Saturday, April 22, 2017

Chronology from 1900–1940s

c. 1900 – events of Bram Stoker’s novel The Jewel of Seven Stars

20 January 1900 – death of John Ruskin

February 1900 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Harwich

23 March 1900–1903 – Arthur Evans’ excavations on Knossus

April–12 June 1900 – Samuel Butler meets Henry Festing Jones in Genoa; Butler goes to Basel, Genoa, Casale, Pisa, Rome, Segni, Salerno, Paestum, Reggio, Messina, Taormina, Siracusa (2 May 1900), Malta, Siracusa, Palermo, Calatafimi, Albergo Centrale, Trapani, Palermo, Naples, Rome (20 May), Siena, Sammichele, Casale-Monferrato, Basel, London (12 June)

15 April 1900 – second marriage of Frank Russell (2nd Earl Russell) to Marion Somerville (nee Cooke) in at the Riverside Hotel in Reno

4–6 July 1900 – US Democratic National Convention of 1900, held at Convention Hall in Kansas City, Missouri; William Jennings Bryan gave a speech called “Imperialism”

29 July 1900 – Lenin left Russia for Western Europe

August 1900–July 1901 – Lawrence Waddell in China

25 August 1900 – death of Friedrich Nietzsche

September 1900 – Samuel Butler in Wassen

October 1900 – Mark Twain returns to America

October 1900 – Samuel Butler’s translation of the Odyssey published

November 1900–April 1901 – Samuel Butler writes Erewhon Revisited

22 November 1900 – death of Arthur Sullivan

30 November 1900 – death of Oscar Wilde

December 1900 – the Atlantic Transport Line (owned by Bernard N. Baker) joins International Navigation Company

1 January 1901 – proclamation of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act (UK) in Centennial Park, Sydney:
5 July 1900 – the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act (UK) passed (given Royal Assent by Queen Victoria on 9 July 1900)
1 January 1901–24 September 1903 – Sir Edmund Barton (1849–1920) first Prime Minister of Australia (Protectionist Party)
29–30 March 1901 – first national elections in the Commonwealth of Australia after Federation
9 May 1901 – first Australian Parliament was opened in Melbourne by Prince George (King George V)
9 May 1901–9 May 1927 – the Parliament meets in Parliament House, Melbourne
17 November 1901 – the Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 that allowed mass deportation of nearly all the Pacific Islanders (“Kanakas”) working in the Queensland sugar industry
23 December 1901 – the Immigration Restriction Act 1901 of the Parliament of Australia
24 September 1903–27 April 1904 – Alfred Deakin is Prime Minister (Protectionist Party)
12 March 1913 – Canberra officially named
9 May 1927 – Australian Commonwealth parliament moves to Canberra
22 January 1901 – death of Queen Victoria

22 January 1901–6 May 1910 – reign of Edward VII

March–September 1901 – Theodore Roosevelt is Vice President of the United States under William McKinley (president from 4 March 1897–14 September 1901)

April–24 June 1901 – Samuel Butler travels to Basel, Casale-Monferrato, Pisa (where he joins Henry Festing Jones in May), Rome, Naples, Palermo, Trapani, Palermo, Catania, Taormina, Aci Reale, Messina, Naples, Rome, Ancona, Pesaro, Rimini, Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Casale-Monferrato, London

18 July 1901 – Frank Russell (2nd Earl Russell) convicted of bigamy in the House of Lords

summer 1901 – Bram Stoker attends the Wagner Cycle at Bayreuth?

22 July 1901 – première of Richard Wagner’s play Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman) at Bayreuth

August 1901–April 1902 – Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel The Hound of the Baskervilles serialised in The Strand Magazine

September 1901 – Samuel Butler in Basel and Wassen

14 September 1901–4 March 1909 – Theodore Roosevelt is 26th President of the United States

11 October 1901 – Samuel Butler publishes Erewhon Revisited

31 October 1901–1915 – second marriage in Britain of Frank Russell (2nd Earl Russell) to Marion Somerville (nee Cooke)

1902 – fictional date of the Doctor Who serial “Horror of Fang Rock,” set near Worthing

28 March–19 May 1902 – Samuel Butler travels to Paris, Casale-Monferrato, Rome, Naples, Palermo (12 April), Naples (11 May), Calis, London (19 May)

April 1902 – the White Star enters into a provisional agreement with J. P. Morgan

April 1902–April 1903 – Lenin moved to London

31 May 1902 – signing of the Treaty of Vereeniging ends the Second Boer War between the South African Republic (with Orange Free State) and the UK, at Melrose House, Pretoria, South African Republic

18 June 1902 – death of Samuel Butler at a nursing home in St John’s Wood Road, London

21 June 1902 – Samuel Butler’s funeral near Woking; his ashes buried at Woking

19 July 1902 – Henry Irving’s farewell performance at the Lyceum

14 August 1902–1903 – Julius Kaerst associate professor at the University of Leipzig

1 October 1902 – founding of the International Mercantile Marine Company (IMM), incorporated in New Jersey, formed as a trust from International Navigation Company (operating the Red Star Line and the American Line), Atlantic Transport Line, and the Leyland Line

2 September 1902 – Rudyard Kipling and his family move to a home called Bateman’s, in Burwash, East Sussex, England

2 September 1902–18 January 1936 – Rudyard Kipling lives in Bateman’s, in Burwash, East Sussex, England

December 1902–7 November 1913 – Alfred Russel Wallace moves to a small house called the Old Orchard at Parkstone in Dorset

December 1902 – the White Star Line purchased by the International Mercantile Marine Company:
December 1902–1 January 1927 – White Star Line a constituent company of IMM
1 January 1927–1932 – White Star Line owned by Royal Mail Steam Packet Company
1932–10 May 1934 – Royal Mail Lines Ltd (RML) (chaired by Lord Essendon) takes over White Star Line
10 May 1934 – the White Star Line and Cunard merged to create Cunard-White Star Limited
1903 – Henry Labouchère acquires Villa Christina, near Florence

January 1903 – Albert Einstein marries Mileva Marić

1903 – the posthumous publication of Samuel Butler’s The Way of All Flesh

April 1903 – Lenin and his wife left London for Switzerland

30 April 1903 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Dante at the Theatre Royal

October 1903–March 1904 – Henry Irving’s 8th American tour

November 1903 – Bram Stoker’s The Jewel of the Seven Stars published

11 December 1903–September 1904 – the British expedition to Tibet (Younghusband expedition), the British invasion of Tibet from Sikkim to Lhasa:
11 December 1903 – British army departs Gnathong, Sikkim under Brigadier-General James Ronald Leslie Macdonald
31 March 1904 – massacre of Chumik Shenko
11 April 1904 – British reach Gyantse
6 July 1904 – storming of Gyantse Dzong
3 August 1904 – British take Lhasa
7 September 1904 – the Treaty of Lhasa, between Tibet and Britain signed in Lhasa
17 December 1903 – the first airplane flight near at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina of the Wright Flyer, the first powered, heavier-than-air machine, by the Wright brothers

winter 1903/1904–14 January 1929 – Julius Kaerst is chair of history at the University of Würzburg

11 January 1904–May 1906 – Limerick boycott, led by Father John Creagh, a Redemptorist

8–9 February 1904 – Japanese fleet under Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō attacks Russian fleet at Port Arthur, Korea

8 February 1904–5 September 1905 – Russo-Japanese War between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea; Russian defeat

3 August 1904 – British take Lhasa

7 September 1904 – the Treaty of Lhasa, between Tibet and Britain signed in Lhasa

3 October 1904–spring 1905 – D. G. Hogarth’s excavation of the Ephesian Artemisium and foundation deposits in Turkey

8 November 1904 – United States presidential election of 1904; Theodore Roosevelt (who succeeded McKinley in September 1901) elected in his own right

winter 1904 – Henry Irving’s final provincial tour

1905 – Lawrence Waddell returns to England

1905 – Arminius Vámbéry retires as professor of Oriental languages at the University of Budapest

22 January 1905 – unarmed demonstrators in St Petersburg, Russia led by Father Georgy Gapon fired on by soldiers as they marched to the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II

22 January 1905–16 June 1907 – Russian Revolution of 1905

11 August 1905 – the UK Aliens Act 1905 given royal assent, which introduced immigration controls and registration

c. October 1905 – Charles Prestwich Scott buys the Manchester Guardian:
1861–1872 – John Edward Taylor is editor of the Manchester Guardian
1872–1 July 1929 – Charles Prestwich Scott is editor of the Manchester Guardian
7 August 1895–8 February 1906 – Charles Prestwich Scott is MP for Leigh in the British House of Commons
1 January 1932 – death of Charles Prestwich Scott
1936 – Scott Trust established by John Scott, owner of the Manchester Guardian (Trust dissolved and reformed in 1948)
1959 – Manchester Guardian changes name to The Guardian
13 October 1905 – death of Sir Henry Irving

20 October 1905 – public funeral of Sir Henry Irving

December 1905 – Henry Labouchère announces his retirement

c. 14 December 1905–15 January 1912 – Henry Labouchère lives in retirement in Italy:
summers – Villa d’Este and Cadenabbia
c. October–summer – Villa Christina, near Florence
16 December 1905 – Francis Marion Crawford’s short story “For the Blood is the Life” published in Collier’s

1906–1908 – Lawrence Waddell Professor of Tibetan at University College London

1906–1910 – Benedikt Niese is Professor of Ancient History at the University of Halle
c. 1881–1885 – Benedikt Niese is Professor of Classical Philology at the University of Breslau
1885–1906 – Benedikt Niese is Professor of Classical Philology at Marburg
22 January 1906–11 June 1936 – life of Robert Ervin Howard, creator of the character Conan the Barbarian

