 June 1840 – Frederick William III is King of Prussia:
16 November 1797–6 August 1806 – Elector of Brandenburg
1 July 1798–2 September 1801 – the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria of Napoleon Bonaparte

c. 1799 – Francesco Filippo Indellicati (1767–1831) selected an early (“primo”) ripening plant of the Zagarese variety (from Croatian grapes Crljenak Kaštelanski and Tribidrag) and plants it in Liponti; Primitivo (Zinfandel) wines begin to be grown in Apulia

c. 1800 – Brâncoveanu Castle in Sâmbăta de Sus built by Grigore Brâncoveanu (1767–27 April 1832)

1800s
1800
May 1800 – University of Ingolstadt moved to Landshut

18 May 1804–6 April 1814 – Napoléon Bonaparte is Emperor of the French

1805–1807 – Lord Byron at Trinity College, Cambridge

1809–July 1811 – Lord Byron goes on a Grand Tour of Europe, to Spain and Greece, Malta

12 February 1809 – birth of Charles Darwin in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England

1810s
5 February 1811 – the Prince of Wales George becomes the Prince Regent

18 June 1815 – Battle of Waterloo

summer of 1816 – famous summer at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva, Switzerland, where Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley and Lord Byron meet

5 May 1818 – Karl Marx born to Heinrich Marx (a middle class lawyer) and Henrietta Pressburg in Trier

Chronology of the 17th Century

1588–28 February 1598 – Sir Edward Barton is English Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire

September 1591–June 1592 – Aaron the Tyrant (Aron Vodă) is Prince of Moldavia

October 1592–3/4 May 1595 – Aaron the Tyrant (Aron Vodă) is Prince of Moldavia

29 July 1593–11 November 1606 – Long Turkish War (Thirteen Years’ War), between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, over the Principalities of Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia:
22 June 1593 – battle of Sisak, between Ottoman forces led by Telli Hasan Pasha and a Christian army of Habsburg and Croatian troops, at Sisak, central Croatia
29 July 1593 – an Ottoman army under Sinan Pasha attacks the Habsburgs and captures Győr and Komarom
March–10 July 1594 – Uprising in the Banat of Serbs led by Serbian Orthodox bishop Teodor of Vršac and Sava Temišvarac
1595 – Karl von Mansfeld captures Esztergom and Visegrád
18 October 1585 – battle of Târgovişte
22 October 1585 – battle of Bucharest
27–30 October 1595 – battle of Giurgiu
24–26 October 1596 – battle of Keresztes between Habsburg forces and the Ottoman Empire
11 October 1593–9 August 1601 – Michael the Brave (Mihail I Viteazul) is Prince of Wallachia:
October 1599 – Michael the Brave elected as voivode of Transylvania
1600 – Michael the Brave is prince of Moldavia
5 October 1594 – Sigismund Báthory decides to join the Holy League

November 1594 – alliance between Sigismund Báthory, Michael the Brave, and Aron Tiranuj

27 January 1595–20/21 December 1603 – Mehmed III is Ottoman Sultan

23 August 1595 – battle of Călugăreni between Wallachian troops of Michael the Brave and the Ottomans led by Koca Sinan Pasha

24–26 October 1596 – battle of Keresztes between Habsburg forces and the Ottoman Empire

16/17 January 1598–21 February 1613 – the Time of Troubles in Russia

21 February 1598–13 April 1605 – Boris Godunov is Tsar of All Rus’ (Godunov)

29 March–18 October 1599 – Andrew Báthory is Prince of Transylvania

18 October 1599 – battle of Şelimbăr (Battle of Sellenberk), in which Michael the Brave defeated Andrew Báthory near the village of Șelimbăr

October 1599 – Michael the Brave elected as voivode of Transylvania

October 1599–1600 – Michael the Brave is voivode of Transylvania

1600s
1600
17 February 1600 – Giordano Bruno burned at stake

September 1600 – Giorgio Basta invades Transylvania, and defeats Wallachian army of Michael the Brave at Miraslau

1601
1601–1603 – Russian famine, killing perhaps two million people, a third of Russians

24 March 1601 – Sigismund Báthory returns to Transylvania from Moldavia at the head of a Polish army

3 April 1601–March 1602 – Sigismund Báthory is Prince of Transylvania

3 August 1601 – battle of Guruslău (Battle of Goroszló), between Habsburg troops led by Giorgio Basta (with Cossacks and Wallachian troops led by Michael the Brave) and Transylvanian troops led by Sigismund Báthory (who was defeated)

9 August 1601 – assassination of Michael the Brave near Câmpia Turzii

6 September 1601 – Sigismund Báthory returns to Transylvania

1602
20 January 1602 – Giorgio Basta appointed as commander-in-chief of the Imperial Army in Transylvania

July 1602–December 1610 – Radu Șerban is voivode of Wallachia

17 July 1603 – the battle of Brașov between Wallachian troops led by Radu Șerban (and the Habsburg Empire) and Transylvanian troops led by Mózes Székely; Mózes Székely defeated and killed on the battlefield

July 1603–September 1603 – Radu Şerban of Wallachia is voivode of Transylvania

September 1603–1604 – Transylvania administered by General Giorgio Basta

4 January 1604 – death of Ferenc Nádasdy

2 July 1604 – Rudolph II restores Stephen Bocskai’s estates in Transylvania

28 September 1604–23 June 1606 – the Bocskai uprising in Hungary, Transylvania and modern Slovakia, against Rudolf II, led by István Bocskai, a Protestant Hungarian nobleman

15 October 1604 – Stephen Bocskai defeats Belgioso near Álmosd

27 November 1604 – Giorgio Basta defeats Stephen Bocskai near Edelény but could not capture Kassa

1605
21 February 1605 – Stephen Bocskai is elected Prince of Transylvania by Transylvanian noblemen and Székelys in Nyárádszereda (now Miercurea Nirajului in Romania):
21 February 1605–29 December 1606 – Stephen Bocskai
12 February 1607–5 March 1608 – Sigismund Rákóczi
7 March 1608–21 October 1613 – Gabriel Báthory
October 1613–15 November 1629 – Gabriel Bethlen
15 November 1629–21 September 1630 – Catherine of Brandenburg
20 April 1605 – Stephen Bocskai acclaimed prince of Hungary by delegates of 22 counties from Upper Hungary and Partium at Szerencs

23 April–10 June 1605 – Fyodor II Borisovich Godunov is Tsar of All Rus’:
10 June 1605–17 May 1606 – Dmitry Ivanovich (False Dmitry I)
19 May 1606–19 July 1610 – Vasili IV
19 July 1610–21 February 1613 – Władysław IV Vasa (Polish prince from the Royal House of Vasa)
21 February 1613–12 July 1645 – Michael I (House of Romanov)
3 October 1605 – Lala Mehmed Pasha captures Esztergom

4/5 November 1605 – around midnight: arrest of Guy Fawkes during a search of the House of Lords and detection of Gunpowder Plot, a plot against King James I by provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby

11 November 1605 – Grand Vizier Lala Mehmed Pasha meets Stephen Bocskai at Pest, and styles Bocskai king with a royal crown

1606
31 January 1606 – execution of Guy Fawkes in London

April–summer 1606? – fictional date of Karl von Wachsmann’s The Mysterious Stranger (originally set in the mountains of Carniola in Slovenia just east of Trieste)

23 June 1606 – signing of the Treaty of Vienna between Stephen Bocskay and Rudolph: all constitutional and religious rights and privileges were granted to the Hungarians in both Transylvania and Royal Hungary

August 1606 – possible first performance of William Shakespeare’s tragedy Macbeth in London

24 October–11 November 1606 – negotiations for the Peace of Zsitvatorok at the former mouth of the Žitava River

11 November 1606 – the Peace of Zsitvatorok (or Treaty of Sitvatorok) between the Ottomans and Habsburgs

1607
12 February 1607–5 March 1608 – Sigismund Rákóczi is Prince of Transylvania

1608
5 March 1608 – Sigismund Rákóczi abdicates as Prince of Transylvania at the Diet in Kolozsvár

7 March 1608–21 October 1613 – Gabriel Báthory is Prince of Transylvania

25 June 1608 – Rudolf II cedes Hungary, Austria and Moravia to Matthias

winter 1608–1814 – River Thames frost fairs held on the tideway of the River Thames at London in certain winters

1610
14 May 1610–14 May 1643 – Louis XIII is king of France (House of Bourbon)

30 December 1610 – arrest of Elizabeth Báthory at Čachtice Castle by György Thurzó, the Palatine of Hungary

1611
7 January 1611 – second trial of Elizabeth Báthory

c. January 1611–21 August 1614 – imprisonment of Elizabeth Báthory in Čachtice Castle

March 1611 – Matthias enters Prague

April 1611 – Matthias declared king of Bohemia

1612
20 January 1612 – death of Rudolf II

13 June 1612–20 March 1619 – Matthias is Holy Roman Emperor

1613
21 February 1613–12 July 1645 – Michael I (House of Romanov) is Tsar of All Rus’:
House of Romanov
12 July 1645–29 January 1676 – Aleksey Mikhailovich
1676–7 May 1682 – Feodor III
7 May 1682–8 February 1696 – Ivan V Alekseyevich (physical and mental disabilities)
7 May 1682–2 November 1721 – Peter the Great
October 1613–15 November 1629 – Gabriel Bethlen is Prince of Transylvania

23 April 1616 – death of William Shakespeare in New Place, Stratford-upon-Avon

21 March 1617 – funeral of Pocahontas (born Matoaka, known as Amonute, c. 1596–March 1617) at Gravesend on the river Thames

23 May 1618–15 May 1648 – Thirty Years’ War

1619
28 August 1619–15 February 1637 – Ferdinand II is Holy Roman Emperor

1630s
1 December 1630–11 October 1648 – George I Rákóczi is prince of Transylvania:
15 November 1629–21 September 1630 – Catherine of Brandenburg
1 December 1630–11 October 1648 – George I Rákóczi
19 February 1642–May 1660 – George II Rákóczi (deposed, 3 November 1657)
1 January 1661–23 January 1662 – John Kemény
14 September 1661–15 April 1690 – Michael I Apafi
1632–9 April 1654 – Matei Basarab is voivode of Wallachia (Brâncovenești):
1623–1627 – Alexandru V Coconul
1632 – Radu XI Iliaș
1632–9 April 1654 – Matei Basarab
1627–1629 – Alexandru IV Iliaș
October 1629–July 1632 – Leon Tomșa
1632 – Radu XI Iliaș
1632–9 April 1654 – Matei Basarab
1654–1658 – Constantin I Șerban
1658–1659 – Mihnea III
1659–1660 – Gheorghe I Ghica
1660–1664 – Grigore I Ghica
1664–1669 – Radu XII Leon
1669–1672 – Antonie Vodă din Popeşti
1672–1673 – Grigore I Ghica
1673–1678 – Gheorghe II Ducas
1678–1688 – Șerban Cantacuzino
1688–15 August 1714 – Constantin II Brâncoveanu
25 November 1632 – Baruch Spinoza born in Amsterdam of a Marrano immigrant family

1635–1686 – life of Toderașcu Cantacuzino

1637 – Riegersburg castle by marriage passed to Seyfried Freiherr von Wechsler from Radkersburg:
1638 – Riegersburg castle passed to Sigmund Wechsler
1648 – Sigismund Wechsler died, and Katharina Elisabeth Freifrau von Galler inherits Riegersburg castle in Styria
1672 – Hans Ernst Graf Purgstall (son-in-law of Katharina Elisabeth Freifrau von Galler) inherits Riegersburg castle
18 November 1637–2 April 1657 – Ferdinand III is Holy Roman Emperor

1640s
1640–1667 – French gem merchant Jean-Baptiste Tavernier obtains Tavernier Blue diamond in India and brings the uncut stone to Paris (as precursor to the Hope Diamond)

14 May 1643–1 September 1715 – Louis XIV is king of France

12 July 1645–29 January 1676 – Aleksey Mikhailovich is Tsar of All Rus’

28 November 1648 – Kemény Castle at Brâncovenești with five villages donated to John Kemény and his descendants

1650s
7 September 1651 – Louis XIV declared to have reached the age of majority

16 December 1653–3 September 1658 – Oliver Cromwell is Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland

1654 – the Sâmbăta de Sus village and vicinity come into possession of the Brâncoveanu family

c. 1654–1678 – construction of castle at Sâmbăta de Sus by Constantin Brâncoveanu

27 July 1656 – edict of excommunication by Amsterdam synagogue on Baruch Spinoza

18 July 1658–5 May 1705 – Leopold I is Holy Roman Emperor

3 September 1658 – death of Oliver Cromwell at age 59 at Whitehall on Friday

3 September 1658–25 May 1659 – Richard Cromwell is Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland

1660s
29 May 1660–6 February 1685 – Charles II is king of England, Scotland and Ireland

1661
1 January 1661–1662 – János (John) Kemény is prince of Transylvania

14 September 1661–15 April 1690 – Michael I Apafi is Prince of Transylvania:
1 January 1661–23 January 1662 – John Kemény
14 September 1661–15 April 1690 – Michael I Apafi
10 June 1690–1699 – Michael II Apafi
1695 – Transylvania occupied by 8,000 men
4 November 1661 – the battle of Kushliki between Poland-Lithuania and Russia

1665
September/October 1665 – Sabbatai Zevi publicly declares himself Messiah in a synagogue in Smyrna

1666
August–September 1666 – fictional date of Doctor Who serial “The Visitation” set in area near Heathrow Airport and London

2–6 September 1666 – Great Fire of London: fire destroys medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall; it did not reach Westminster, but consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul’s Cathedral, and most of the buildings of the City authorities

16 September 1666 – Sabbatai Zevi appears before the sultan and converts to Islam

1669
c. 1669 – Jean-Baptiste Tavernier sells Tavernier Blue diamond to King Louis XIV

1670s
1670
1670 – death of Mindszenti Krisztina, owner of Teleki Castle in Gorneşti

1 March 1670 – proclamation of expulsion from Vienna and Upper and Lower Austria before Corpus Christi Day

1672
12 February 1672 – death of Katharina Elisabeth Freifrau von Galler

1672 – Hans Ernst Graf Purgstall (son-in-law of Katharina Elisabeth Freifrau von Galler) inherits Riegersburg castle

7 April 1672–17 September 1678 – Franco-Dutch War (Dutch War), between France, Sweden, Münster, Cologne and England against the Dutch Republic, Austrian Habsburg lands, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain

1674
19 May 1674–17 June 1696 – John III Sobieski is king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

c. 17 December 1674 – execution of Bánffy Dénes

c. 1674 – Teleki Castle in Gorneşti came into the possession of Teleki Mihály

1675

1676
1676–3 January 1681– Russo–Turkish War of 1676–1681

c. 1676 – construction of Cnejilor Palace, Ceahlău village, Neamţ County, built by boyars of Toderașcu Cantacuzino and the Cantacuzino family

1676–7 May 1682 – Feodor III is Tsar of All Rus’

c. 17 September 1676 – death of Sabbatai Zevi in Ulcinj, Montenegro

1677
21 February 1677 – death of Baruch Spinoza

1678
August 1678–December 1679 – Treaties of Nijmegen, a series of treaties signed in Nijmegen between France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire

1680s
1680
c. 1680 – Jacques de Ségur plants the majority of the vineyard on the Château Lafite estate

1681
3 January 1681 – signing of the Treaty of Bakhchisarai ends the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681) between Russia, the Ottoman Empire, and the Crimean Khanate

30 September 1681 – France annexes Strasbourg, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire

1682
7 May 1682–2 November 1721 – Peter the Great is Tsar of All Rus’:
2 November 1721–8 February 1725 – Peter the Great is Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
1683
24 May 1683–1845 – period of the Ashmolean Museum in the Old Ashmolean building in Broad Street, Oxford

14 July 1683–26 January 1699 – Great Turkish War (War of the Holy League), between Ottomans and the Holy League (Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia), ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699:
14 July–12 September 1683 – the siege of Vienna
12 September 1683 – the battle of Vienna
1683–1699 – Polish–Ottoman War
18 June–9 September 1686 – siege of Buda and its capture
April 1686–1700 – Russo-Turkish War
12 August 1687 – second battle of Mohács (battle of Harsány Mountain), between Ottoman forces led by the Grand-Vizier Sari Süleyman Paşa and Holy League forces led by Charles of Lorraine
11 September 1697 – battle of Zenta (battle of Senta), just south of Zenta in Serbia
26 January 1699 – signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz
14 July–12 September 1683 – the siege of Vienna by the Ottoman army under the command of Kara Mustafa

12 September 1683 – the battle of Vienna, at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna between the Habsburg Monarchy, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire, under the command of King John III Sobieski against the Ottomans

20 December 1683–6 February 1684 – Great Frost of 1683–1684 across England

1684
5 March 1684–1699 – Holy League is formed at Linz, an alliance organized by Pope Innocent XI with the Papal States, the Holy Roman Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth of John III Sobieski, and the Venetian Republic, Russia (1686)

25 April 1684–1699 – Morean War (Sixth Ottoman–Venetian War), between the Republic of Venice and the Ottomans

1685
6 February 1685–11 December 1688 – James II is king of England, Scotland and Ireland

1686
18 June–9 September 1686 – the Holy League’s siege of Buda

27 October 1686 – Mihaly I Apafi signs the Treaty of Balazsfalva (Treaty of Blaj), which makes Transylvania a protectorate; he admits Imperial troops into Transylvania

1687
12 August 1687 – second battle of Mohács (battle of Harsány Mountain), between Ottoman forces led by the Grand-Vizier Sari Süleyman Paşa and Holy League forces led by Charles of Lorraine

9 December 1687 – Diet of Pressburg (Bratislava, Slovakia) in which Archduke Joseph crowned as first hereditary king of Hungary

9 December 1687–17 April 1711 – Joseph I (Holy Roman Emperor: 5 May 1705–17 April 1711) is king of Hungary

1688
27 September 1688–20 September 1697 – Nine Years’ War (War of the Grand Alliance/War of the League of Augsburg), between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Austria, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy

29 October 1688–15 August 1714 – Constantin II Brâncoveanu is Prince of Wallachia

5 November 1688 – William III (William of Orange) lands at Brixham in southwest England

1689
13 February 1689 – the UK Parliament passes the Declaration of Right, which deems that James had abdicated the government

13 February 1689–8 March 1702 – William III (William of Orange) is King of England, Scotland and Ireland

1690
18 April 1690 – death of Charles V (Duke of Lorraine) on the Rhine

10 June 1690–1699 – Michael II Apafi is Prince of Transylvania

11 August 1690 – the battle of Zernest near the city of Zernest, Transylvania, between a Transylvanian-Habsburg army and allied forces of the Ottoman Empire, Tatar allies, Wallachians and Hungarian Kurucs

22 September–25 October 1690 – Emeric Thököly is Prince of Transylvania

16 October 1690 – Leopold I sanctions the Diploma Leopoldinum determining the government of the Principality of Transylvania within the Habsburg Empire

1691
19 August 1691 – battle of Slankamen in which Louis William (Margrave of Baden-Baden) defeats an Ottoman army near Slankamen in the Ottoman Sanjak of Syrmia (modern-day Vojvodina region, Serbia), and kills Grand Vizier Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha

1692
1692 – Prince Michael II Apafi called to Vienna

1695
spring–1 October 1695 – the first Azov campaign

1696
1696–1701 – construction of Brâncoveanu monastery at Sâmbăta de Sus

23 April–19 July 1696 – second Azov campaign, in which Peter the Great conquers Azov

17 June 1696 – John III Sobieski dies in Wilanów, Poland from a sudden heart attack

1697
15 September 1697–October 1706 – Augustus II the Strong is King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

1697 – Michael Apafi II forced to abdicate as Prince of Transylvania

9 March 1697–25 August 1698 – Peter the Great’s Grand Embassy:
August 1697 – Peter arrives in the Dutch Republic
11 September 1697 – Peter meets with William III in Utrecht
11 January 1698–21 April 1698 – Peter in England
5 April 1697–30 November 1718 – Charles XII is king of Sweden (House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken)

11 September 1697 – battle of Zenta (battle of Senta), just south of Zenta in Serbia

1698
1698–1702 – construction of Mogoșoaia Palace, 10 kilometres from Bucharest by Constantin Brâncoveanu

1698 – fictional date of the painting of Countess Mircalla Karnstein in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu’s novella Carmilla

c. 1698 – fictional date of the death of Carmilla after a ball in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu’s novella Carmilla

12 September 1698 – foundation of Taganrog, the first military base of the Russian Navy

8–9 September 1698 – the battle of Podhajce in the Ruthenian Voivodship in which a 6000-strong Polish army under Field Crown Hetman Feliks Kazimierz Potocki defeats a 14,000 man Tatar expedition under Qaplan I Giray

1699
26 January 1699 – signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in Sremski Karlovci, in Serbia

1700
c. 1700 – ancestor of Baron Vordenberg moves Carmilla’s tomb

22 February 1700–10 September 1721 – Great Northern War between Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway (defeated 1700), Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania (defeated 1706) and Sweden under Charles XII

13 July 1700 – Treaty of Constantinople between Russia and the Ottomans in which the Sultan ceded Azov, the Taganrog fortress, Pavlovsk and Mius to Russia

1701
July 1701–August 1714 – War of the Spanish Succession (after the death of the childless Charles II of Spain) between Austrian Habsburgs and France

8 July 1709 – battle of Poltava between Peter the Great and the Swedish army under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld

Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Chronology of the 16th Century

19 August 1493–12 January 1519 – Maximilian I is Archduke of Austria:
16 February 1486–12 January 1519 – King of the Romans
4 February 1508–12 January 1519 – Holy Roman Emperor
1500–1510
1500
1504–1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon is King of Naples

6 November 1505–13 December 1533 – Vasily III is Grand Prince of Moscow (Rurikid)

c. 1506 – fictional siege of the castle of Klatka and killing of Ezzelin von Klatka in Karl von Wachsmann’s novella The Mysterious Stranger in the Karst Plateau

18 April 1506–18 November 1626 – the construction of new St. Peter’s Basilica

20 May 1506 – death of Christopher Columbus in Valladolid, Spain

25 September 1506–25 October 1555 – Charles V is Lord of the Netherlands and Duke of Burgundy:
23 January 1516–16 January 1556 – Charles V is King of Spain
12 January 1519–28 April 1521 – Charles V is Archduke of Austria
28 June 1519–27 August 1556 – Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor
26 October 1520 – Charles V is crowned as King of the Germans in Germany
22 February 1530 – Charles V is crowned King of Italy
24 February 1530 – Charles V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Bologna
1510s
1510 – Ferdinand of Aragon orders the expulsion of Jews from Naples

12 March 1510 – assassination of Mihnea cel Rău in the Roman Catholic Church of Sibiu while attending Mass

1 January 1515–31 March 1547 – Francis I is king of France (House of Valois)

1516–22 January 1517 – the Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 between Mameluke Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire

13 March 1516–29 August 1526 – Louis II is king of Hungary (Jagiellon)

24 January 1517 – the Battle of Ridaniya near Cairo between Selim I and Tuman Bay, in which the Mamelukes were defeated

31 October 1517 – Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Theses to the door of All Saints’ Church, Wittenberg

1519
12 January 1519 – death of Maximilian I in Wels, Upper Austria

April 1519 – Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) and 700 soldiers land near Tabasco on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

28 June 1519–27 August 1556 – Charles V (grandson of Maximilian I) is Holy Roman Emperor

1520s
1520
22 May 1520 – massacre in the Great Temple of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan

1 July 1520 – the Aztec emperor Moctezuma was killed

30 September 1520–6/7 September 1566 – Suleiman I is Ottoman Sultan

1521
3 January 1521 – Martin Luther excommunicated by Pope Leo X in the bull Decet Romanum Pontificem

28 January–25 May 1521 – Diet of Worms, the general assembly of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire in Worms, on the Rhine, with Emperor Charles V presiding

28 April 1521–25 July 1564 – Ferdinand I is Archduke of Austria:
24 October 1526 – the Bohemian Diet elects Ferdinand King of Bohemia
24 October 1526–25 July 1564 – Ferdinand I is King of Bohemia
17 December 1526–25 July 1564 – Ferdinand I is King of Hungary
5 January 1531–3 May 1558 – Ferdinand I is King of the Romans
January 1556 – Charles V abdicats as Emperor
3 May 1558 – Imperial Diet accepts the abdication of Charles V
27 August 1556–25 July 1564 – Ferdinand I is Holy Roman Emperor
14 March 1558 – coronation in Frankfurt of Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor
28 November 1562–25 July 1564 – Maximilian II is King of the Romans
c. May 1521–6 March 1522 – Martin Luther at Wartburg Castle at Eisenach