20 March 1906 – Ellen Terry plays Lady Cicely Waynflete in Bernard Shaw’s Captain Brassbound’s Conversion

c. March/April 1906 – Bram Stoker suffers a first stroke

12 June 1906 – “Ellen Terry Jubilee Commemoration” at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London with various performances, recitals, songs and tableaux vivants; Terry appears as Beatrice in a performance of Act I of Much Ado About Nothing

October 1906 – Bram Stoker’s Personal Reminiscences of Henry Irving published by William Heinemann

November 1906 – The Vicar of Wakefield opens at the Prince of Wales Theatre; Stoker is business manager

1907 – Bram Stoker moves to 4 Durham Place from 18 St Leonard’s Terrace:
1881–1896 – Bram Stoker lives at 27 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea
1896–1907 – Bram Stoker lives at 18 St Leonard’s Terrace, Chelsea
1907–1911 – Bram Stoker moves to 4 Durham Place
1911–20 April 1912 – Bram Stoker moves to No. 26 St George’s Square, Pimlico
3 January–8 July 1907 – fictional dates of Bram Stoker’s novel The Lady of the Shroud:
23 January 1907 – Rupert Sent Leger at the Castle of Vissarion
2 April 1907 – Teuta Vissarion first visits Rupert Sent Leger
2 July 1907 – Rupert Sent Leger marries Teuta Vissarion at the Church of St. Sava
September 1907–May 1913 – Adolf Hitler lives in Vienna

18 September 1907 – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle marries Miss Jean Leckie at St. Margaret’s Church, Westminster, London; Bram Stoker present

21 September–14 November 1907 – Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and Miss Jean Leckie’s honeymoon in Paris, Berlin, Venice, Rome and Turkey

12 October 1907–June 1910 – Thomas Edward Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) studied History at Jesus College, Oxford

c. November 1907–7 July 1930 – Arthur Conan Doyle lives in Windlesham Manor, Crowborough, East Sussex

c. 1908–19 September 1938 – Lawrence Waddell lives at Craigmore, Rothesay, Island of Bute

January 1908 – Albert Einstein submits his Habilitationsschrift to the Philosophical Faculty II of the University of Bern

28 February 1908–July 1909 – Albert Einstein is Privatdozent at the University of Bern

June 1908 – Kenneth Grahame retires from the Bank of England:
8 March 1859 – birth of Kenneth Grahame in Edinburgh, Scotland
c. April 1864–1866 – Kenneth Grahame moves to The Mount, Cookham Dean, Berkshire
1868–1876 – Kenneth Grahame at St Edward’s School in Oxford
1 January 1879–June 1908 – Kenneth Grahame works at the Bank of England
22 July 1899 – Kenneth Grahame marries Elspeth Thomson at Fowey
1906 – Kenneth Grahame moves to Mayfield, Cookham Dean
June 1908 – Kenneth Grahame retires from the Bank of England
1910 – Kenneth Grahame moves to Boham’s, Blewbury near Didcot
1924 – Kenneth Grahame returns to England, to Church Cottage, Pangbourne
6 July 1932 – death of Kenneth Grahame in Pangbourne, Berkshire
9 June 1908 – King Edward VII of England meets Tsar Nicholas II of Russia on the Russian Imperial Yacht Standart in the Bay of Reval

15 June 1908 – publication of the novel The Wind in the Willows by British novelist Kenneth Grahame

July 1908 – the Young Turk Revolution of the Ottoman Empire; this restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and created multi-party politics in the Ottoman parliament

August 1908–January 1921 – Ezra Pound lives in London

5 October 1908 – de jure independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire proclaimed in Tarnovo by Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria (who then took the title of “Tsar”)

6 October 1908 – Austria-Hungaria publishes the annexation of Bosnia Herzegovina proclamation

16 October 1908 – first sustained flight in the UK in the biplane “British Army Aeroplane No 1” (“Cody 1”) built by Samuel Franklin Cody at the Army Balloon Factory at Farnborough

December 1908 – Arthur Evans resigns as Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford

1909 – Thomas Edward Lawrence sets out alone on a three-month walking tour of crusader castles in Ottoman Syria

7–19 April 1909 – the Great Powers sign amendments to the Treaty of Berlin (of 1878) to settle the Bosnia Herzegovina crisis

9 April 1909 – Francis Marion Crawford dies at Sorrento on Good Friday at Villa Crawford of a heart attack

24 June 1909 – Bram Stoker signs the contract for The Lady of the Shroud with William Heinemann

July 1909 – Bram Stoker published The Lady of the Shroud

6 July 1909 – Albert Einstein submits resignation to the patent office

15 October 1909 – Albert Einstein appointed associate professor at the University of Zurich; Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić move to University of Zürich

1 February 1910 – death of Benedikt Niese in Halle, Germany

12 February 1910 – the Chinese invasion of Tibet occupies Lhasa and establishes direct Qing rule in Tibet, and deposes the 13th Dalai Lama (Chinese forces leave in 1913)

10 March 1910 – death of Karl Lueger in Vienna:
8 April 1897–10 March 1910 – Karl Lueger is mayor of Vienna
May 1910 – Bram Stoker suffers a second stroke

6 May 1910 – death of Edward VII

6 May 1910–20 January 1936 – George V is King of the UK and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India

30 October 1910 – death of Henrietta Labouchere (Henrietta Hodson) in Florence

December 1910 – Thomas Edward Lawrence sails for Beirut to work in an archaeological expedition under D. G. Hogarth

1911 – Houston Stewart Chamberlain’s The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century is published in the first English Edition

1911 – Bram Stoker moves to No. 26 St George’s Square, Pimlico

March 1911–1914 – Thomas Edward Lawrence works on the excavation site in Carchemish on the Euphrates River on the present day border between Syria and Turkey

3 March–12 June 1911 – Bram Stoker writes The Lair of the White Worm

April 1911 – Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić move to Prague, where Einstein holds a teaching position at the Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague

14 June 1911–11 October 1935 – service years of the Olympic of the White Star Line:
3 Olympic-Class Ocean Liners
20 October 1910 – launch of the RMS Olympic at Belfast
14 June 1911–11 October 1935 – service years of the Olympic
31 May 1911 – launch of the Titanic at Belfast
10–15 April 1912 – service time of the Titanic
26 February 1914 – launch of the HMHS Britannic at Belfast
23 December 1915–21 November 1916 – service years of the HMHS Britannic
10 October 1911–12 February 1912 – Xinhai Revolution (Chinese Revolution of 1911) overthrows the Qing dynasty, and establishes the Republic of China (ROC)

November 1911 – Bram Stoker published The Lair of the White Worm

25 November 1911 – Laura Marx and her husband Paul Lafargue commit suicide

15 January 1912 – death of Henry Labouchère in Florence

30 January 1912–1914 – Albert Einstein appointed professor of theoretical physics at the ETH Zurich (he arrives in August)

April–November 1912 – Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Lost World is published, in which fictional character Professor Challenger goes on an expedition to a plateau in the Amazon basin of South America

10 April 1912 – Titanic’s maiden voyage begins on Wednesday at Southampton

10 April 1912 – 5 pm: Titanic arrives at Cherbourg

11 April 1912 – 11:30 am Thursday: Titanic arrives at Cork Harbour on the south coast of Ireland

11 April 1912 – 1:30 pm: Titanic weighs anchor and departed across the Atlantic

14–15 April 1912 – night of the sinking of the RMS Titanic:
8.55 pm – Captain Smith finishes dining in the first-class restaurant
9.20 pm – Captain Smith decides to go to his quarters
10 pm – First Officer Murdoch takes over from Lightoller
11.39 pm – iceberg sighted
11.40 pm – Titanic hits iceberg; Leading Fireman Barrett in Boiler room 6 runs into boiler room 5
c. 11.41 – Captain Smith on the bridge
c. 11.43? – Captain Smith put engine telegraphs to stop and half speed (or slow ahead)
c.11.45 – engines put on stop
c. 11.46 – Bruce Ismay goes to the bridge and sees Captain Smith
c. 11.47 – Bruce Ismay meets Joseph Bell on the main staircase going to bridge, who says pumps will control water
c. 11.47–11.50 – Fireman Barrett and Assistant Shepherd inspect Boiler room 6
c. 11.49 – Smith visits Marconi suite?
c.11.50–c.12.10 – Captain Smith inspects damage with Thomas Andrews
c.11.50–12.30 am – many steerage passengers with luggage move from the bow along Scotland Road to the stern
12.05–12.10 am – Captain Smith goes to mailroom with Chief Purser McElroy and later seen with Thomas Andrews
c. 12.12 am – Captain Smith meets officers in the bridge in the presence of Bruce Ismay and gives order to get the boats out
c. 12.15 am – Captain Smith in Marconi suite tells Bride to prepare to send a CQD but not yet; stewards ordered to rouse passengers and get them on deck with lifebelts
c. 12.20 am – Charles Joughin returns to his room from bakery
12.20–12.30 am – many steerage passengers in Scotland Road with luggage “walking about to and fro; some sitting on their luggage”
c. 12.20–c.12.30 am – Paul Mauge (secretary to the chef of the a la carte restaurant) goes along Scotland Road with sixty restaurant workers
c. 12.22 am – Thomas Andrews seen by William Sloper and Anna Warren going up staircase 3 to bridge; Andrews tells Smith ship will sink in 1–1.5 hours
12.25 am – Smith tells Phillips to call for help and gives ship’s position
c. 12.30 am – Smith speaks to J.J. Astor
12.30 am – Charles Joughin arrives on the boat deck and goes to Boat No. 10.
12.30 am – E Deck starts to flood
c. 12.40 am – Boat 7 on the starboard side is first boat lowered
12.45 am – Boat 5 leaves
c. 12.45 – Joseph Wheat sees five or six men at the stern end of Scotand Road carrying and dragging boxes and bags
12.49 am – Smith in the wheelhouse told Carpathia on way; Smith follows Bride back to the Marconi cabin
c.12.50 am – Captain Smith visits Marconi suite and works out position of Carpathia
c. 12.50 am? – Frederick Dent Ray goes down back stairway to Scotland Road and fetches an overcoat from his quarters on the port side on E Deck; he returns forward along Scotland Road and finds it empty and sees Scotland Road flooded up to the main stairway; he sees nobody on the starboard side
12.55 am – Boat 3 lowered
1 am – D Deck starts to flood
1:05 am – Boat 1 lowered with only 12 people including Sir Cosmo Duff-Gordon and his wife
c. 1.10 am – Boiler Room 5 floods with water from Boiler Room 6; Fireman Barrett escapes
c. 1.15 am – Thomas Patrick Dillon leaves the engine room and makes his way to the aft well deck
1.20 am – Captain Smith present for lowering of Boat 8
1.25 am – the bow section of the Titanic starts to slowly go underwater
1.30 am – Captain Smith visits wireless cabin and reports engine room flooding
c. 1.30 am – Albert Victor Pearcey (Pantry Steward) leaves Scotland Road largely empty
1:40 am – Boat 13 launched
c. 1.45 am – Joseph Boxhall placed in charge of Boat 2, lowered from the port side with Captain Smith present, who shouts at boats nearby to return
1.50 am – Boat 4 (port) launched
c. 1.50 am – Boat 10 launched on port side
c. 1.55 am – Charles Joughin in his room via Scotland road on E deck
c. 2.00 am – Bruce Ismay leaves ship in Collapsible C
c. 2.05 am – Charles Joughin on B deck throws about 50 deck chairs through the large ports
2:05 am – Collapsible Boat D (port) launched
2:10 am – Charles Joughin on A deck pantry, drinking water, hears a “crash as if something had buckled, as if part of the ship had buckled, and then I heard a rush overhead”
2.10 am – Frederick M. Hoyt jumps overboard and is picked up by Collapsible Boat D
2.10–2.15 am – top of the Grand Staircase floods
c. 2:10 am – Captain Smith with megaphone orders “every man for himself”; he visits Marconi suite and tells Jack Phillips and Harold Bride to abandon their posts
2:15 am – Charles Joughin on the poop deck near the rails sees the time is 2:15 am
2.15 am – Titanic’s angle in the water increases rapidly as water poured into previously unflooded parts of the ship through deck hatches
c. 2.15 am – Harold Bride from top of the officers’ quarters sees Captain Smith dive into the ocean; Lightoller dives into the sea and reaches Collapsible B
c. 2.16 am? – Charles Joughin falls off the rails on the stern?; First Officer William Murdoch shoots himself
2.17 am – the Grand Staircase dome implodes under water pressure
c. 2.17 am – lights go out; forward funnel collapses
c. 2.18 am – ship breaks in two; the stern settles backwards
c. 2.18 am? – Charles Joughin sees ship give “great list over to port and threw everybody in a bunch except myself”?
2.20 am – Titanic sinks (5.22 am GMT London)
2.20–4.10 am – passengers and crew in the water
4.10–9:00 am – rescue of passengers by the Carpathia
15 April 1912 – 5.22 am GMT London: Titanic sinks

18 April 1912 – evening, Carpathia arrives at Pier 54 in New York

19 April–25 May 1912 – US Senate inquiry on the Titanic (subcommittee of the Senate’s Commerce Committee), chaired by Senator William Alden Smith; hearings begin in New York and later move to Washington, D.C.

20 April 1912 – death of Bram Stoker at No. 26 St George’s Square, Pimlico, London

24 April 1912 – mutiny of RMS Olympic crew: 284 firemen went on strike

2 May–3 July 1912 – inquiry into sinking of the RMS Titanic by the British Wreck Commissioner on behalf of the British Board of Trade, overseen by High Court judge Lord Mersey, held at London Scottish Drill Hall, at 59 Buckingham Gate, London

10 May 1912 – Friday: Charles Joughin gives testimony at the British inquiry into the Titanic

20–23 May 1912 – Charles Lightoller (Second Officer) gives testimony at the British inquiry into the Titanic

c. June 1912–1913 – Thomas Edward Lawrence stays at Carchemish for four excavation seasons

4–5 June 1912 – J. Bruce Ismay gives testimony at the British inquiry into the Titanic

30 July 1912 – final report of British inquiry into the Titanic published

August 1912 – Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić move back to Zurich

autumn 1912–summer 1913 – Karl Julius Beloch is professor of ancient history at the University of Leipzig:
21 January 1879–1912 – Karl Julius Beloch is associate professor at University of Rome (full professor of ancient history from 1891–1912)
c. November 1913 – Karl Julius Beloch returns to the University of Rome
c. November 1913–1 February 1929 – Karl Julius Beloch is Professor at the University of Rome
8 October 1912–30 May 1913 – First Balkan War between the Balkan League (Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) and the Ottoman Empire

9 October 1912 – White Star withdraws Olympic from service and sends it to Belfast for a refit

5 November 1912 – United States presidential election of 1912; the candidates were President William Howard Taft (Republican Party); Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive Party / “Bull Moose Party”); Woodrow Wilson (Democrat Party)

4 December 1912 – death of Archibald Gracie IV

January 1913 – J. Bruce Ismay buys Costelloe Lodge, Casla, Ireland

19 March 1913 – premiere in Germany at the opening night of the Ufa-Pavillon am Nollendorfplatz (Berlin’s first purpose-built, free-standing cinema) of the Italian film Quo Vadis directed by Enrico Guazzoni for Cines

26 April 1913 – murder of Mary Phagan in Atlanta, Georgia in the National Pencil Company

29 June–10 August 1913 – Second Balkan War between Bulgaria and Serbia, Greece and Romania; it ends in defeat for Bulgaria

30 June 1913 – J. Bruce Ismay resigns as president of the IMM and as chairman of the White Star Line

c. June 1913–summer 1936 – J. Bruce Ismay lives in Costelloe Lodge, Casla, Ireland

11 June 1913–1938 – service years of the SS Imperator of the Hamburg America Line (Hamburg Amerikanische Paketfahrt Aktien Gesellschaft)

July 1913 – Max Planck and Walther Nernst invite Einstein to come to Berlin

7 July 1913 – Bram Stoker’s library auctioned by Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge

10 August 1913 – Treaty of Bucharest

28 July–26 August 1913 – trial of Frank at Fulton County Superior Court

15 September 1913 – death of Arminius Vámbéry at the age of 81 in Budapest

c. November 1913 – Karl Julius Beloch returns to the University of Rome

c. November 1913–1 February 1929 – Karl Julius Beloch is Professor at the University of Rome
21 January 1879–1912 – Karl Julius Beloch is associate professor at University of Rome (full professor of ancient history from 1891–1912)
c. 1914–December 1923 – Karl Julius Beloch’s teaching suspended
December 1923 – Karl Julius Beloch appointed professor of Greek history again at the University of Rome
30 November 1924 – Karl Julius Beloch formally restored as professor of Greek history at the University of Rome
1 February 1929 – death of Karl Julius Beloch in Rome at his desk
1913–1914 – Roosevelt–Rondon-Cheerie-Jodi O’Rodio Scientific Expedition, led by Theodore Roosevelt and Cândido Rondon, to the Rio Roosevelt in a remote area of the Brazilian Amazon basin

winter 1913–1914 – Thomas Edward Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) participates in the Archaeological Survey of Sinai

January 1914 – Woolley and Thomas Edward Lawrence co-opted by the British military as an archaeological smokescreen for a British military survey of the Negev Desert

February 1914 – Frank Russell leaves Marion Somerville for the Countess Elizabeth von Arnim (1866–1939)

March–May 1914 – Thomas Edward Lawrence works again at Carchemish

30 March 1914 – death of Francis Albert Rollo Russell in his London home

April 1914 – publication of the short story collection Dracula’s Guest; Florence moves to 4 Kinnerton Studios, Knightsbridge

April 1914 – Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić move to Berlin; Einstein is director at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (1914–1932) and professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin

c. 15 May–28 July 1914 – fictional date of Stefan Zweig’s novel Beware of Pity, set in a small garrison town on the border with Hungary (Anton Hofmiller is posted to the town in November 1913)

29 May 1914 – 2.14 am: sinking of the Empress of Ireland near the mouth of Saint Lawrence River after collision in thick fog with the Norwegian collier SS Storstad

1914–1932 – Albert Einstein is director at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics and professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin

late 1914 – Mileva Marić returns to Zürich with Albert Einstein’s sons and separates from Einstein

1915 – International Mercantile Marine Co went into receivership

8 February 1915 – release date of The Birth of a Nation directed by D. W. Griffith

17 August 1915 – lynching of Leo Frank at Frey’s Gin, two miles east of Marietta, Georgia

27 October 1915–9 February 1923 – Billy Hughes is Prime Minister of Australia

23 December 1915–21 November 1916 – service years of the HMHS Britannic of the White Star Line’s Olympic class of steamships

11 February 1916 – marriage of Frank Russell (2nd Earl Russell) and Countess Elizabeth von Arnim (1866–1939); she leaves not long after

5 June 1916 – death of Herbert Kitchener (1st Earl Kitchener) after the HMS Hampshire hit a mine en route to the Russian port of Arkhangelsk

15 September 1916 – expulsion of William Morris Hughes from the Australian Labour Party, after Hughes and 24 others had left the party

16 October 1916 – Lawrence of Arabia sent to the Hejaz on an intelligence-gathering mission led by Ronald Storrs

1917 – Ernest Oppenheimer founds the Anglo American mining company in Johannesburg, South Africa, with financial backing from the American bank J.P. Morgan & Co.