13 August 1521 – the Aztec Empire was captured

1521–1524 – Cortés personally governed Mexico

1522
26 June–22 December 1522 – the second siege of Rhodes of 1522, in which Knights of Rhodes are expelled by Ottomans

29 August 1526 – the battle of Mohács between king Louis II of Hungary and Suleiman the Magnificent, fought near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary

29 August 1526 – death of Louis II (king of Hungary) after the battle of Mohács

11 November 1526–16 August 1570 – rival kings of Hungary:
House of Zápolya (1526–1570)
11 November 1526–22 July 1540 – John Zápolya King of Hungary
13 September 1540–16 August 1570 – John II Sigismund

House of Habsburg (1526–1780)
17 December 1526–25 July 1564 – Ferdinand I
26 July 1564–12 October 1576 – Maximilian
1529
27 September–15 October 1529 – siege of Vienna led by Suleiman the Magnificent

1530
1530–1534 – Stephen (VIII) Báthory of Somlyó is voivode of Transylvania

13 December 1533–28 March 1584 – Ivan IV the Terrible is Grand Prince of Moscow (Tsar from 26 January 1547)

13 September 1540 – the Diet of Hungary elected John Sigismund king

1545 – fictional date of Hernando de Estrada’s expedition of 40 men through West Texas, with the vampire Don Santiago de Valdez in Robert Ervin Howard’s “The Horror from the Mound”

18 February 1546 – death of Martin Luther at 2:45 a.m., aged 62, in Eisleben

16 January 1547–28 March 1584 – Ivan IV the Terrible is Tsar of All Rus’ (Grand Prince of Moscow from 13 December 1533)

16 January 1547 – coronation of Ivan IV the Terrible

31 March 1547 – death of Francis I at the Château de Rambouillet

31 March 1547–10 July 1559 – Henry II of France is king of France (House of Valois)

1550s
18 July 1551 – unsuccessful Ottoman invasion of Malta

July 1551 – Ottoman invasion of the island of Gozo, of the Maltese archipelago

15 August 1551 – the siege of Tripoli: the Ottomans besieged and conquered the Knights of Malta in the fortress of Tripoli, modern Libya

15 August 1551–3 April 1559 – the Italian War of 1551 (Habsburg–Valois War; Last Italian War) between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V with the goal of recapturing Italy

25 October 1555 – Charles V announces to the States General of the Netherlands his abdication of those territories and the county of Charolais

1556
January 1556 – Charles V abdicates as ruler of the Spanish Empire

16 January 1556–13 September 1598 – Philip II is king of Spain:
25 July 1554–13 September 1598 – King of Naples and Sicily (as Philip I)
16 April 1581–13 September 1598 – King of Portugal and the Algarves
27 August 1556 – Charles V abdicated as Holy Roman Emperor in favour of his brother Ferdinand

5 February 1557 – Charles V and a small court move into a residence near the monastery of Yuste in Extremadura

24 February 1558–25 July 1564 – Ferdinand I is Holy Roman Emperor

21 September 1558 – death of Charles V in the Monastery of Yuste in Extremadura

3 April 1559 – peace of Cateau-Cambrésis signed between Henry II of France and Philip II of Spain at Le Cateau-Cambrésis, 20 kilometres south-east of Cambrai

10 July 1559–5 December 1560 – Francis II is king of France (House of Valois)

28 September 1559 – Philip II meets Don John of Austria in the Monastery of Santa María de La Santa Espina

5 December 1560–30 May 1574 – Charles IX is king of France (House of Valois)

25 July 1564–12 October 1576 – Maximilian II is Holy Roman Emperor

25 July 1564–10 July 1590 – Charles II is Archduke of Austria and ruler of Inner Austria (Styria, Carniola and Carinthia)

18 May–11 September 1565 – the Great Siege of Malta: the Ottomans invade the island of Malta, held by the Knights Hospitaller, who withstood the siege and repelled the invaders

29 September 1566–21 December 1574 – Selim II is Ottoman Sultan

1568–1648 – Dutch Revolt: the northern, largely Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries rebel against King Philip II of Spain

13 April 1569–autumn 1570 – Don John of Austria is Captain General in the war against the Rebellion of the Alpujarras

1570s
1570
c. 1570 – construction of the current Predjama Castle, Carniola

16 August 1570–14 March 1571 – John Sigismund Zápolya is Prince of Transylvania

1571
February 1571 – Philip II signs the decree of expulsion of all the moriscos from the Kingdom of Granada

25 May 1571–1576 – Stephen Báthory is voivode of Transylvania

7 October 1571 – naval battle of Lepanto between the Holy League (led by the Venetian Republic and the Spanish Empire) and the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras, Ionian Sea

12 November 1573 – charter promulgated of Jesuit College of Graz

30 May 1574–2 August 1589 – Henry III is king of France (House of Valois)

22 December 1574–16 January 1595 – Murad III is Ottoman Sultan

1575
8 May 1575 – marriage of Elizabeth Báthory and Ferenc Nádasdy at the palace of Vranov nad Topľou

c. May 1575 – Elizabeth Báthory moves to Nádasdy Castle in Sárvár

1 May 1576–12 December 1586 – Stephen Báthory is King of Poland is Grand Duke of Lithuania

12 October 1576–20 January 1612 – Rudolf II is Holy Roman Emperor:
1576–1608 – Archduke of Austria
1576–1611 – King of Bohemia
12 October 1576–26 June 1608 – King of Hungary and Croatia (as Rudolf I)
1 October 1578 – death of Don John of Austria

1580s
26 July 1581 – signing in the Hague of the Act of Abjuration, the declaration of independence by many provinces of the Netherlands from Philip II during the Dutch Revolt

1582
24 February 1582 – Pope Gregory XIII issues the Inter gravissimas papal bull to reform the Julian calendar; the reform was later regarded as a new calendar called the Gregorian calendar

1584
28 March 1584–17 January 1598 – Feodor I is Tsar of All Rus’ (Rurikid)

14 April 1586 – Jesuit College of Graz turned into the University of Graz by papal bull of Pope Sixtus V

December 1586–23 March 1598 – Sigismund Báthory is Prince of Transylvania

2 August 1589–14 May 1610 – Henry IV is king of France (House of Bourbon)

1590s
29 July 1593–11 November 1606 – Long Turkish War (Thirteen Years’ War), between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, over the Principalities of Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia

11 October 1593–9 August 1601 – Michael the Brave (Mihail I Viteazul) is Prince of Wallachia:
October 1599 – Michael the Brave elected as voivode of Transylvania
1600 – Michael the Brave is prince of Moldavia
27 January 1595–20/21 December 1603 – Mehmed III is Ottoman Sultan

21 February 1598–13 April 1605 – Boris Godunov is Tsar of All Rus’ (Godunov)

18 October 1599 – battle of Şelimbăr (Battle of Sellenberk), in which Michael the Brave defeated Andrew Báthory near the village of Șelimbăr

October 1599 – Michael the Brave elected as voivode of Transylvania

1600s
9 August 1601 – assassination of Michael the Brave near Câmpia Turzii

4 January 1604 – death of Ferenc Nádasdy

28 September 1604–23 June 1606 – the Bocskai uprising in Hungary, Transylvania and modern Slovakia, against Rudolf II, led by István Bocskai, a Protestant Hungarian nobleman

21 February 1605 – Stephen Bocskai is elected Prince of Transylvania by Transylvanian noblemen and Székelys in Nyárádszereda (now Miercurea Nirajului in Romania):
21 February 1605–29 December 1606 – Stephen Bocskai
12 February 1607–5 March 1608 – Sigismund Rákóczi
7 March 1608–21 October 1613 – Gabriel Báthory
October 1613–15 November 1629 – Gabriel Bethlen
15 November 1629–21 September 1630 – Catherine of Brandenburg
20 April 1605 – Stephen Bocskai acclaimed prince of Hungary by delegates of 22 counties from Upper Hungary and Partium at Szerencs

April–summer 1606? – fictional date of Karl von Wachsmann’s The Mysterious Stranger

23 June 1606 – signing of the Treaty of Vienna between Stephen Bocskay and Rudolph: all constitutional and religious rights and privileges were granted to the Hungarians in both Transylvania and Royal Hungary

24 October–11 November 1606 – negotiations for the Peace of Zsitvatorok at the former mouth of the Žitava River

11 November 1606 – the Peace of Zsitvatorok (or Treaty of Sitvatorok) between the Ottomans and Habsburgs

12 February 1607–5 March 1608 – Sigismund Rákóczi is Prince of Transylvania

5 March 1608 – Sigismund Rákóczi abdicates as Prince of Transylvania at the Diet in Kolozsvár

7 March 1608–21 October 1613 – Gabriel Báthory is Prince of Transylvania

25 June 1608 – Rudolf II cedes Hungary, Austria and Moravia to Matthias

30 December 1610 – arrest of Elizabeth Báthory at Čachtice Castle by György Thurzó, the Palatine of Hungary

7 January 1611 – second trial of Elizabeth Báthory

c. January 1611–21 August 1614 – imprisonment of Elizabeth Báthory in Čachtice Castle

March 1611 – Matthias enters Prague

April 1611 – Matthias declared king of Bohemia

20 January 1612 – death of Rudolf II

13 June 1612–20 March 1619 – Matthias is Holy Roman Emperor

October 1613–15 November 1629 – Gabriel Bethlen is Prince of Transylvania

23 May 1618–15 May 1648 – Thirty Years’ War

Wednesday, June 27, 2018

Chronology of the Roman Empire 100–300 AD

18 September 96 – the emperor Domitian is assassinated in his bedroom in the Domus Augustiana around ten or eleven AM; Nerva hailed as emperor by the praetorian guard

18 September 96–27 January 98 – reign of the emperor Nerva

19 September 96 – the Senate passes a decree giving Nerva his official power; the Senate passes a damnatio memoriae against Domitian, and imperial shields and images torn down

c. December 96 – publication of Book 11 of Martial’s Epigrams, shortly after the accession of Nerva

winter 96–97 – T. Vestricius Spurinna (24–c. 105) is in Rome; by late 97 is away from Rome

97
1 January 97 – Imp. Nerva Caesar Augustus III (January–February) and L. Verginius Rufus III are ordinary consuls

4–19 September – the Ludi Romani (Roman Games)

September 97 – mutiny of the praetorian guard led by Casperius Aelianus; Sex. Julius Frontinus, L. Julius Ursus Servianus, and L. Licinius Sura support Trajan

October 97 – Nerva announces the adoption of Trajan in the Forum, who now takes the name Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus

October 97 – T. Vestricius Spurinna sent as an embassy to Trajan to announce his adoption?