14 January 1917 – first meeting of Provisional Council of State, the first government of the Kingdom of Poland

17 February 1917–1931 – the period of the Nationalist Party of Australia, a merger between the conservative Commonwealth Liberal Party and the National Labour Party

8–16 March 1917 – February Revolution in Petrograd, mass demonstrations and armed clashes with police; on 12 March the Russian army sides with the revolutionaries. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated and the Russian Council of Ministers was replaced by a Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov

15 March 1917 – abdication of Tsar Nicholas II

9 April 1917 – Lenin leaves Zurich on a special train provided by the German government

6 July 1917 – fall of Aqaba

August 1917 – Benito Mussolini discharged from hospital in Milan

2 November 1917 – Balfour Declaration: letter from UK Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour to Lord Rothschild for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland

7 November 1917–25 October 1922 – the Russian Civil War

7 November 1917 – the October Revolution (Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution), the armed insurrection in Petrograd on 25 October 1917 (under the Old Julian calendar); the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government in Petrograd, capital of Russia) captured

9 November 1917 – text of Balfour Declaration published in the press

15 December 1917 – Moldavian Democratic Republic proclaimed

1918–1920 – Ronald Syme attends New Plymouth Boys’ High School, New Plymouth, Taranaki, New Zealand

16 January 1918 – Romanian Army begins a full-scale invasion of Bessarabia: occupation of the whole region completed in early March

25 January 1918 – Ukrainian People’s Republic (Ukrainian National Republic) proclaims its independence from the Russian Republic

3 March 1918 – the peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed by new Bolshevik government of Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire) to end Russia's participation in World War I

9 April 1918 – during chaos of the Russian Civil War, the Bessarabian legislature votes in favor of the Union of Bessarabia with Romania

14 May 1918 – death of James Gordon Bennett Jr. (10 May 1841–14 May 1918), editor of New York Herald from 1 January 1867–1918

July 1918 – Oswald Spengler publishes volume 1 of Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes)

17 July 1918 – execution of Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) at Yekaterinburg

autumn 1918–summer 1921 – James Hilton attends Christ’s College, Cambridge, and graduates with a history degree

1 October 1918 – Lawrence of Arabia enters Damascus around 9 am

4 October 1918 – Lawrence of Arabia leaves Damascus for Cairo; promoted to colonel

15 October 1918 – Lawrence of Arabia leaves Egypt for England

c. 24 October 1918 – Lawrence of Arabia arrives in England

29 October–9 November 1918 – the first stage of the November Revolution, a civil conflict in the Germany at the end of the First World War

30 October 1918 – Lawrence of Arabia has a private audience with King George V and refuses all honours for his part in the Arab Revolt

31 October 1918 – Aster Revolution (Chrysanthemum Revolution) in Hungary led by Count Mihály Károlyi: Hungarian National Council (HNC) protesters, with support of Hungarian soldiers, wearing asters seize public buildings in Budapest; Prime Minister Sándor Wekerle resigns

3 November 1918–11 August 1919 – second stage of the November Revolution, a civil conflict in the Germany at the end of the First World War

9 November 1918 – Wilhelm II abdicates as emperor of Germany while at the Imperial Army headquarters in Spa, Belgium

9 November 1918 – proclamation of the German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann; Friedrich Ebert assumes the chancellery

9 November 1918–13 February 1919 – Friedrich Ebert is Chancellor of Germany (Social Democratic Party of Germany)
President of Germany (1919–1945)
11 February 1919–28 February 1925 – Friedrich Ebert (SDP)
28 February–12 March 1925 – Hans Luther (acing, non-partisan)
12 March–12 May 1925 – Walter Simons (acting, non-partisan)
12 May 1925–2 August 1934 – Paul von Hindenburg (non-partisan)
11 November 1918 – First World War ended

16 November 1918 – provisional government of Count Mihály Károlyi proclaims the Hungarian People’s Republic with Károlyi named as provisional president

16 November 1918–11 January 1919 – Mihály Károlyi is acting President of Hungary

16 November 1918–8 August 1919 – First Hungarian Republic:
11 January 1919–21 March 1919 – Mihály Károlyi is 1st President of Hungary
21 March–1 August 1919 – Hungarian Soviet Republic
April 1919 – Czechoslovak control over Carpathian Ruthenia after Czechoslovak troops crush the local militias of the newly formed Hungarian Soviet Republic
16 November 1919 – the army of right-wing former admiral Miklós Horthy marches into Budapest and takes control of Hungary
7 December 1918 – Lawrence travels to Paris to bring Emir Feisal to England

14 December 1918 – the UK general election of 1918:
Party | Leader | Seats
Coalition Government
Coalition Conservative | Bonar Law | 332
Coalition Liberal | David Lloyd George | 127
Coalition National Democratic | George Nicoll Barnes | 9
Coalition Labour | 4

Labour | William Adamson | 57
Liberal | H. H. Asquith | 36
Conservative | Bonar Law | 47
Sinn Féin | Éamon de Valera | 73
Independent Labour | 2
14 December 1918–19 October 1922 – David Lloyd George continues as British Prime Minister

1919–1920 – Biennio Rosso (Two Red Years), two-year period of intense social conflict in Italy

4–15 January 1919 – the Spartacist uprising (January uprising), a power struggle between the moderate Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) led by Friedrich Ebert and the radical communists of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (founders of the Spartacist League)

10 January–7 June 1919 – John Maynard Keynes is principal Treasury representative at the Versailles Peace Conference

11 January 1919–21 March 1919 – Mihály Károlyi is 1st President of Hungary

15 January 1919 – execution of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht

18 January 1919–21 January 1920 – Versailles Peace Conference (Paris Peace Conference) which ends with the inaugural General Assembly of the League of Nations on 21 January 1920; the treaties:
28 June 1919 – Treaty of Versailles with Germany
10 September 1919 – Treaty of Saint-Germain with Austria
27 November 1919 – Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria
4 June 1920 – Treaty of Trianon with Hungary
10 August 1920 – Treaty of Sèvres with Turkey (revised by the Treaty of Lausanne on 24 July 1923).
January–May 1919 – Lawrence of Arabia attends Paris Peace Conference

13 February 1919–20 June 1919 – Philipp Scheidemann (Social Democratic Party) is Chancellor of Germany:
Reichskanzler of the Weimar Republic
13 February 1919–21 June 1920 – Social Democratic Party

13 February 1919–20 June 1919 – Philipp Scheidemann (Social Democratic Party)
21 June 1919 26 March 1920 – Gustav Bauer (Social Democratic Party)
27 March 1920–21 June 1920 – Hermann Müller (Social Democratic Party)

25 June 1920–4 May 1921 – Constantin Fehrenbach (Centre Party)
10 May 1921–14 November 1922 – Joseph Wirth (Centre Party)

22 November 1922–12 August 1923 – Wilhelm Cuno (non-partisan)
13 August 1923–30 November 1923 – Gustav Stresemann (German People’s Party)
30 November 1923–15 January 1925 – Wilhelm Marx (Centre Party)
15 January 1925–12 May 1926 – Hans Luther (non-partisan)
17 May 1926–12 June 1928 – Wilhelm Marx (Centre Party)
28 June 1928– 27 March 1930 – Hermann Müller (Social Democratic Party)
30 March 1930–30 May 1932 – Heinrich Brüning (Centre Party)
14 February 1919 – Albert Einstein divorces his first wife Mileva Marić (19 December 1875–4 August 1948), after being separated for five years

23 March 1919 – Mussolini re-forms the Milan fascio as the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento (Italian Combat Squad), consisting of 200 members

8 May 1919–November 1938 – Carpathian Ruthenia is part of Czechoslovakia:
c. 895–April 1919 – Carpathian Ruthenia part of Hungary or Transylvania
1280–1320 – north-western part of Carpathian Ruthenia part of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia
November 1918–July 1919 – West Ukrainian People’s Republic claims Carpathian Ruthenia
April 1919 – Czechoslovak control after Czechoslovak troops with Romanian forces defeated and crushed the local militias of the newly formed Hungarian Soviet Republic
April 1919–July/August 1919 – Transcarpathia occupied by Romania
8 May 1919 – Carpathian Ruthenia become part of Czechoslovakia in a general meeting of representatives from councils
8 May 1919–November 1938 – Carpathian Ruthenia is part of Czechoslovakia in a general meeting of representatives from councils
2 November 1938 – by First Vienna Award Czechoslovakia cedes small southern area of Carpathian Rus to Hungary
15 March 1939–18 March 1939 – Republic of Carpatho-Ukraine under president Avgustyn Voloshyn
18 March 1939– October 1944 – Hungary annexes Carpathian Ruthenia
28 October 1944 – Soviet Union liberated Carpathian Ruthenia
26 November 1944 – committee led by Ivan Ivanovich Turyanitsa proclaims the separation of Carpathian Ruthenia from Czechoslovakia and to join the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
18 June 1919 – Germany given ultimatum to sign Treaty of Versailles

21 June 1919 – the scuttling of the German fleet by order of Admiral Ludwig von Reuter at the Royal Navy’s base at Scapa Flow, Scotland; the German High Seas Fleet had been interned under the terms of the Armistice

22 June 1919 – the German Reichstag ratifies the Versailles Treaty

28 June 1919 – the Versailles Treaty is signed in the Hall of Mirrors in France

20 July 1919 – birth of Edmund Percival Hillary

11 August 1919 – the Weimar Constitution is announced

25 August 1919 – Ludwig Wittgenstein returns to his family in Vienna

October 1919 – Robert Graves goes up to Oxford University to read English Language and Literature

16 November 1919 – the army of right-wing former admiral Miklós Horthy marches into Budapest and takes control of Hungary

December 1919 – John Maynard Keynes publishes The Economic Consequences of the Peace

1920–1934 – Ludwig von Mises holds a private seminar (Privatseminar) in his office at the Kammer in Vienna, held fortnightly in university term, on Fridays from 7 to 10 p.m.