4–17 November – the Ludi Plebeii (Plebeian Games)

winter 97–98 – Trajan spends the winter at Colonia Claudia Agrippina (Cologne), capital Germania Inferior

17–23 December – the Saturnalia, the winter solstice festival of Saturn, with a sacrifice at the temple of Saturn and a public feast

98
c. 98 – Tacitus writes the Agricola

98 – return of Martial to his home at Augusta Bilbilis (now Calatayud) in Hispania Tarraconensis, Spain

98–100 – Pliny is prefect of the treasury of Saturn (praefectus aerari Saturni)

98–102 – Pliny writes the 14 letters of Book 10 of his Letters

1 January 98 – Imp. Nerva Caesar Augustus IV (to 13 January) and Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus II (January–June) are ordinary consuls

27 January 98 – death of the emperor Nerva at his villa in the Horti Sallustiani

27 January 98–8 August 117 – reign of the emperor Trajan

28 January 98 – the dies imperii of Trajan

c. January 98 – publication of a revised edition of Book 10 of Martial’s Epigrams, about the time of Trajan’s entrance into Rome

after January 98 – the execution of Casperius Aelianus and the ringleaders of the insurrection against Nerva

2 February 98 – the public funeral of Nerva

January 98 – suffect consuls with Trajan down to June:
13 January 13–31 January – Cn. Domitius Tullus II and Trajan
February – Sex. Julius Frontinus II and Trajan
March – L. Julius Ursus II and Trajan
April – T. Vestricius Spurinna II and Trajan
May–June – C. Pomponius Pius
summer 98? – Trajan inspects the Danube frontier

99
autumn 99 – Trajan’s entry into Rome

before October/December 99 – Trajan’s donativium and congiarium

100–110
100
c. 100–110 – publication date of Juvenal’s first satire

c. 100 – publication of Book 12 of Martial’s Epigrams; death of Quintilian (Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, 35–c. 100 AD)

January 100 – Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus III (January) and Sex. Julius Frontinus III (January–February) are ordinary consuls

c. September–October 100 – Pliny the Younger is suffect consul with C. Julius Cornutus Tertullus

100 – Pliny gives his Panegyricus Traiani in the Senate

101
25 March 101 – Trajan leaves Rome for Dacia

101–102 – the first Dacian War of Trajan
25 March 101 – Trajan leaves Rome for Dacia
c. June 101 – Roman army crosses the Danube at Viminacium
September 101 – second battle of Tapae
winter 101–102 – Trajan on the Danube
winter 101–102 – Decebalus attacks the Roman province of Moesia; battle of Nicopolis and Adamclisi
spring 102 – Roman army crosses the Danube at Lederata;
summer 102 – Lusius Quietus and Moorish cavalry attack Decebalus via the Vulcan Pass; Laberius Maximus marches along the Olt valley and takes the Red Tower Pass
summer 102 – Trajan, Quietus and Maximus join forces at the hot springs of Aquae (Calan), 20 miles from the Dacian capital.
summer – submission of Decebalus; annexation of the Banat; permanent bridge over the Danube at Drobeta built
winter 101–102 – Decebalus attacks the Roman province of Moesia; battle of Nicopolis and Adamclisi

102
c. 102–104 – death of Marcus Valerius Martialis (Martial)

January 102 – L. Julius Ursus Servianus II (January–April) and L. Licinius Sura II (January–February) are ordinary consuls

spring 102 – Roman army crosses the Danube at Lederata;

summer 102 – Lusius Quietus and Moorish cavalry attack Decebalus via the Vulcan Pass; Laberius Maximus marches along the Olt valley and takes the Red Tower Pass

summer 102 – Trajan, Quietus and Maximus join forces at the hot springs of Aquae (Calan), 20 miles from the Dacian capital.

summer – submission of Decebalus; annexation of the Banat; permanent bridge over the Danube at Drobeta built

late 102 – Trajan returns to Rome

28 December 102? – Trajan’s Dacian triumph

103
103 – Silius Italicus commits suicide by starvation in Campania, because of a tumour

103 – Pliny is propraetor of Bithynia; from 103–104 Pliny is publicly elected Augur

c. 103/104 – death of Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40–103 AD)

104
104–106 – Pliny is superintendent for the banks of the Tiber (curator alvei Tiberis)

104–107 – Pliny is three times a member of Trajan’s judicial council

105
4 June 105? – Trajan leaves Rome for Dacia

June 105–106 – Trajan’s Second Dacian War, after the Dacian King Decebalus violates the peace terms with the Rome
4 June 105? – Trajan leaves Rome for Dacia
autumn 105/106 – Trajan arrives in Drobeta
spring 106 – crossing of the Drobeta bridge and invasion of Dacia
spring 106 – invasion via Danube plain and Vulcan Pass route and the Petroseni Basin
c. July 106 – capture of Sarmizegethusa Regia
after 2 September 106 – Ti. Claudius Maximus and a band of auxiliaries kill Decebalus in the Carpathians
autumn 106 – Trajan at Ranisstorium (Piatri Craivii)
summer 106? – foundation of Porolissum
106/107? – battle of Porolissum
106 AD
early 106 – annexation of the Nabataean kingdom?
spring 106 – crossing of the Drobeta bridge and invasion of Dacia

spring 106 – invasion via Danube plain and Vulcan Pass route and the Petroseni Basin

c. July 106 – battle of Sarmisegetusa, with the legions II Adiutrix and IV Flavia Felix and a detachment (vexillatio) from Legio VI Ferrata; capture of Sarmizegethusa Regia

after 2 September 106 – Ti. Claudius Maximus and a band of auxiliaries kill Decebalus in the Carpathians

autumn 106 – Trajan at Ranisstorium (Piatri Craivii)

summer 106? – foundation of Porolissum

106/107? – battle of Porolissum

107
by 107 – annexation of the Nabataean kingdom

January 107 – L. Licinius Sura III (January–February or April) and Q. Sosius Senecio II are ordinary consuls

c. June 107 – Trajan leaves the Balkans

June 107 – Trajan arrives in Rome

108
c. 108 – publication of early books of Tacitus’ Historiae?

108 – the IX Hispana legion at York building the fort

c. 108 – Arrian studies under Epictetus at Nicopolis in Epirus

c. 108 – death of Lucius Licinius Sura; Trajan gives him a public funeral

June 108 – P. Aelius Hadrianus is suffect consul

109
c.109/111 – Trajan appoints Pliny as legatus Augusti to Bithynia-Pontus

11–24 November 109 – Trajan inaugurates a naumachia (for mock-sea battles) and holds Dacian games

110
c. 110 – Trajan appoints Pliny as legatus Augusti to Bithynia-Pontus

c. 110–c.113 – Pliny is legatus Augusti to Bithynia-Pontus

110s
111
autumn 111 – departure of Hadrian for Syria?

112 AD
112/113 – Tacitus is governor of Asia

January 112 – Imp. Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus VI (January) and T. Sextius Cornelius Africanus (January–March) are ordinary consuls

1 January 112 – dedication of Forum and Basilica build by Trajan

28 January 112 – 15 days of games in theatris tribus

before 29 August 112 – Plotina and Marciana are given the title Augusta

29 August 112 – death of Marciana (the sister of Trajan)

3 September 112 – funeral of Marciana (the sister of Trajan)

113
c. 113 – possible death of Pliny during his appointment in Bithynia-Pontus

113 – the Parthian king Osroes deposes the Armenian ruler Exedares and appoints Parthamasiris

early May 113 – Trajan holds the third set of Dacian games

12 May 113 – Trajan dedicates his Column

autumn 113 – Trajan leaves Rome for the east

December 113 – Trajan arrives in Antioch

114
7 January 114 – Trajan and Hadrian enter Antioch

January–April 114 – Trajan in Antioch

c. May 114–117 – Trajan’s Parthian war, between the Parthian Empire and Rome in Mesopotamia
c. May 114 – Trajan arrives in Satala, with an army of 8 legions or 80,000 men
summer 114 – Trajan marches to Elegeia in Armenia and receives the submission of Parthamasiris; Trajan annexes Armenia
summer 114 – Trajan remains in Elegeia and receives the submission of local rulers
late 114 – Roman forces occupy Armenia
winter 114–115 – Trajan in Armenia
spring 115 – Trajan invades northern Mesopotamia from Armenia
summer 115 – Trajan takes Batnae, Nisibis and Adiabene
winter 115–116 – Trajan spends the winter in Antioch; great earthquake in Syria
early 116 – Trajan leaves Antioch; one division invades Adiabene, including Ninus, Arbela and Gaugamela; a second division moves along the Tigris and attacks Babylon
summer 116 – Trajan accompanies a fleet along the Euphrates; he has fleet dragged over land by engines to the Euphrates to capture Seleucia and Ctesiphon; Trajan travels to Charax
later 116 – Trajan visits Babylon; rebellion in Mesopotamia; Lusius Quietus recovers Nisibis and Edessa; Seleucia is burnt
later 116 – battle of Ctesiphon; Trajan crowns Parthamaspates as client-king of Parthia in Ctesiphon and cedes part of Armenia to Parthia
later 116 – siege of Hatra
winter 116–117 – Trajan in Antioch
c. July 117 – Trajan leaves Seleucia-in-Pieria for Rome
8 August 117 – death of the emperor Trajan in Selinus (modern Gazipasa) in Cilicia
late 114 – Roman forces occupy Armenia

winter 114–115 – Trajan in Armenia

115
spring 115 – Trajan invades northern Mesopotamia from Armenia

summer 115 – Trajan takes Batnae, Nisibis and Adiabene

after October 115?–summer/autumn 117 – the Kitos War, major uprisings by ethnic Jews in Cyrenaica, Egypt, Cyprus during Trajan’s Parthian War

winter 115–116 – Trajan spends the winter in Antioch; great earthquake in Syria

116
21 February 116 – a letter of Trajan reaches the Senate informing them of the new provinces of Armenia and Mesopotamia

February 116 – Trajan honoured with the title of Parthicus

early 116 – Trajan leaves Antioch; one division invades Adiabene, including Ninus, Arbela and Gaugamela; a second division moves along the Tigris and attacks Babylon

summer 116 – Trajan accompanies a fleet along the Euphrates; he has fleet dragged over land by engines to the Euphrates to capture Seleucia and Ctesiphon; Trajan travels to Charax

summer 116 – Jewish uprisings in Cyprus, Egypt and Cyrene

later 116 – Trajan visits Babylon; rebellion in Mesopotamia; Lusius Quietus recovers Nisibis and Edessa; Seleucia is burnt

later 116 – battle of Ctesiphon; Trajan crowns Parthamaspates as client-king of Parthia in Ctesiphon and cedes part of Armenia to Parthia

later 116 – siege of Hatra

winter 116–117 – Trajan in Antioch

117
c. 117 – publication of Book 2 of Tacitus’ Ab excessu divi Augusti (Annals)? (alternative date: from 106–115); later books possibly in the 120s

summer/autumn 117 – Marcius Turbo ends the Jewish war

8 August 117 – death of the emperor Trajan in Selinus (modern Gazipasa) in Cilicia

9 August 117 – Trajan’s letter of adoption reaches Hadrian at Antioch

10 August 117 – accession of the emperor Hadrian

10 August 117–10 July 138 – reign of the emperor Hadrian

11 August 117 – news of Trajan’s death reaches Antioch

c. 12 August 117 – Hadrian orders the evacuation of Mesopotamia, Assyria and Greater Armenia; Lusius Quietus (governor of Judaea) removed from office

13–19 October 117 – Hadrian in Mopsucrene, 12 miles beyond Tarsus, then northwards over the Taurus into Cappadocia, via Tyana

late October 117 – Hadrian in Ancyra; he founds a “mystic contest” (mystikos agon) for the worship of Dionysus

11 November 117 – Hadrian was in Bithynia

late 117 – Hadrian withdraws from plains of Oltenia and Muntenia, the south-eastern flank of the Carpathians and southern Moldavia

118
c. 118 – publication of Arrian’s Parthica, a history of Trajan’s Parthian war

January 118 – Hadrian at Byzantium; he is consul with Pedanius Fuscus (the husband of his niece Julia)

Marcius Turbo made governor of both Dacia and Pannonia Inferior

early 118 – the Senate orders the executions of C. Avidius Nigrinus, in alleged conspiracy against Hadrian (he returns to Faventia (Faenza) in northern Italy); Lusius Quietus executed; A. Cornelius Palma executed at the Campanian resort of Baiae, and L. Publius Celsus at Tarracina in Latium

spring 118 – Hadrian in Pannonia

9 July 118 – Hadrian’s return to Rome

10 July 118 – Hadrian addends the senate?

c. 118 – dismissal of Publius Acilianus Attianus as praetorian prefect

summer 118? – Hadrian gave the people a double congiarium, in person (praesens), or six aurei a head

summer 118? – retirement of Servius Sulpicius Similis as Praetorian prefect; appointment of Gaius Septicius Clarus

summer 118? – appointment of Suetonius Tranquillus as ab epistulis

late 118? – Hadrian remits nine hundred million sesterces in tax arrears owed to the fiscus in the years from 104–118

119
119 – war in northern Britain

January–April 119 – Hadrian is ordinary consul at Rome

August 119 – victory in the Danubian war or British war?