1920 – R. H. Tawney’s “The Sickness of the Acquisitive Society” published in England by the Fabian Society

1920–1926 – Ludwig Wittgenstein works as a school teacher; Wittgenstein given his first job as a primary school teacher in Trattenbach

1920 – Frank P. Ramsey won a scholarship to study mathematics in Trinity College, Cambridge

January 1920–July 1921 – the US Recession of 1920–1921

26 February 1920 – release date of The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, directed by Robert Wiene

1 March 1920–15 October 1944 – Miklós Horthy is regent of the Kingdom of Hungary

April 1920 – Ludwig von Mises publishes his essay “Die Wirtschaftsrechnung im sozialistischen Gemeinwesen” [Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth] in Archiv fur Sozialwissenschaften, a paper that starts the Socialist Economic Calculation Debate

August 1920 – Bertrand Russell travels to Russia as part of an official delegation sent by the British government

August 1920–August 1921 – Bertrand Russell in China

1921 – Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung is published in Annalen der Naturphilosophische

1921–1922 – Ronald Syme attends Victoria University College of Wellington, enrolled in a BA course with majors in Latin and French

January 1921–c. October 1924 – Ezra Pound lives in Paris

4 March 1921–2 August 1923 – Warren G. Harding is 29th President of the United States

April 1921 – the final version of R. H. Tawney’s Acquisitive Society published

April 1921 – Frank P. Ramsey elected as a new member of the Apostles

April–25 October 1921 – the 1921 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition (consisting of Charles Howard-Bury, Harold Raeburn, Alexander Kellas, George Mallory, Guy Bullock, Sandy Wollaston, Alexander Heron, Henry Morshead and Edward Wheeler)

4 May 1921 – the Federal Reserve Bank of New York cuts the discount rate from 7% to 6.5%

May 1921–November 1921 – the severe depreciation in the exchange value of the mark as the German government begins paying large cash reparations payments

5 May 1921 – London Ultimatum

15 May 1921 – 1921 Italian general election; Mussolini wins election to the Chamber of Deputies for the first time

June 1921–January 1924 – hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic

31 July 1921 – the Treaty of Trianon effective, the peace agreement signed 4 June 1920 between the Allies and Hungary

2 August 1921 – John Maynard Keynes publishes A Treatise on Probability

23 August 1921 – accession of Faisal I bin Hussein as king of Iraq:
Kings of Iraq
23 August 1921–8 September 1933 – Faisal I bin Hussein
8 September 1933–4 April 1939 – Ghazi bin Faisal
4 April 1939–14 July 1958 – Faisal II of Iraq
14 July 1958 – the 14 July Revolution (the 1958 Iraqi coup d’état) overthrowing the Hashemite monarchy established by King Faisal I in 1921
26 August 1921 – Bertrand Russell arrives back in England

December 1921 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) leaves Eton

1922 – Moritz Schlick assumes the chair of Naturphilosophie at the University of Vienna (previously held by Ludwig Boltzmann and Ernst Mach)

2 February 1922 – James Joyce’s modernist novel Ulysses is published in Paris (first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918–December 1920)

6 February 1922 – Washington Naval Treaty signed by the governments of the UK, the US, France, Italy, and Japan:
17 August 1923 – treaty effective
31 December 1936 – expiration
28 February 1922 – Egypt recognised as sovereign state by the British

4 March 1922 – release date of the German Expressionist horror film Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror), directed by F. W. Murnau

10 April–19 May 1922 – the Genoa Economic and Financial Conference, held in Genoa, Italy, to plan the restoration of Europe after World War I; this is attended by John Maynard Keynes

July 1922 – David Lloyd George moves into Bron-y-de house, in Churt, Surrey

12 July 1922 – Germany demands a moratorium on reparation payments

August 1922 – Lawrence of Arabia enlisted in the Royal Air Force as an aircraftman

September 1922 – Ludwig Wittgenstein moves to teach in a secondary school in Hassbach; in November 1922, Wittgenstein moves to teach at a primary school at Puchberg in the Schneeberg mountains

October 1922–1925 – Joan Robinson at Girton College, Cambridge

October 1922 – Lydia Lopokova moves into a flat at 41 Gordon Square near 46 Gordon Square (Keynes’ London home)

19 October 1922 – the Carlton Club meeting, formal meeting of Conservative MPs vote to end the Coalition with the Liberal Party under David Lloyd George

19 October 1922 – David Lloyd George leaves office as British PM (PM from 6 December 1916–19 October 1922):
23 October 1922–22 May 1923 – Andrew Bonar Law (Conservative)
23 May 1923–16 January 1924 – Stanley Baldwin (Conservative)
22 January 1924–4 November 1924 – Ramsay MacDonald (Labour)
4 November 1924–5 June 1929 – Stanley Baldwin
27–28 October 1922 – 30,000 Fascist blackshirts gather in Rome to demand the resignation of liberal Prime Minister Luigi Facta and the appointment of a new Fascist government

28 October 1922 – King Victor Emmanuel III refuses the government request to declare martial law, which led to Facta’s resignation

30 October 1922 – Mussolini arrives in Rome at 10:50 a.m.; he meets the king; he gives a speech proclaiming his new government; at 7 p.m. Mussolini and members of his cabinet sworn in

November 1922 – Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung is published in an English translation as Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

November 1922–July 1927 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) in Burma working in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma

November 1922 – the Swedish Academy of Sciences awards Albert Einstein the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics

26 November 1922 – Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon open the tomb of Tutankhamun

December 1922 – T. S. Eliot’s poem The Waste Land published as a book (first appeared in the United Kingdom in the October issue of The Criterion)

27 December 1922 – France occupies the Ruhr to force payment of war reparations from Germany in kind

1923 – Frank P. Ramsey graduates from Cambridge

1923 – Karl Julius Beloch resumes teaching at University of Rome

1923–1924 – Ronald Syme becomes assistant lecturer in Classics at the Auckland University College; in late 1924 he graduates with Double First Class Honours in Latin and French

11 January 1923 – the Occupation of the Ruhr by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 when Weimar Republic fails to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I

March 1923–May 1924 – Friedrich Hayek visits America

May 1923 – Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport opened for mixed civilian use

2 August 1923–4 March 1929 – Calvin Coolidge (Republican) is 30th President of the United States

September 1923 – Frank P. Ramsey visits Wittgenstein in Vienna

12 September 1923 – Southern Rhodesia annexed by Britain

8 November 1923 – the Beer Hall Putsch, a failed coup attempt by the Adolf Hitler with Erich Ludendorff, to seize power in Munich, Bavaria

6 December 1923 – the United Kingdom general election of 1923. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 258
Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 191
Liberal | H. H. Asquith | 158
Nationalist | Joseph Devlin | 3.
After the 1923 election, the Conservatives had lost their majority. When they lost a vote of confidence in January 1924 King George V calls on MacDonald to form a minority Labour government, with the support of the Liberals

11 December 1923 – John Maynard Keynes publishes A Tract on Monetary Reform

1924–1933 – Karl Polanyi is senior editor of the Der Österreichische Volkswirt (The Austrian Economist) magazine in Vienna

January 1924 – end of the hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic

21 January 1924 – Stanley Baldwin (Conservative) defeated in a vote of confidence

21 January 1924 – death of Vladimir Lenin

22 January 1924–4 November 1924 – Ramsay MacDonald (Labour) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

12 February 1924 – Howard Carter opens the sarcophagus of king Tutankhamun

April–11 June 1924 – the 1924 British Mount Everest expedition (with Charles G. Bruce, George Mallory, Howard Somervell, Edward Norton, Geoffrey Bruce, George Ingle Finch and Andrew Irvine); the second expedition trying to ascend Mount Everest, with three failed attempts. On 8 June, George Mallory and Andrew Irvine disappeared on the third attempt

6 April 1924 – Italian general election 1924:
Party | Percentage | Seats
National List | 60.09% | 355
Italian People's Party | 9.01% | 39
Unitary Socialist Party | 5.90% | 24
National List bis | 4.85% | 19
Italian Socialist Party | 5.03% | 22
Communist Party of Italy | 3.74% | 19
May 1924 – Friedrich Hayek admitted into Mises’ Privatseminar in Vienna

26 May 1924 – enactment of the US Immigration Act of 1924 (or Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, and Asian Exclusion Act)

June 1924 – the premiere of Hamilton Deane’s play Dracula at the Grand Theatre, Derby

13 July 1924 – the death of Alfred Marshall (26 July 1842–13 July 1924)

July 1924 – Lytton Strachey and Dora Carrington move to Ham Spray House, near Marlborough, Wiltshire

29 August 1924 – the Dawes Plan agreed by Reichstag

September 1924 – John Maynard Keynes and Lydia Lopokova at Tilton house, South Downs near Lewes

October 1924 – Austrian release date of the 1924 Italian silent Quo Vadis directed by Gabriellino D’Annunzio and Georg Jacoby, starring Emil Jannings, Elena Sangro and Lillian Hall-Davis

October 1924 – Ezra Pound moves to Rapallo, Italy near Genoa

October 1924–3 May 1945 – Ezra Pound lives in Rapallo, Italy

23 October 1924 – the Chinese warlord Feng Yuxiang seizes Beijing in a coup

25 October 1924 – the Daily Mail reports a purported letter from Grigory Zinoviev (President of the Communist International) to the British representative on the Comintern Executive