119 – Hadrian’s trip to Campania; the Stoic philosopher, Euphrates of Tyre, commits suicide

December 119 – Augusta Matidia (Trajan’s niece) dies

end of 119 – funeral and consecration of Matidia

120s
120
120–125 – birth of Apuleius

120s – publication of the Anabasis of Arrian of Nicomedia

c. 120–130 – death of Tacitus

121
c. April 121 – Hadrian leaves Rome for Gaul, possibly from Ostia, Massilia, and the Rhonel Turbo stays in Rome, with M. Annius Verus as Prefect of the City

121 – Hadrian’s army reforms begin

winter 121–122 – Hadrian in Germany

122
122 – Hadrian in Rhaetia and Noricum

122–128 – construction of Hadrian’s wall, which starts in the east and proceeded westwards

c. June 122 – Hadrian crosses to Britain

by 17 July 122 – Platorius Nepos governor of Britain

summer – Hadrian in Britain

c. 122/123 – Hadrian dismisses Septicius Clarus (praetorian prefect) and Suetonius Tranquillus and others

autumn/winter 122 – death of Borysthenes, Hadrian’s horse

winter 122–123 – Hadrian spends the winter at Tarraco, Spain

123

124

125

126

126 – Arrian of Nicomedia appointed to the Senate

127

128

129

130

c. October 130 – Antinous falls into the Nile and dies while on Hadrian’s journey down the Nile after the visit to Hermopolis Magna

130s
131

132

summer/autumn 132 – beginning of the Bar Kokhba revolt in Modi’in

132–136 – the Bar Kokhba revolt (or The Third Jewish–Roman War or Second Revolt of Judea), led by Simon bar Kokhba

133

134

135

136

137

138
1 January 138 – death of Lucius Aelius Caesar (Lucius Ceionius Commodus), heir of Hadrian

c. 138 – death of Juvenal after the year of Hadrian’s death

11 July 138–7 March 161 – reign of Antoninus Pius

161
8 March 161–17 March 180 – reign of Marcus Aurelius

8 March 161–January/February 169 – reign of Lucius Verus

summer/autumn 161–166 – the Roman–Parthian War of 161–166:
summer/autumn 161 – Vologases enters Armenia, expels the king and installs Pacorus (an Arsacid)
winter 161–162 – Marcus Aurelius decides to send Lucius Verus to the east
summer 162 – Lucius Verus travels to Brundisium
summer 163 – Legions I Minervia (under M. Claudius Fronto) and V Macedonica (under P. Martius Verus) under Marcus Statius Priscus invade Armenia and capture Artaxata; Parthians invade Osroene
late 163 – Roman forces occupy Dausara and Nicephorium
165 – Martius Verus and the V Macedonica take Edessa and Nisibis; Avidius Cassius and the III Gallica move down the Euphrates and fight a battle at Dura-Europos
late 165 – Cassius’ army takes Seleucia and Ctesiphon; Ctesiphon’s royal palace burned
165/166 – Cassius’ army crosses the Tigris into Media
spring 166 – army withdraws from Mesopotamia
162
summer 162 – Lucius Verus travels to Brundisium

163
summer 163 – Legions I Minervia (under M. Claudius Fronto) and V Macedonica (under P. Martius Verus) under Marcus Statius Priscus invade Armenia and capture Artaxata; Parthians invade Osroene

late 163 – Roman forces occupy Dausara and Nicephorium

164

166
spring 166 – army withdraws from Mesopotamia

166/167–175 – First Marcomannic War

spring 168 – Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus’ expedition to Aquileia

169
January 169 – death of Lucius Verus

autumn 169 – Marcus Aurelius with his son-in-law Claudius Pompeianus begin a campaign against the tribes (especially the Iazyges) between the Danube and Dacia

170
spring 170 – battle of Carnuntum between the Marcomanni and Germanic tribes (under Ballomar) and the Romans

172 – the Romans cross the Danube and subjugate the Marcomanni, the Varistae or Naristi and the Cotini

173 – the Romans campaign against the Quadi

175
c. April 175 – Avidius Cassius declares himself emperor

July 175 – murder of Avidius Cassius in Egypt

176
23 December 176 – Marcus Aurelius and Commodus celebrate a joint German triumph

177
177–autumn 180 – Second Marcomannic War

180
17 March 180–31 December 192 – sole reign of Commodus

182
182/183 – conspiracy of Lucilla; execution of Claudius Pompeianus and Ummidius Quadratus; exile of Lucilla to Capri

9 December 182 – coins record that Commodus has the title Pius

183
c. 183 – assassination of Saoterus

185 – execution of the praetorian prefect Sextus Tigidius Perennis after a plot by Cleander

190
June 190 – execution of Cleander

193 AD
1 January 193 – 28 March 193 – reign of Pertinax

28 March 193–1 June 193 – reign of Didius Julianus

14 April 193–4 February 211 – reign of Septimius Severus

1 June 193 – execution of Didius Julianus in the palace

198 – Severus makes Caracalla Augustus

200
22 January 205 – execution of the praetorian prefect Lucius Fulvius Plautianus

208–4 February 211 – Septimius Severus’ expedition to Britain

c. 208–224 – Artabanus V of Parthia

4 February 211–8 April 217 – Caracalla is emperor

4 February 211– 26 December 211– Geta (rule with Caracalla)

26 December 211 – murder of Geta

winter 215–216 – Caracalla in Nicomedia with the army

April 215 – Caracalla arrives at Antioch

November 215 – Caracalla arrives in Pelusium

December 215–March/April 216 – Caracalla in Alexandria

spring 216–summer 217 – Caracalla’s Parthian war:
summer 216 – Caracalla attacks country east of the Tigris near borders of Adiabene
winter 216/217 – Caracalla winters at Edessa
8 April 217 – assassination of Caracalla
summer 217 – battle of Nisibis between Macrinus and King Artabanus V
11 April 217–8 June 218 – Macrinus

16 May 218–11 March 222 – Elagabalus

11 March 222–18/19 March 235 – Severus Alexander

28 April 224 – Ardashir I defeats Artabanus V of Parthia at the battle of Hormozdgan; end of Parthian dynasty

28 April 224–651 – Sasanian Empire

224–242 – reign of Ardashir I, first king of Sasanian Empire:
224–242 – Ardashir I
12 April 240–May 270 – Shapur I
May 270–June 271 – Hormizd I
June 271–September 274 – Bahram I
September 274–293 – Bahram II
293 – Bahram III
293–302 – Narseh
302–309 – Hormizd II
309 – Adur Narseh
309–379 – Shapur II
379–383 – Ardashir II
383–388 – Shapur III
388–399 – Bahram IV
399–21 January 420 – Yazdegerd I
28 April 224 – Ardashir I, crowned at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia (alternative dates: 226 or 6 April 227)

20 March 235–early May 238 – Maximinus Thrax

22 April–29 July 238 – Pupienus and Balbinus

22 March–12 April 238 – Gordian I and Gordian II

22 April–29 July 238 – Gordian III

244–249 – Philip the Arab

249–251 – Decius

253–260 – Valerian

253–268 – Gallienus

September 268–January 270 – Claudius Gothicus

September 270–September/October 275 – Aurelian

25 September 275–June 276 – Marcus Claudius Tacitus

July–September 276 – Florianus

276–September/October 282 – Probus

282–283 – Carus

20 November 284–1 May 305 – reign of Diocletian:
20 November 284–July 285 – (in competition with Carinus)
July 285–1 April 286 – (alone)
1 April 286–1 May 305 – (as Senior Augustus of the east, with Maximian in the west)
2 April 286–1 May 305 – Maximian is Augustus of the West
305–306 – Constantius Chlorus is Augustus in the west
300
305–306 – the Synod of Elvira in Hispania Baetica, now Granada in southern Spain

1 May 305 – in Milan and Nicomedia, Diocletian and Maximian retired simultaneously

1 May 305–summer 306 – Valerius Severus appointed Caesar of the West




East
1 April 286–1 May 305 – Diocletian Senior Augustus of the east
1 May 305–late April/early May 311 – Galerius Augustus in the East
11 November 308 – Licinius appointed Augustus (Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia and the West)
310–May 313 – Maximinus II Augustus in the east
311 – Maximinus divides Eastern Empire between Licinius and himself
313–324 – Licinius is Augustus in the east
West
2 April 286–1 May 305 – Maximian is Augustus of the West
1 May 305–25 July 306 – Constantius Chlorus is Augustus in the west
25 July 306–29 October 312 – Constantine is Caesar in the west
28 October 306–28 October 312 – Maxentius
11 November 308 – Galerius’ general council at Carnuntum
28 October 312 – battle of the Milvian Bridge between Constantine I and Maxentius

25 July 306–22 May 337 – reign of Constantine the Great:
25 July 306–29 October 312 – Constantine is Caesar in the west
309 – Constantine self-proclaimed Augustus
29 October 312 – Constantine enters Rome
29 October 312–19 September 324 – Constantine undisputed Augustus
February 313 – Edict of Milan
3 July 324 – the Battle of Adrianople between Constantine I and Licinius
18 September 324 – the battle of Chrysopolis between Constantine and Licinius
19 September 324–22 May 337 – Constantine is emperor of whole empire
324 – foundation of Constantinople
11 May 330 – dedication of Constantinople
summer 306–March/April 307 – Valerius Severus Augustus in the west

28 October 306 – Maxentius and his father Maximian declared Augusti

28 October 306–28 October 312 – Maxentius

late 307 – Galerius leads an invasion of Italy against Maxentius but retreats north with his army

early 308 – Maximian forced to leave Italy in disgrace after trying to remove his son from power

11 November 308 – Galerius’ general council at the military city of Carnuntum (with Diocletian, Galerius, and Maximian): Maximian forced to abdicate; Constantine was again demoted to Caesar; Licinius appointed Augustus in the western regions

11 November 308–313 – Licinius appointed Augustus in the west (Danube, Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia and the West)

309 – Maximian returns to the court of Constantine in Gaul

c. July 310 – Maximian hanged himself

April/May 311 – death of Galerius on journey from Thessalonica to Romuliana, perhaps Serdica; he is buried in mausoleum at Gamzigrad-Romuliana, part of his palace, in Zaječar in Serbia

9 June 311 – Licinius in Serdica

28 October 312 – battle of the Milvian Bridge between Constantine I and Maxentius

28 October 312 – death of Maxentius while crossing the Tiber in Rome

3 December 312 – death of Diocletian at his Palace

February 313 – Edict of Milan

30 April 313 – battle of Tzirallum between Licinius and Maximinus, at Çorlu, in Tekirdağ Province, in the Turkish region of Eastern Thrace; Maximinus defeated and he flees to Tarsus

July/August 313 – death of Maximinus II in Tarsus




East 313–324
July/August 313–18 September 324 – Licinius is Augustus I in the East
July–18 September 324 – Martinian is Caesar of Licinius
West 313–324
28 October 312–18 September 324 – Constantine the Great is Augustus in the West
1 March 317–326 – Crispus is Caesar of his father Constantine I
25 July 306–22 May 337 – reign of Constantine the Great

1 March 317–326 – Crispus is Caesar of his father Constantine I

3 July 324 – the Battle of Adrianople between Constantine I and Licinius

July 324 – battle of the Hellespont, two separate naval clashes between Constantine’s fleet (led by Crispus) and a larger fleet under Licinius’ admiral, Abantus

18 September 324 – battle of Chrysopolis (modern Üsküdar), near Chalcedon between Constantine I and Licinius; Licinius defeated

19 September 324–22 May 337 – Constantine is emperor of whole empire

8 November 324 – foundation of Constantinople when Constantine marks out the perimeter

winter 324–325? – Constantine tours Asia Minor and Antioch

spring 325 – death of Licinius in Thessalonica

20 May–19 June 325 – Constantine presides over the First Ecumenical Council at Nicaea

spring/summer 326 – execution of Crispus

11 May 330 – Constantine I dedicates Constantinople

22 May 337 – death of Constantine at his suburban villa Achyron, near Nicomedia

summer 337 – killing of Dalmatius (Caesar of Thracia, Achaea and Macedonia)

September 337 – death of Hannibalianus (nephew of Constantine I and Rex Regum et Ponticarum Gentium)

9 September 337 – Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans meet at Pannonia and divide the empire




East
337–350 – Constantius II co-Augustus (Constantinople, Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Cyrenaica)
18 January 350–11 August 353 – Magnentius
West
September 337–340 – Constantine II is Augustus (Gaul, Britannia and Hispania)
337–350 – Constans (Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Pannonia, Macedonia, and Achaea)

337–340 – Constantine II is joint emperor (over Gaul, Hispania, and Britannia) with Constantius II and Constans

337–3 November 361 – rule of Constantius II:
337–340 – Constantius II is co-Augustus (ruling Asian provinces and Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans
340 – killing of Constantine II in an ambush outside Aquileia in civil war with Constans
340–350 – Constantius II is co-Augustus with Constans
350 – assassination of Constans in Helena (now Elne) in the eastern Pyrenees of southwestern Gaul by supporters of the general Magnentius
350–361 – Constantius II is sole Augustus of the Roman Empire
350 – assassination of Constans in Helena (now Elne) in the eastern Pyrenees of southwestern Gaul by supporters of the general Magnentius