29 October 1924 – United Kingdom general election held. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 412
Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 151
Liberal | H. H. Asquith | 40
Constitutionalist | - | 7
Communist | Albert Inkpin | 1.
Churchill stands as MP for Epping for the Constitutionalist party

29 October 1924–5 July 1945 – Winston Churchill is Member of Parliament for Epping

4 November 1924–5 June 1929 – Stanley Baldwin (Conservative) is British Prime Minister

5 November 1924 – the soldiers of the Chinese warlord Feng Yuxiang expel Puyi, the last Qing emperor of China, from the Forbidden City

6 November 1924–4 June 1929 – Winston Churchill is Chancellor of the Exchequer

6 November 1924 – John Maynard Keynes delivers the Sidney Ball lecture at Oxford university on “The End of Laissez-Faire

7 November 1924 – death of Augustus Henry Weikman (Titanic’s barber) in Burlington County, Pennsylvania

30 November 1924 – Karl Julius Beloch formally restored as professor of Greek history at the University of Rome

winter 1924–1936 – the Vienna Circle, a meeting of logical positivists, is held in weekly discussions. The phases were as follows:
1921–1924 – irregular private phase with Hans Hahn and Moritz Schlick
1924–1928 – the Schlick Circle (non-public phase of the Vienna Circle)
1928–1934 – Verein Ernst Mach
The circle broke up from 1934 to 1936

20 December 1924 – Adolf Hitler released from Landsberg Prison in Germany

1 January 1925 – Edwin Hubble announces his discovery that galaxies exist outside the Milky Way

3 January 1925 – Mussolini gives a speech in the Italian Chamber of Deputies; this marks the beginning of fascist dictatorship

12 March 1925 – death of Sun Yat-sen (Premier of the Kuomintang of China 10 October 1919–12 March 1925), which leaves a vacuum in the Kuomintang

3 May 1925 – Oswald Mosley gives a speech on the Birmingham Proposals at the Birmingham Town Hall

13 May 1925 – the UK Gold Standard Act 1925

20 May 1925 – C. S. Lewis elected to a fellowship in Magdalen College, Oxford

20 May 1925–December 1954 – C. S. Lewis is professor of English Literature at Magdalen College, Oxford, with rooms in the New Building (built 1773)

summer 1925 – Ludwig Wittgenstein visits England and stays with Keynes in Cambridge and Eccles in Manchester

July 1925 – French and Belgian troops evacuate the Ruhr

1 July 1925 – Joseph F. Rock publishes “Experiences of a Lone Geographer: An American Agricultural Explorer Makes His Way through Brigand-Infested Central China en Route to the Amne Machin Range, Tibet” in National Geographic

10 July 1925 – in Dayton, Tennessee, the “Monkey Trial” of John Thomas Scopes (a high school science teacher) accused of teaching evolution in violation of a Tennessee state law begins; on July 21, Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution and fined $100; in 1927, Tennessee Supreme Court overturns the verdict

26 July 1925 – death of William Jennings Bryan in Dayton, Tennessee

4 August 1925 – John Maynard Keynes marries Lydia Lopokova at St Pancreas registry office; they take Oatlands house, near Iford for the summer

8 August 1925 – birth of the ancient historian Ernst Badian in Austria

August 1925 – John Maynard Keynes publishes The Economic Consequences of Mr Churchill

August 1925 – Oswald Mosley publishes Revolution by Reason

September 1925 – John Maynard Keynes and Lydia Lopokova visit Russia for two weeks; they visit Leningrad and Moscow; they return to England to live at 46 Gordon Square, Keynes’ London home

October 1925–1927 – Ronald Syme educated at Oriel College, Oxford

October 1925 – John Maynard Keynes decides to take Tilton house near Lewes

October 1925 – J. R. R. Tolkien appointed Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College, Oxford

3 October 1925 – birth of Gore Vidal in the cadet hospital of the U.S. Military Academy, at West Point, New York

November 1925 – Henry Watson Fowler moves to Hinton, St George, Somerset

December 1925 – John Maynard Keynes publishes A Short View of Russia

10 December 1925 – George Bernard Shaw awarded Nobel Prize

1926 – fictional date of the film The Mummy, directed by Stephen Sommers, starring Brendan Fraser, Rachel Weisz, John Hannah

1926 – from 1926 Ludwig Wittgenstein takes part in discussions of the Vienna Circle

1926 – Frank Plumpton Ramsey becomes university lecturer in mathematics at King’s College, Cambridge; later he becomes Director of Studies in mathematics

17 January 1926 – Ayn Rand (Alisa Rosenbaum) leaves Russia for New York

19 February 1926 – Ayn Rand arrives in New York

3 March 1926 – John Maynard Keynes takes possession of Tilton house, South Downs near Lewes which he rents in a 21 year lease

20 March 1926 – the Canton Coup (or Zhongshan Incident), the purge of Communists in the Chinese Nationalist army in Guangzhou by Chiang Kai-shek

4–13 May 1926 – the 1926 general strike in the United Kingdom, called by the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) opposing the British government’s wage reduction for 1.2 million locked-out coal miners

summer 1926 – Ludwig Lachmann visits the University of Zurich and becomes interested in Austrian economics

5 June 1926 – Chiang Kai-shek named commander-in-chief of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army

July 1926 – Hogarth Press publishes The End of Laissez-Faire by John Maynard Keynes

25 September 1926 – John Maynard Keynes meets with David Lloyd George at Churt with 14 others to discuss a new Liberal radical program

October 1926–1930 – Anthony Blunt at Trinity College, Cambridge

October 1926–1939 – period of the Cambridge Five at Cambridge university:
October 1926–1930 – Anthony Blunt at Trinity College, Cambridge as an undergraduate
October 1926–1939 – Anthony Blunt’s time at Trinity College, Cambridge
May 1928 – Anthony Blunt elected to the Cambridge Apostles
October 1929–June 1933 – Kim Philby at Trinity College, Cambridge to read History and Economics
October 1930–April 1935 – Guy Burgess arrives at Trinity College, Cambridge
October 1931–October 1934 – Donald Maclean at Trinity College, Cambridge
October 1932 – Anthony Blunt elected a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
November 1932 – Guy Burgess elected to the Apostles
1 October 1934–1936 – John Cairncross at Trinity College, Cambridge
February 1937–July 1939 – Kim Philby in Spain as a journalist in the Spanish Civil War, from the side of the pro-Franco forces
May 1937–1940 – Kim Philby is a correspondent for The Times
October 1926–1939 – Anthony Blunt’s time at Trinity College, Cambridge:
October 1926–1930 – Anthony Blunt at Trinity College, Cambridge as an undergraduate
October 1927 – Anthony Blunt begins the study of modern languages
May 1928 – Anthony Blunt elected to the Cambridge Apostles
October 1932 – Anthony Blunt elected a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge
1933 – Anthony Blunt visits the Soviet Union
June 1940 – Anthony Blunt recruited by MI5 as a military liaison officer
March 1945 – Anthony Blunt sent to Schloss Friedrichshof in Germany to retrieve letters of Queen Victoria and possibly letters from the Duke of Windsor
1 April 1945–1972 – Anthony Blunt is Surveyor of the King’s Pictures
1947 – Anthony Blunt becomes director of the Courtauld Institute
23 April 1964 – Anthony Blunt secretly confessed to MI5 about his spying
15, 21 November 1979 – Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher reveals Blunt’s guilt as a spy
26 March 1983 – death of Anthony Blunt of heart attack at his London home
8 November 1926 – arrest of Antonio Gramsci by Italian fascists

December 1926 – Piero Sraffa publishes “The Laws of Returns under Competitive Conditions” in the Economic Journal (vol. 36, 1926)

3–14 December 1926 – Agatha Christie disappears from her house in Styles, Sunningdale, Berkshire; she is found on 14 December 1926 at the Swan Hydropathic Hotel in Harrogate, Yorkshire

1 January 1927 – Royal Mail Steam Packet Company becomes new owner of the White Star Line from International Mercantile Marine

7 January 1927 – the first transatlantic telephone call from New York City to London

10 January 1927 – release date of the German expressionist science fiction film Metropolis, directed by Fritz Lang

14 February 1927 – Deane Hamilton’s play Dracula opens in London at the Little Theatre

April 1927 – Chiang Kai-shek makes Nanjing the new Kuomintang capital of China

April 1927 – Nicholas Kaldor arrived in London to study at the LSE; Kaldor enrols for a BSc. in economics from October 1927

25 April 1927 – birth of Albert Uderzo in Fismes in the Marne department of France

4 May 1927 – filing of articles of incorporation of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)

20–21 May 1927 – Charles Lindbergh makes the first non-stop trans-Atlantic flight from New York to Paris in the monoplane Spirit of St. Louis

22 June 1927–16 February 1959 – service years of the SS Île de France, built in Saint-Nazaire, France, for the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique (CGT or French Line)

July 1927 – Piero Sraffa arrived in London; Sraffa accepts an offer by Keynes to take a lectureship at Cambridge university

1 August 1927–22 December 1936 – first phase of Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC)

September 1927 – Bertrand Russell and Dora Russell (Dora Black) rent Telegraph House at Harting near Petersfield in Hampshire; they set up an experimental school at Beacon Hill; Russell involved from 1927 to 1932

October 1927 – Anthony Blunt begins the study of modern languages

October 1927 – opening of the Broadway adaptation of Dracula at the Fulton Theatre (New York) starring Bela Lugosi; it runs until 19 May 1928

6 October 1927 – the release date of The Jazz Singer, the first feature-length motion picture with synchronized sound, directed by Alan Crosland and produced by Warner Bros