350–361 – Constantius II is sole Augustus of the Roman Empire

351 – battle of Mursa Major between Constantius II and Magnentius

6 November 355–February 360 – Julian the Apostate is Caesar in Gaul

3 November 361 – Constantius II dies of fever in Mopsucrene, Cilicia

3 November 361–26 June 363 – Julian the Apostate is emperor of the entire empire

11 December 361 – Julian entered Constantinople as sole emperor

27 June 363–17 February 364 – reign of Jovian

Thursday, May 24, 2018

Chronology of 1800–1850

1810s
25 October 1760–29 January 1820 – reign of George III

October 1796 – Sir Walter Scott’s English translation of Gottfried August Bürger’s poem Lenore for Jane Anne Cranstoun

1802–1823 – Basil Hall’s service in the Royal Navy

11 August 1804–2 March 1835 – Francis I is Emperor of Austria

1805–1807 – Lord Byron at Trinity College, Cambridge

1809–July 1811 – Lord Byron goes on a Grand Tour of Europe, to Spain and Greece, Malta

12 February 1809 – birth of Charles Darwin in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England

2 October 1809 – the British defeat the French fleet in Zakynthos and capture Kefallonia, Kythera and Zakynthos

5 February 1811 – the Prince of Wales George becomes the Prince Regent

25 March 1811 – Percy Bysshe Shelley expelled from Oxford

22 March 1812 – death of Gottfried Wenzel Graf von Purgstall (1773–1812) in Florence

1813
July 1813 – the Prince Regent snubs Beau Brummell at a masquerade ball at Watier’s private club organised by Brummell, Lord Alvanley, Henry Mildmay and Henry Pierrepoint

1814
1814 – Samuel Marsden acquires land at Kerikeri from Hongi Hika for the use of the Church Missionary Society

1–4 February 1814 – Last Frost Fair held on the Thames in London

6 April 1814 – Napoleon abdicated his throne

28 July 1814–13 September 1814 – Percy Bysshe Shelley elopes with Mary Godwin to the Continent, with Claire Clairmont; they travel to France and Switzerland

November 1814–9 June 1815 – the Congress of Vienna held in Vienna under Klemens Wenzel von Metternich

1815
2 January 1815 – Lord Byron marries Annabella Millbanke; their daughter, Ada, was born in December of that year

20 March 1815–8 July 1815 – Hundred Days

9 June 1815 – signing of treaties of the Congress of Vienna

18 June 1815 – Battle of Waterloo

15 July 1815 – Napoleon demands asylum from British Captain Frederick Maitland on the HMS Bellerophon

16 October 1815 – Napoleon lands at St. Helena

20 November 1815–21 May 1864 – the British control the Ionian Islands, including Kerkyra (Corfu), Ithaki (Ithaca), Lefkada (Lefkas), Kefalonia (Cephalonia), Zakynthos (Zante), Paxi (Paxos), Kythira (Cythera). Corfu becomes the seat of the British Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. Chronology:
January 1817 – Britain grants the Ionian Islands a new constitution
November 1858–March 1859 – William Ewart Gladstone is Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands
29 March 1864 – representatives of the United Kingdom, Greece, France, and Russia sign the Treaty of London, which pledges the transfer of the Ionian Islands to Greece upon ratification
2 May 1864 – the British leave the Ionian Islands
21 May 1864 – the Ionian Islands officially reunite with Greece.
1816
25 April 1816 – Lord Byron left England forever

May 1816 – Beau Brummell secretly flees London in the middle of the night to France

May 1816–30 March 1840 – Beau Brummell lives in exile in France

25 May 1816 – Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary met Lord Byron in Geneva

25 May 1816–28 August 1816 – famous summer at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva, Switzerland, where Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley and Lord Byron meet:
night 14–15 June – the group recounts ghost stories and this is the origin of Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein
30 December 1816 – Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin married

7 January 1817 – death of Wenzel Raphael Graf Purgstall (1798–1817), son of Jane Anne Cranstoun (Countess Purgstall)

1818
11 March 1818 – Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley, Claire Clairmont, and Claire’s daughter, Allegra, leave England, in order to take Allegra to her father Byron, who had taken up residence in Venice

March 1818 – Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein, or, The modern Prometheus published

5 May 1818 – Karl Marx born to Heinrich Marx (a middle class lawyer) and Henrietta Pressburg in Trier

September 1818 – Charles Darwin begins his study as a boarder at the Shrewsbury School, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England

1819
1819–1821 – Lord Byron lived in Ravenna

23 June 1819–July 1820 – Washington Irving’s The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. (with 34 essays and short stories) published in serial form

1820s
1820
1820–1829 – George Gibbs (a horticulturist on Long Island) receives shipments of Zinfandel grapes from Imperial Nursery in Vienna, Austria; arrival of the Zinfandel grape (from Croatian grapes Crljenak Kaštelanski and Tribidrag) in America

1820–1830s – King George IV renovates The Queen’s House, which becomes Buckingham Palace

29 January 1820–26 June 1830 – reign of George IV

15 March 1820 – Washington Irving’s short story “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” published in the sixth installment of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. (34 essays and short stories)

July 1820 – London publisher John Murray (with help from Sir Walter Scott) publishes the second volume of Washington Irving’s The Sketch Book (with all stories from the final three American installments, plus three additional essays)

1821
22 February 1821–12 September 1829 – the Greek War of Independence, a war of independence by the Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire

23 February 1821 – death of John Keats

5 May 1821 – death of Napoléon Bonaparte on the island of Saint Helena

1822
1822 – Riegersburg Castle bought by Sovereign Johann Josef von Liechtenstein

8 July 1822 – Percy Bysshe Shelley drowned in the Gulf of Spezia while returning from Leghorn (Livorno)

1823
16 July 1823 – Byron left Genoa for Greece

1824
1824 – Marx was baptised as a Christian

19 April 1824 – death of Lord Byron

1825
1 March 1825 – marriage of Basil Hall and Margaret Congalton

c. August–September 1825 – fictional date of Alexandre Dumas’ novella “The Pale Lady”

October 1825–April 1827 – Charles Darwin studies medicine at Edinburgh University

1826
1826 – University of Ingolstadt moved to Munich by King Ludwig I (with new name Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)

1827
July 1827 – Charles Darwin returns to Shrewsbury, Shropshire, from France

5 October 1827 – Charles Darwin accepted into Christ’s College, Cambridge; Darwin does not come into residence in Cambridge until 26 January 1828

1828
January 1828–June 1831 – Charles Darwin at Christ’s College, Cambridge

25 January 1828 – death of Lady Caroline Lamb (wife of the Hon. William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne)

1829
6 February 1829 – Champagne house Renaudin Bollinger founded in in Aÿ by Hennequin de Villermont, Paul Levieux Renaudin and Jacques Bollinger; label did not become “Bollinger” until the 1960s

1830s
1830
1830–1835 – Marx attended Trier High School

26 June 1830–20 June 1837 – reign of William IV (son of George III)

1831
27 December 1831–2 October 1836 – the famous voyage of the Beagle of Charles Darwin
27 December 1831 – Charles Darwin sets sail from Devonport, Plymouth
23 July–10 November 1834 – Charles Darwin visits Valparaiso
5 April–25 June 1832 – Charles Darwin visits Rio de Janeiro
26 July 1832 – Charles Darwin visits Montevideo
March 1833 – Charles Darwin visits the Falklands Islands
January 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Strait of Magellan
March 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Falklands Islands
May–June 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Strait of Magellan
15 September–20 October 1835 – Charles Darwin visits Galapagos Islands
15–26 November 1835 – Charles Darwin visits Tahiti
21–30 December 1835 – Charles Darwin visits the Bay of Islands in the north island of New Zealand
12–30 January 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Sydney, Australia
15–17 February 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Hobart, Tasmania
6–14 March 1836 – Charles Darwin visits King George Sound, Western Australia
1–12 April 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Cocos Keeling Islands
24 April–9 May 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Mauritius
31 May–15 June 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
8–14 July 1836 – Charles Darwin visits St Helena
19–23 July 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Ascension Island
1–6 August 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Bahia
20–24 September 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Azores
2 October 1836 – Charles Darwin arrives back in England at Falmouth, Cornwall
1832
May 1832 – the British Foreign Secretary Palmerston convenes the London Conference of 1832 that decides that Greece should be a monarchy

27 May 1832 – beginning of the reign of Otto of Greece:
Kings of Greece
27 May 1832 – 23 October 1862 – Otto of Greece (deposed)
1834 – Athens becomes the capital of independent Greece
30 March 1863 – 18 March 1913 – George I of Greece
30 August 1832 – the borders of Greece confirmed in the London Protocol signed by the Great Powers

21 September 1832 – death of Sir Walter Scott of typhus at Abbotsford, Scotland

1833
28 August 1833 – Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire (expanding the jurisdiction of the Slave Trade Act 1807), making the purchase or ownership of slaves illegal within the British Empire, with the exception “of the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company,” Ceylon, and Saint Helena

1834
January 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Strait of Magellan

March 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Falklands Islands

April 1834 – Basil Hall and his wife Margaret Congalton in Naples

September 1834–March 1835 – Basil Hall and Margaret Congalton visit Jane Anne Cranstoun (Countess Purgstall and widow of Gottfried Wenzel von Purgstall) at Schloss Hainfeld, near Feldback, lower Styria, forty miles from Gratz

16 October 1834 – fire destroys Palace of Westminster including both Houses of Parliament and most buildings except Westminster Hall

14 November–10 December 1834 – Arthur Wellesley (1st Duke of Wellington) is UK Prime Minister

1835
1835–1836 – Marx attended the University of Bonn to study law

2 March 1835 – death of Francis I (Emperor of Austria) in Vienna

2 March 1835–2 December 1848 – Ferdinand I is Emperor of Austria

23 March 1835 – death of Jane Anne Cranstoun (Countess Purgstall)

c. March 1835 – Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall inherits the estates of the Countess Purgstall

18 April 1835–30 August 1841 – William Lamb (2nd Viscount Melbourne) is UK Prime Minister (Whig)

15 September–20 October 1835 – Charles Darwin visits Galapagos Islands

15–26 November 1835 – Charles Darwin visits Tahiti

21–30 December 1835 – Charles Darwin visits the Bay of Islands in the north island of New Zealand

1836
1836 – before leaving for Berlin Marx became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen

1836–1840 – Marx attended the University of Berlin and joined the Young Hegelians

12–30 January 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Sydney, Australia

15–17 February 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Hobart, Tasmania

23 February–6 March 1836 – battle of the Alamo: after a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launch assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar, killing the Texian defenders

6–14 March 1836 – Charles Darwin visits King George Sound, Western Australia

1–12 April 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Cocos Keeling Islands

21 April 1836 – Texian army defeats the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto

24 April–9 May 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Mauritius

8–14 July 1836 – Charles Darwin visits St Helena

19–23 July 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Ascension Island

1–6 August 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Bahia

c. September 1836 – Basil Hall’s A Winter in Lower Styria published

20–24 September 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Azores

2 October 1836 – Charles Darwin arrives back in England at Falmouth, Cornwall

1837
1837 – Marx was a follower of Hegel and neglected his studies, all to his father’s intense disapproval

6 March 1837 – Charles Darwin moves from Cambridge to 36 Great Marlborough Street, London

March 1837–September 1842 – Charles Darwin lives at 36 Great Marlborough Street, London (March 1837–January 1839), and 12 Upper Gower Street in London (January 1839–September 1842)

20 June 1837 – accession of Queen Victoria (reigned from 1837–1901)

20 June 1837–22 January 1901 – reign of Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria, 24 May 1819–22 January 1901), Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

20 June 1837–18 November 1851 – Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August, 5 June 1771–18 November 1851) is King of Hanover (5th son of King George III, and from 1799 Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale)

c. June 1837 – Buckingham Palace becomes the London residence of Victoria

c. June 1837 – Melbourne given a private apartment at Windsor Castle as tutor of Victoria

20 June 1837 – Hanover separated from kingdom of England

28 June 1837 – King Ernest of Hanover enters his new domain

1838
1838 – Marx visited his family in Trier to find his father on his death bed

8 April 1838 – the National Gallery building (designed by William Wilkins) in Trafalgar Square first opens to the public in London; neoclassical facade of the National Gallery faces onto in Trafalgar Square

28 June 1838 – coronation of Queen Victoria

c. 28 September 1838 – Charles Darwin reads Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of Population

1839
29 January 1839 – Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood married at Maer; they move to 12 Upper Gower Street in London

March 1839–October 1842 – the First Anglo-Afghan War between British India and the Emirate of Afghanistan:
December 1838 – the Army of the Indus under John Keane (1st Baron Keane) set out from Punjab
25 April–27 June 1839 – the army set up camp at Kandahar
22 July 1839 – British forces capture the fortress of Ghazni
August 1839 – Shuja Shah Durrani enthroned in Kabul
April–October 1841 – Afghan tribes north of the Hindu Kush mountains rebel
1 January 1842 – British garrison withdraws from Kabul; army attacked as it withdraws through snowbound passes
spring 1842 – Akbar Khan defeated near Jalalabad
August 1842 – General Nott advances from Kandahar and seizes Ghazni
September 1842 – British forces defeat all opposition and occupy Kabul
c. October 1842 – British forces withdraw from Afghanistan.
3 May 1839 – Jamaica Government Bill in the House of Commons

7 May 1839 – Jamaica Government Bill (opposed by Peel) carried by only five votes in the Commons

7 May 1839 – the Bedchamber Crisis: Lord Melbourne wishes to resign as Prime Minister after a bill was passed by a very narrow margin of only 5 votes in the House of Commons; Victoria asked the Duke of Wellington to form a new government, and then Conservative leader Robert Peel; Peel accepts on the condition that Victoria dismiss some of her Ladies of the Bedchamber; she refused the request, and Melbourne was stays on as Prime Minister

22 July 1839 – British forces capture the fortress of Ghazni

October 1839 – Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha returns to England to visit Victoria

15 October 1839 – Victoria proposes to Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg

3 November 1839–29 August 1842 – First Opium War fought between the UK and the Qing dynasty of China

late 1839 – Marx embarked on his Doctoral dissertation called The Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature

1840s
1840
1840 – reconstruction of the Palace of Westminster began; Lords Chamber completed 15 April 1847; Commons Chamber first used 30 May 1850 and permanently occupied from 3 February 1852

1840–1844 – Francis Galton studies mathematics at Trinity College, University of Cambridge

14 January 1840–3 May 1841 – Captain William Hobson is Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Governor of New South Wales

6 February 1840 – signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by British Crown and various Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand

10 February 1840 – wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (later Prince Consort) at Chapel Royal, St. James’s Palace, London:
Queen’s Private Secretary
1837–1840 – Viscount Melbourne (informal)
1840–1861 – Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg (informal)
1861–1866 – Sir Charles Phipps
1861–1870 – Sir Charles Grey
1870–1895 – Sir Henry Ponsonby
1895–1901 – Sir Arthur Bigge
30 March 1840 – Beau Brummell dies insane from syphilis at Le Bon Sauveur Asylum, Caen

May 1840 – formation of the British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, with Samuel Cunard (1787–1865) as leading manager

May 1840 – Captain William Hobson (appointed as Lieutenant-Governor over New Zealand as acquired from the Māori chiefs) proclaims British sovereignty over the South Island of New Zealand

1 June 1840 – Buxton’s Society for the Extinction of the Slave Trade and for the Civilisation of Africa holds its first anniversary meeting at Exeter Hall, The Strand, London, under its new president, Prince Albert

10 June 1840 – Edward Oxford shot at Albert and Queen Victoria hundred yards from Buckingham Palace in Hyde Park

October 1840–June 1844 – Francis Galton attends Trinity College, Cambridge

21 November 1840 – birth of Queen Victoria’s daughter Victoria (21 November 1840–5 August 1901), wife of German Emperor Frederick III and mother of Wilhelm II

1841
April 1841 – Marx was awarded his PhD from the University of Jena called The Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature

April–October 1841 – Afghan tribes north of the Hindu Kush mountains rebel

June 1841 – Marx returned to Trier, and had firm plans to be an academic, but the Prussian state had entered a period of pronounced hostility to the Young Hegelians

21 June 1841 – launch of HMS Trafalgar at Woolwich Dockyard, London

29 June–22 July 1841 – United Kingdom general election 1841:
Party | Seats
Conservative | 367
Whig | 271
Irish Repeal | 20
30 August 1841 – William Lamb (2nd Viscount Melbourne) leaves office as UK Prime Minister (Whig)

30 August 1841–29 June 1846 – Sir Robert Peel (2nd Baronet) is UK Prime Minister (Conservative)

October 1841–c. May 1845 – Edward Augustus Freeman at Trinity College, Oxford; graduates with a second class in literae humaniores

9 November 1841 – birth of Edward VII (Albert Edward) in Buckingham Palace

1842
1842 – Marx moved to Cologne in 1842, and became a journalist, often writing for Rheinische Zeitung

1 January 1842 – British garrison withdraws from Kabul; army attacked as it withdraws through snowbound passes

May 1842 – Queen Victoria shot at by John Francis while riding in her carriage

18 June 1842 – Richard Francis Burton sails for India

29 August 1842 – signing of the Treaty of Nanking (or Nanjing), a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–42) between the UK and the Qing dynasty (effective 26 June 1843)

September 1842 – Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visit Edinburgh

14 September 1842 – Charles Darwin and his family move to Down house (at Down now renamed Downe), Kent

23 September 1842 – Baroness Louise Lehzen leaves for Germany

October 1842–February 1843 – Marx is the informal editor of the Rheinische Zeitung

October 1842 – Luigi Federico Menabrea writes a paper on Babbage’s difference engine in a Swiss academic journal

October 1842 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in India

October 1842–March 1849 – Richard Francis Burton in India

1843
1843–1845 – Marx embarks on a reading of political economy, and in particular the works of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and James Mill in French translation, Jean-Baptiste Say and Wilhelm Schulz

2 January 1843 – premiere of Richard Wagner’s opera The Flying Dutchman at the Semper Oper in Dresden

20 January 1843 – Daniel McNaughton shoots Edward Drummond (Private Secretary to Robert Peel) in assassination attempt on Sir Robert Peel

April 1843 – the Rheinische Zeitung was banned by the government and ceased publication

21 April 1843 – death of Prince Augustus Frederick (Duke of Sussex), uncle of Queen Victoria

25 April 1843 – launching of the HMY Victoria and Albert, the first royal yacht to be steam powered

19 June 1843 – Marx marries Jenny von Westphalen

August 1843 – Lady Lovelace’s translation of Menabrea’s paper is published with extensive notes of her own in Taylor’s Scientific Memoirs as “Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage”

2–7 September 1843 – Queen Victoria travels to the Château d’Eu, France to visit Louis Philippe I

October 1843–April 1845 – Marx moves to Paris and writes for the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (German-French Annals) and then Vorwärts! (Forward!)

1844
29 January 1844 – death of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (ruled 9 December 1806–1844), father of prince Albert

29 January 1844–22 August 1893 – Ernest II (brother of Prince Albert) is Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

February 1844 – the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher publishes Marx’s “A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right,” and “On the Jewish Question.”

28 August 1844 – Marx meets Friedrich Engels in Paris

1844 – Marx wrote extended papers running to about 50,000 words called the “Paris Manuscripts” or “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844,” which were only published well after his death in 1927

September 1844 – Queen Victoria and Albert stay at Blair Castle, Perthshire for three weeks lent to them by Lord Glenlyon

11 September 1844 – death of Basil Hall at the Royal Hospital Haslar, Portsmouth

23 October 1844 – death of Samuel Tertius Galton, father of Francis Galton

1845
1845–1847 – Marx and Engels wrote The German Ideology, but this was never published in Marx’s lifetime

1845–1847 – Marx lives in Brussels in Belgium

January 1845 – the Prussian government demanded Marx’s expulsion and the French government agreed to this

February 1845 – Marx and Engels publish The Holy Family in Frankfort

April 1845 – Marx moves from Paris to Brussels

April 1845 – Helene “Lenchen” Demuth (1820–1890), a von Westphalen family servant, joined Marx’s household as a housekeeper and maid

19 May 1845 – Edward Augustus Freeman elected fellow of Trinity College, Oxford

July 1845 – Marx and Engels visit Britain

September 1845–1852 – the Great Famine in Ireland (Irish Potato Famine), a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849, in which 1 million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland (with population fall of 20–25%)

October 1845 – Queen Victoria and Prince Albert buy Osborne House on the Isle of Wight from Lady Isabella Blachford

1845–1851 – construction of new Osborne House in the style of the Italian Renaissance

October 1845–November 1846 – Francis Galton visits Egypt, Berber, Khartoum, Cairo, Alexandria, Beirut, Damascus, Jerusalem, Jordan valley

1846
1846 – Marx and Engels formed the Communist Correspondence Committee of Brussels

25 April 1846–3 February 1848 – Mexican–American War, between the US and Mexico after the 1845 American annexation of the independent Republic of Texas

15 May 1846 – third reading of Peel’s Bill of Repeal (Importation Act 1846) passes by 327 votes to 229 (a majority of 98) to repeal the Corn Laws

30 June 1846–21 February 1852 – John Russell (1st Earl Russell) is UK Prime Minister (Whig and Liberal)

1847
13 April 1847 – Edward Augustus Freeman marries Eleanor Gutch (1818–1903), daughter the Reverend Robert Gutch, at Seagrave, Leicestershire; he loses his fellowship

15 April 1847 – Lords Chamber first occupied in the completed Palace of Westminster

May 1847 – the British Government agreed to take over the debts of the New Zealand Company and to buy out their interests in the Colony

June 1847 – the London-based “League of the Just” held a meeting in London in which it decided to merge with Marx and Engels’ Communist Corresponding Committee. The new organisation was called the “Communist League” (1847–1852)

4 June 1847 – present Whitby station built by York and North Midland Railway (prior station opened in 8 June 1835)

July 1847 – Marx publishes The Poverty of Philosophy in French, an attack on Pierre-Joseph Proudhon’s The System of Economic Contradictions, or The Philosophy of Poverty. Marx also set out his materialist view of history in this work, in which he had moved on from both Hegel and Ludwig von Feuerbach

December 1847–January 1848 – Marx and Engels write The Communist Manifesto

1848
1848–1849 – Marx in Cologne

February 1848 – Prince Albert acquires the lease on Balmoral, together with its furniture and staff

21 February 1848 – The Communist Manifesto first published

22 February–2 December 1848 – 1848 Revolution in France (February Revolution) ends the Orléans monarchy (1830–1848) followed by French Second Republic:
23 February 1848 – Prime Minister Guizot resigns
24 February 1848 – Louis Philippe I abdicates in favour of his nine-year-old grandson, Philippe, comte de Paris
26 February 1848 – the liberal opposition organises a provisional government; Second Republic proclaimed
10 December 1848 – Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was elected President
2 December 1852 – Louis Napoléon Bonaparte becomes emperor
March 1848 – Belgium expels Marx after putting him in jail for a night

23 March 1848–24 March 1849 – First Italian War of Independence fought between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire

1848 – Marx in France

15 March 1848–4 October 1849 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848

23 March 1848 – the first settler ship the John Wickliffe arrives in Port Chalmers

27 March 1848 – foundation of the Canterbury Association (1848–1853), which is incorporated by Royal Charter on 13 November 1849; this was led by Edward Gibbon Wakefield and John Robert Godley. Wakefield was involved in the New Zealand Company, which by that time had already established four other colonies in New Zealand

April 1848 – Marx moved to Cologne

10 April 1848 – Chartist march in London to Kennington Common

15 April 1848 – the second settler ship the Philip Laing arrives in Port Chalmers, New Zealand

1 May 1848 – election of the Frankfurt Parliament held from 18 May 1848 to 31 May 1849, in the Paulskirche at Frankfurt am Main

summer c. 1848–1850s – fictional date of Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu’s novel Carmilla (or c. 1846)

29 June 1848 – Edward Augustus Freeman leaves Oxford

July 1848–c. August 1855 – Edward Augustus Freeman lives in the Oaklands, valley of the Cam, Dursley, Gloucestershire

September 1848 – there was an insurrection in Cologne but this was suppressed by the Prussians and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung was shut down in October

September 1848 – Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood founded at the home of John Millais’s parents on Gower Street, London by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and William Holman Hunt

8 September 1848 – Queen Victoria travels to Aberdeen on the royal yacht

18 September 1848 – Queen Victoria first visits Balmoral

24 November 1848 – death of William Lamb (2nd Viscount Melbourne) at Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire

2 December 1848–21 November 1916 – reign of Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria

1849
February 1849 – Marx was indicted for incitement to rebellion in Cologne, but in a trial was acquitted

March 1849 – Richard Francis Burton sails from Bombay

19 May 1849 – Marx left Cologne

29 July 1849 – Max Nordau born in Pest (with the name Simon Maximilian, or Simcha Südfeld)

August 1849 – Queen Victoria and Albert visit to Ireland in the royal yacht

27 or 28 August 1849 – Marx arrived in London

12 November 1849 – Engels arrived in London

1849–1883 – Marx lives in London

1850
1850 – Marx had an affair with Helene “Lenchen” Demuth (1820–1890) and an illegitimate son Frederick Demuth was born in 1851