15 February 1928 – death of Herbert Henry Asquith

7 March – beginning of the Shakhty Trial in the Soviet Union; Soviet police arrest engineers in the town of Shakhty, who are accused of sabotaging the Soviet economy

11 March 1928 – Montague Summers’ The Vampire: His Kith and Kin published by K. Paul Trench

April 1928 – John Maynard Keynes visits Russia

April 1928–December 1929 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) in Paris

3 May–11 May 1928 – the Jinan incident, armed conflict between the Japanese Army (with Northern Chinese warlords) and the Kuomintang’s southern army in Jinan, the capital of Shandong

May 1928 – Anthony Blunt elected to the Cambridge Apostles

17 June 1928 – Amelia Earhart is flown across the Atlantic by Wilmer Stultz (with copilot/mechanic Louis Gordon) from Trepassey Harbor, Newfoundland to Pwll near Burry Port, South Wales during a flight of 20 hours, 40 minutes in a Fokker F.VIIb/3m

28 June 1928–27 March 1930 – Hermann Müller is Chancellor of Germany (Social Democratic Party of Germany):
Reichskanzler of the Weimar Republic
30 March 1930–30 May 1932 – Heinrich Brüning is Chancellor (Centre Party)
1 June 1932–17 November 1932 – Franz von Papen (non-partisan)
3 December 1932–28 January 1933 – Kurt von Schleicher (non-partisan)
30 January 1933–30 April 1945 – Adolf Hitler
July 1928 – Joan Robinson arrives in London from India

21 July 1928 – death of Ellen Terry

27 August 1928 – the Kellogg–Briand Pact (or Pact of Paris) is signed by Germany, France, and the United States, a treaty that outlaws aggressive warfare

1 October 1928 – Stalin announces the First Five Year Plan

10 October 1928 – Chiang Kai-shek becomes director of the Chinese State Council

6 November 1928 – the US presidential election of 1928, between the Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover (Republican) and New York Governor Al Smith (Democratic)

7 December 1928 – birth of Noam Chomsky

1929 – Ronald Syme elected tutor and fellow in ancient history at Trinity College, Oxford

1929–1931 – the Untouchables under Eliot Ness work to end crimes of Al Capone by enforcing Prohibition laws

January 1929 – Ludwig Wittgenstein returned to Cambridge

10 January 1929–8 May 1930 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (Hergé) “Tintin in the Land of the Soviets” (“Tintin au pays des Soviets”) in Le Petit Vingtième

17 January 1929 – Popeye the Sailor created by Elzie Crisler Segar first appears in daily King Features comic strip, Thimble Theatre

February 1929 – Trotsky deported from the Soviet Union; he lives in Turkey from 1929 to 1933; in France from 1933 to 1935; in Norway from 1935 to 1936; in Mexico from 1936 to 1940

1 February 1929 – death of Karl Julius Beloch in Rome at his desk

11 February 1929 – the Lateran Treaty (Lateran Pacts of 1929) the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, settling the “Roman Question”; they were ratified by the Italian parliament ratified them on 7 June 1929; Vatican City is recognised as an independent state with financial compensation for the loss of the Papal States

14 February 1929 – the Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre in Chicago

March 1929 – Douglas Cole’s The Next Ten Years in British Social and Economic Policy is published

March 1929 – Lloyd George published a Liberal program in the “Orange Book – We Can Conquer Unemployment” drawn up by Keynes

4 March 1929 – Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as 31st President of the United States (president from 4 March 1929–4 March 1933)

7–22 March 1929 – George Orwell admitted to the Hôpital Cochin, Paris from bronchitis

15 April 1929 – Ayn Rand marries Frank O’Connor

10 May 1929 – the UK Parliament dissolved

10 May 1929 – Hubert Henderson and John Maynard Keynes publish Can Lloyd George do it?, a pamphlet in support of the Liberal campaign under the leadership of David Lloyd George

16 May 1929 – the 1st Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) for the best films of 1927 and 1928, held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles, California

21 May 1929 – death of Archibald Primrose (5th Earl of Rosebery) at The Durdans, Epsom, Surrey

30 May 1929 – 1929 United Kingdom general election was held; Winston Churchill stands as MP for Unionists. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 260
Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 287
Liberal | David Lloyd George | 59.
The UK Labour Party under Ramsay MacDonald wins 287 seats, but fails to secure a majority and forms a minority Labour government with Liberals

30 May 1929 – Cynthia (Cimmie) Mosley elected Labour MP for Stoke-on-Trent

5 June 1929–7 June 1935 – Ramsay MacDonald is British Prime Minister:
24 August–27 October 1931 – Ramsay MacDonald forms a National Government with Conservatives, Liberals and a new National Labour group
27 October 1931 – United Kingdom general election
5 November 1931–7 June 1935 – the Second National Ministry in office in the UK
7 June 1935–28 May 1937 – Stanley Baldwin is Prime Minister of Britain
7 June 1929 – a Committee headed by American industrialist Owen D. Young submits its first report with the Young Plan, a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I

August 1929–March 1933 – the contractionary phase of the US Great Depression

15–17 September 1929 – the First Conference on the Epistemology of the Exact Sciences of logical positivists, held in Prague; this marks the international establishment of the Vienna circle

October 1929 – publication of the official manifesto of the Vienna Circle called Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Der Wiener Kreis (The Scientific Conception of the World. The Vienna Circle)

October 1929 – Kim Philby goes to Trinity College, Cambridge to read History and Economics

October 1929 – Winston Churchill in New York

October 1929 – A. J. Ayer goes up to Christ Church College, Oxford

October 1929 – Joan Robinson and Austin Robinson return to Cambridge; from 1929–1930 Joan Robinson attends Piero Sraffa’s lectures

24 October 1929 – “Black Thursday” on the New York stock exchange, the beginning of the US Stock Market Crash of 1929

29 October 1929 – “Black Tuesday” on the New York stock exchange, the Wall Street Crash of 1929

5 November 1929 – appointment of the Macmillan Committee (the Committee on Finance and Industry) composed of Hugh Pattison Macmillan (chairman), Ernest Bevin, Lord Bradbury, R. H. Brand, Theodore Gregory, John Maynard Keynes, and Reginald McKenna

20 December 1929 – the De Beers board elects Ernest Oppenheimer as chairman of De Beers

1930 – Baron Philippe de Rothschild first sells the 1930 vintage under the “Mouton Cadet” label (from Philippe de Rothschild’s place as “cadet,” the youngest son of the family)

January 1930 – second Hague Conference in which the Young Plan is adopted

3 January 1930 – death of Julius Kaerst in Würzburg

24 January 1930 – the UK Labour government announces the establishment of the Economic Advisory Council

19 January 1930 – death of Frank Plumpton Ramsey

30 March 1930–30 May 1932 – Heinrich Brüning is Chancellor (Centre Party) of Germany:
Reichskanzler of the Weimar Republic
28 June 1928–27 March 1930 – Hermann Müller (Social Democratic Party of Germany)
30 March 1930–30 May 1932 – Heinrich Brüning is Chancellor (Centre Party)
1 June 1932–17 November 1932 – Franz von Papen (non-partisan)
3 December 1932–28 January 1933 – Kurt von Schleicher (non-partisan)
30 January 1933–30 April 1945 – Adolf Hitler
21 April 1930 – release of the US movie All Quiet on the Western Front, adapted from a novel by Erich Maria Remarque

24 April 1930 – marriage of Edda Mussolini and Galeazzo Ciano (son of Admiral Count Costanzo Ciano)

May 1930 – Oswald Mosley resigns from his ministerial position within the government of Ramsay MacDonald

June 1930–August 1932 – the Sino-Tibetan War between Tibet (under the 13th Dalai Lama) and Chinese warlords Ma Bufang and Liu Wenhui and Chiang Kai-shek (leader of the Republic of China)

17 June 1930 – the US Tariff Act of 1930 (known as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff) signed into law

30 June 1930 – French troops leave the Rhineland ahead of schedule

7 July 1930 – death of Arthur Conan Doyle in his house in Crowborough, East Sussex

28 July 1930 – the Canadian federal election of 1930; Richard Bedford Bennett’s Conservative Party wins a majority government, and defeats the Liberal Party led by Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King

September 1930–April 1931 – Kurdish revolt in Iraq

October 1930 – Guy Burgess arrives at Trinity College, Cambridge

October 1930 – John Maynard Keynes published “Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren” in The Nation and Athenaeum

October 1930 – John Maynard Keynes’ A Treatise on Money published

December 1930–January 1931 – Albert Einstein visited America

1931 – International Mercantile Marine Co. merged with the Roosevelt Steamship Company to form Roosevelt International Mercantile Marine Company (RIMM)

1931 – Rudolf Carnap accepts a chair of natural philosophy at the German University in Prague, Czechoslovakia

January 1931 – the future Edward VIII first meets Wallis Simpson, an American divorcée

January 1931 – Friedrich Hayek arrives in London; he gives four lectures at the London School of Economics (LSE) that are later published as Prices and Production (1931)

30 January 1931 – Charlie Chaplin’s silent film City Lights is released

14 February 1931 – release date of the famous Universal picture Dracula (12 February 1931 in New York), starring Bela Lugosi

3 March 1931 – death of Frank Russell (2nd Earl Russell), brother of Bertrand Russell, at the Hotel Noailles, Marseilles; Bertrand Russell becomes the third Earl Russell