January 1850 – Britain blockades Athens to force Greece to settle Pacifico’s claims

January 1850 – Royal Commission formed to organise the Great Exhibition with Prince Albert as the chair, Lord John Russell, Peel, Henry Labouchere (President of the Board of Trade), architects Barry and Cubitt

5 April 1850–April 1852 –Francis Galton visits Cape Town, Walfish Bay (August 1850), Barmen, Lake Omanbonde, Damaraland, Barmen (August 1851), Tounobis, Walfish Bay

8 May–2 December 1850 – Marx lived at 64 Dean Street, Soho

30 May 1850 – Commons Chamber first used completed Palace of Westminster; permanently occupied from 3 February 1852

June 1850 – Marx acquired an admission card to the library of the British Museum

25 June 1850 – Lord Palmerston’s speech to Parliament on the Don Pacifico affair (using the phrase Civis romanus sum)

2 July 1850 – death of Sir Robert Peel

c. November 1850 – Engels moves to Manchester to serve as a clerk in his father’s business Ermen and Engels

December 1850–September 1856 – Marx family lives at 28 Dean Street, Soho

December 1850–August 1864 – Taiping Rebellion, civil war in China between the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan

16 December 1850 – first ships of settlers arrived in Canterbury, New Zealand

1850s
1851
12 February 1851 – Edward Hargraves discovers gold at Ophir, Lewis Ponds Creek, tributary of the Macquarie River, Bathurst

April 1851 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1 May–11 October 1851 – Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or The Great Exhibition, in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London

14 May 1851–c. 1880 – New South Wales gold rush starting in the Macquarie River, Bathurst

23 June 1851 – Marx’s illegitimate child Henry Frederick was born

October 1851–July 1853 – William Stanley Jevons at University College, London; he leaves without degree

November 1851 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1852
26 May–26 June 1852 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1852 – Marx published The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, an analysis of the French revolution of 1848 and the rise of the emperor Louis Napoleon III

3 February 1852 – Commons Chamber permanently occupied in the completed Palace of Westminster

June 1852 – Albert buys Balmoral for £32,000

30 June 1852 – New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, which grants self-government to the Colony of New Zealand

14 September 1852 – death of Arthur Wellesley (1 May 1769–14 September 1852; 1st Duke of Wellington) at Walmer Castle in Deal

October–November 1852 – the Cologne communist trial saw a number of the members of the Communist league connected with Marx and Willich jailed as seditious revolutionaries, and Marx agreed to the dissolution of the league

18 November 1852 – state funeral of the Duke of Wellington, buried in a sarcophagus of luxulyanite in St Paul’s Cathedral next to Lord Nelson

27 November 1852 – death of Ada Lovelace (Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace) from uterine cancer

20 December 1852 – Lower Burma was formally annexed by the British empire

1853
2 February 1853 – Edward Gibbon Wakefield arrives in Christchurch; after a month goes to Wellington

6 July–September 1853 – Richard Francis Burton’s journey to Suez (July), Yambu (18 July), Medina, Mecca (11–12 September 1853), Jeddah (26 September)

1 August 1853 – marriage of Francis Galton and Louisa Jane Butler (1822–1897)

August 1853–c. spring 1854 – Francis Galton and Louisa Jane Butler visit Switzerland, Florence, and Rome

October 1853–30 March 1856 – Crimean war

1853–1862 – Marx turned to journalism in papers in England, the US, Prussia, Austria and South Africa, but mostly in the New York Tribune

30 April–May 1853 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1854
1854 – Marx befriended by David Urquhart (1805–1877)

1854–1862 – Alfred Russel Wallace travels through the Malay Archipelago or East Indies

February 1854 – Karl von Wachsmann’s short story “The Mysterious Stranger” first appeared in translation in England in Chambers’s Repository

18 April 1854–April 1862 – Alfred Russel Wallace travels through the Malay Archipelago or East Indies

2 May 1854–1858 – Samuel Butler at St John, Cambridge

24 May 1854 – 12 noon: 1st New Zealand Parliament opened in Auckland

29 June 1854 – William Stanley Jevons sails from Britain to Sydney, Australia

September 1854 – Richard Francis Burton first meets John Hanning Speke in Aden

6 October 1854–March 1859 – William Stanley Jevons in Australia as assayer to the new mint; Hunter River (May 1865); Wollongong (April 1857); Melbourne (March 1859)

29 October 1854–9 February 1855 – Richard Francis Burton makes an expedition to Harar (in present-day Ethiopia)

1855
2 March 1855–13 March 1881 – reign of Alexander II of Russia

April 1855 – Marx’s son Edgar died

16 April–May 1855 – Marx and his wife visit Engels in Manchester

15 May–15 November 1855 – the Exposition Universelle of 1855, held in the Palais de l’Industrie, the Champs-Élysées in Paris

June–30 September 1855 – Richard Francis Burton rejoins the army and travels to the Crimea to fight in the Crimean War

c. August 1855–June 1860 – Edward Augustus Freeman lives in Llanrumney Hall, Cardiff

September–c.November 1855 – Marx and his wife visit Engels in Manchester

15 September 1855 – Edward Gibbon Wakefield retired from the Hutt seat and leaves political life

1856
1856–1863 – pea plant experiments conducted by Gregor Johann Mendel (20 July 1822–6 January 1884) on the rules of heredity at the Augustinian St Thomas’s Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia

29 September 1856–April 1864 – Marx family lives at 9 Grafton Terrace, Haverstock Hill, Kentish Town
8 May–2 December 1850 – Marx family lives at 64 Dean Street, Soho
December 1850–September 1856 – Marx family lives at 28 Dean Street, Soho
29 September 1856–April 1864 – Marx family lives at 9 Grafton Terrace, Haverstock Hill, Kentish Town
March 1864–March 1875 – Marx family lives at 1 Modena Villas (now 1 Maitland Park) in North London
March 1875–14 March 1883 – Marx lives at 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street) until he died
1856–1859 – the Second Opium War

6 May 1856 – birth of Sigmund Freud

c. July 1856 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

8 October 1856–24 October 1860 – Second Anglo-Chinese War (the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China), a war between the United Kingdom (with the French Empire) and the Qing dynasty of China

23 November 1856 – death of Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (Austrian orientalist and historian) in Vienna

1857
1857 – Francis Galton and his wife move to 42 Rutland Gate, where he lives until his death in 1911

27 June 1857–February 1859 – John Hanning Speke and Richard Francis Burton set out from Zanzibar and discover Lake Tanganyika February 1858) and Lake Victoria, the source of the Nile

1857 – UK recession

1857–1858 – Marx writes Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie (Outlines of the Critique of Political Economy), which were not even published until 1939

May 1857–June 1858 – Indian mutiny

2 May 1857 – the Reading Room extension of the British Library officially opened; from 8–16 May, the library was opened for a special public viewing

1858
31 January 1858 – launch of the SS Great Eastern at the Isle of Dogs, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel

1 May–c. late May 1858 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1 July 1858 – papers by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace on natural selection are read to the Linnean Society of London

23 July 1858 – UK parliament passes Jewish Relief Act, which allows Jews to enter Parliament

2 August 1858 – Government of India Act 1858, the company was formally dissolved and its ruling powers over India were transferred to the British Crown

27 October 1858 – Theodore Roosevelt born at East 20th Street in New York City, New York

autumn 1858–spring 1859 – Samuel Butler moves to Heddon Street, London, to work as an assistant to Reverend Philip Perring

1859
March–September 1859 – William Stanley Jevons returns to Britain via Peru, Panama, Havana, and the United States

June 1859 – Marx published A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy

c.June–July 1859 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels and Dundee to see Peter Imandt and Heise

9 June 1859 – emergence of the British Liberal Party. British Prime Ministers:
Liberal
12 June 1859–18 October 1865 – Henry John Temple (3rd Viscount Palmerston)
29 October 1865–28 June 1866 – John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
Conservative
28 June 1866–25 February 1868 – Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby
27 February 1868–1 December 1868 – Benjamin Disraeli is British Minister
Liberal
3 December 1868–17 February 1874 – William Ewart Gladstone is British Minister
30 September 1859 – Samuel Butler leaves England for New Zealand on board the Roman Emperor at Gravesend

October 1859–October 1860 – William Stanley Jevons returns to University College, London, to finish his BA degree

24 November 1859 – Origin of Species published

1860
1860 – Marx became anathema to the German émigré community in London when Karl Vogt accused Marx of being a police informer and having sold out his political allies

c. January 1860 – Julius von Haast moves to Canterbury; he becomes the provincial geologist at Canterbury from 1861 to 1868

27 January 1860 – Samuel Butler arrives in Lyttleton, New Zealand

27 January 1860–15 June 1864 – the novelist Samuel Butler in New Zealand
1860
c. March–April 1860 – Samuel Butler travels up the Waimakariri and sees Arthur’s Pass by looking up the Bealey River
April 1860 – Samuel Butler rides up the Rangitata River
6 September 1860 – Samuel Butler registered his claim to Run 387 between Bush Stream and Forest Creek overlooking the Rangitata River; on 22 September Run 242 is given to him
2 October 1860 – Samuel Butler sets off to the future site of Mesopotamia station from Christchurch
25 December 1860 – Christmas at Mesopotamia

1861
15 February 1861 – Julius von Haast officially becomes Canterbury’s Provincial Geologist
January–February 1861 – Samuel Butler and John Holland Baker explore the sources of the Lawrence, Havelock, Clyde, and Rangitata rivers; this trip is re-told in the beginning of Erewhon
March 1861 – Samuel Butler’s holdings amount to over 40,000 acres, with 2000 sheep; he has 6 workers
April 1861 – Julius von Haast stays with Samuel Butler at Mesopotamia while surveying the region around the Rangitata River, New Zealand
25 May 1861 – the Christchurch The Press begins under the ownership of James Edward Fitzgerald
September 1861 – Samuel Butler’s second hut at Mesopotamia finished; in this year he rides to Mount Somers to visit the Tripps

1862
March 1862 – Samuel Butler takes John Brabazon as a partner
August 1862 – Samuel Butler starts to shift to Christchurch; he corrects proofs of A First Year in Canterbury Settlement
August 1862 – Samuel Butler renounces Christianity
20 December 1862 – Samuel Butler publishes “Darwin on the Origin of Species, A Dialogue” in the Christchurch The Press

1863
13 June 1863 – Samuel Butler publishes “Darwin among the Machines” in The Press newspaper in Christchurch, New Zealand
September 1863 – Samuel Butler mainly based in Christchurch and staying at Carlton Hotel on the Papanui Road; he first meets Charles Paine Pauli
December 1863 – Samuel Butler rides with William Parkerson to Mesopotamia

1864
March 1864 – Arthur Dudley Dobson and his brother Edward find Arthur’s Pass
May 1864 – William Parkerson takes Mesopotamia
9 June 1864 – Samuel Butler says farewell to Julius von Haast
15 June 1864 – Samuel Butler and Charles Paine Pauli sail from Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, to return to England, via Callao, Panama, and St Thomas
16 February–23 March 1860 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

11 May–30 September 1860 – Garibaldi’s Redshirts invade Sicily and Naples

June 1860–c. February 1884 – Edward Augustus Freeman lives year round in Somerleaze, north-west of Wells, Somerset

16 June 1860 – first voyage of the SS Great Eastern to North America

30 June 1860 – famous debate on Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species between Samuel Wilberforce and Thomas Henry Huxley at Oxford University Museum, during the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

6 September 1860 – Samuel Butler registered his claim to Run 387 between Bush Stream and Forest Creek overlooking the Rangitata River; this becomes the Mesopotamia run

2 October 1860 – Samuel Butler sets off to the future site of Mesopotamia station from Christchurch, New Zealand

November 1860 – Marx’s wife Jenny fell seriously ill with smallpox; Marx read Darwin’s revolutionary book On the Origin of Species

6 November 1860 – United States presidential election of 1860; Abraham Lincoln elected

December 1860 – Marx published Karl Vogt

1 December 1860–3 August 1861 – Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations published in the journal All the Year Round in the UK

1861
16 March 1861 – death of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (17 August 1786–16 March 1861), later Duchess of Kent and Strathearn, mother of Queen Victoria