6 March 1931 – cremation of Frank Russell (2nd Earl Russell) in St. Pierre cemetery in Marseilles

20 April 1931 – death of Cosmo Duff-Gordon in 5 Alfred Place, South Kensington, London

4 May 1931 – Piero Sraffa appointed as Marshall Librarian at Cambridge

11 May 1931 – the Austrian bank Kreditanstalt collapses

11 May 1931 – release date of M, directed by Fritz Lang and starring Peter Lorre

20 May 1931–3 February 1932 – fictional date of James Hilton’s novel Lost Horizon:
1713 – Father Perrault arrives in Shangri-La (film)
c. 1719 – Father Perrault arrives in Shangri-La (book)
1734 – Father Perrault begins to live in the reconstructed lamasery
1804 – Austrian Henschell arrives in Shangri-La
1809 – Henschell travels to Peking
1887 – Friedrich Meister visits Tibet
c. 1914 – Hugh Conway at Oxford
c. 1918–1921 – Hugh Conway is a don at Oxford
1921 – Hugh Conway goes to the east
1929–1931 – Hugh Conway in Baskul
20 May 1931 – 10 am: Hugh Conway leaves Baskul (= Kabul? in Afghanistan or India) to Peshawar in India
20 May 1931 – noon: plane refuels in mountain valley, then travels to the east
September–November 1931 – M. V. O. Rutherford in China
5 October 1931 – Hugh Conway arrives in Chung-Kiang (probably Chongqing) where he is discovered in a French mission hospital
November 1931 – Hugh Conway takes a ship from Shanghai to Yokohama, and to Honolulu (bound for San Francisco, US) where he escapes via a boat to Fiji and Bangkok
3 February 1932 – Hugh Conway leaves Bangkok for northern Siam and China
c. May 1932 – a neurologist, M. V. O. Rutherford (a novelist), their old school-friend Wyland Tertius (a secretary at the British embassy) and Sanders have dinner at Tempelhof, Berlin
April 1933? – the neurologist and M. V. O. Rutherford meet in Delhi
30 May 1931–18 July 1931 – John Maynard Keynes in America

summer 1931 – John Kenneth Galbraith arrives in Berkeley, California, to pursue a Master of Science and PhD in agricultural economics

20 June 1931 – Herbert Hoover announced the Hoover Moratorium (1 year moratorium on German debt payments), approved by Congress and, after some initial resistance by France, by 15 other nations

1 July 1931 – Joseph F. Rock publishes “Konka Risumgongba, Holy Mountain of the Outlaws” in National Geographic, after his visit to Yading in 1928, which inspires James Hilton

13 July 1931 – report of the Macmillan Committee on Finance and Industry published (called the Macmillan Report), largely written by Keynes

24 August 1931 – Ramsay MacDonald forms a National Government with Conservatives, Liberals and a new National Labour group

September 1931 – Friedrich Hayek publishes Prices and Production (1931)

3 September 1931–20 October 1932 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story Tintin in America in the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle

18 September 1931 – the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, in which the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invades Manchuria after the Mukden Incident; the invasion occurs from 18 September 1931–27 February 1932

20 September 1931 – Britain abandoned the gold standard

October 1931 – Donald Maclean arrives at Trinity College, Cambridge

17 October 1931 – Al Capone convicted on five tax evasion charges and sentenced to 11 years in prison

27 October 1931 – United Kingdom general election held. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
National Government
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 470
Liberal | Herbert Samuel | 33
Liberal National | John Simon | 35
National Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 13
National | - | 4

Labour | Arthur Henderson | 46
Ind. Labour Party | Fenner Brockway | 3
Opposition Liberal | David Lloyd George | 4
Nationalist | Joseph Devlin | 2
New Party | Oswald Mosley | 0.
Churchill stands as MP for Epping for the Conservative party; the opposition Liberal party under David Lloyd George is reduced to 4 seats

5 November 1931–7 June 1935 – the Second National Ministry in office in the UK, which was coalition of National Labour, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, and the Liberal National Party

21 November 1931 – US release date of the famous Universal Pictures movie Frankenstein, starring Boris Karloff

13 December 1931 – John Maynard Keynes addresses a socialist group on “The Dilemma of Modern Socialism”

1932–1933 – Paul M. Sweezy in London at the London School of Economics for the academic year; he travelled to Vienna during breaks

1932 – Nicholas Kaldor appointed to an Assistant Lectureship at the LSE

1932–1934 – John Cairncross spends two years at the Sorbonne in Paris

1932–1933 – the Soviet famine of major grain-producing areas in the Soviet Union; the Holodomor (or the Great Famine of the Ukraine) is part of this

21 January 1932 – death of Giles Lytton Strachey from stomach cancer

January 1932 – John Maynard Keynes visits Hamburg, Germany and Berlin; Keynes meets Heinrich Brüning

March 1932 – Piero Sraffa publishes his article “Dr. Hayek on Money and Capital” in the Economic Journal

1 March 1932 – Puyi, the last Qing emperor of China, installed by Japanese as the ruler of Manchukuo (the Japanese puppet state); he was officially crowned the emperor of Manchukuo in 1934

May 1932 – Robert Ervin Howard’s “The Horror from the Mound” published in Weird Tales, set ten miles from Coyote Wells in West Texas

20 May 1932–25 July 1934 – Engelbert Dollfuss Chancellor of Austria

20 May 1932 – Amelia Earhart flies from Harbour Grace, Newfoundland to Culmore, north of Derry, Northern Ireland, in a single engine Lockheed Vega 5B, and is the first woman to fly across the Atlantic

June 1932 – first appearance of the character Conan the Barbarian in Strange Tales of Mystery and Terror in the short story “People of the Dark” by Robert E. Howard

1 June 1932–17 November 1932 – Franz von Papen is Chancellor of Germany

16 June–9 July 1932 – Lausanne Conference; the Western nations agree to suspend German reparations payments. Even though it was rejected by US Congress, the pre-Nazi German government still had enough power to refuse to make any more debt repayments

June 1932 – final exams of A. J. Ayer before his graduation with a Bachelor of Arts from Christ Church College, Oxford; Ayer appointed to a lectureship in philosophy

June 1932 – A. J. Ayer meets Ludwig Wittgenstein in Whewell’s Court, Trinity College, Cambridge

6 June 1932 – the US Revenue Act of 1932 signed into law, which raises tax rates across the board

21 July 1932 – Emergency Relief and Construction Act enacted by Herbert Hoover

6 July 1932 – death of Kenneth Grahame (author of The Wind in the Willows) in Pangbourne, Berkshire

August 1932–1933 – Willard Van Orman Quine travels in Europe, meets the Polish logicians Stanislaw Lesniewski and Alfred Tarski, members of the Vienna Circle including Rudolf Carnap, and A. J. Ayer

September 1932 – Joseph Schumpeter moves to the United States and takes up a professorship at Harvard University

23 September 1932 – Ibn Saud united his dominions into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with himself as its king

October 1932 – Anthony Blunt elected a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge

October 1932–1 March 1933 – Willard Van Orman Quine visits Vienna

19 October 1932 – a letter signed by Friedrich Hayek, Lionel Robbins and others is printed in the Times rejecting government spending

November 1932 – Guy Burgess elected to the Apostles

8 November 1932 – the US presidential election of 1932

25 November 1932 – A. J. Ayer marries Renée Lees

December 1932 – second appearance of the character Conan the Cimmerian in Robert E. Howard’s “The Phoenix on the Sword” in Weird Tales

December 1932 – the US Congress rejects the Allied war debt reduction plan agreed on at the Lausanne Conference

December 1932–March 1933 – Alfred Jules Ayer attended meetings of the Vienna Circle in Vienna, Austria

3 December 1932–28 January 1933 – Kurt von Schleicher (non-partisan) is Chancellor of Germany:
Reichskanzler of the Weimar Republic
28 June 1928–27 March 1930 – Hermann Müller (Social Democratic Party of Germany)
30 March 1930–30 May 1932 – Heinrich Brüning is Chancellor (Centre Party)
1 June 1932–17 November 1932 – Franz von Papen (non-partisan)
3 December 1932–28 January 1933 – Kurt von Schleicher (non-partisan)
30 January 1933–30 April 1945 – Adolf Hitler
8 December 1932–8 February 1934 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story Cigars of the Pharaoh in the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle

22 December 1932 – release date of the Universal Studios film The Mummy, directed by Karl Freund and starring Boris Karloff

1933–1937 – Paul M. Sweezy at Harvard for a doctorate degree

1933 – Anthony Blunt visits the Soviet Union

9 January 1933 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Down and Out in Paris and London

30 January 1933 – Paul von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as chancellor of Germany

February–March 1933 – Albert Einstein visits America

27 February 1933 – in Germany the Reichstag building was set on fire

28 February 1933 – Paul von Hindenburg passes the Reichstag Fire Decree

spring 1933 – Ludwig Lachmann comes to England to the LSE from Germany

1 March–April 1933 – Willard Van Orman Quine visits Prague to see Rudolf Carnap

March 1933 – Rudolf Hilferding flees Germany to Denmark, and then to Switzerland

c. March 1933–1938 – Rudolf Hilferding lives in Zurich, Switzerland

March 1933 – end of the contractionary phase of the US Great Depression

March 1933 – the Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss dissolved Austria’s National Assembly and ruled by emergency decree

c. March 1933 – Joan Robinson publishes The Economics of Imperfect Competition

2 March–May 1933 – the failed British Mount Everest expedition (of Lawrence Wager, Percy Wyn-Harris, E. E. Shipton, Hugh Ruttledge, C. G. Crawford and F. S. Smythe) attempts to climb Everest

4 March 1933 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt became President of the United States (in office from 4 March 1933–12 April 1945)

5 March 1933 – Federal elections held in Germany; National Socialist German Workers Party 43.91% of the vote; Social Democratic Party of Germany 18.25%; Communist Party of Germany 12.32%; Centre Party 11.25%

6 March 1933 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt declares a four-day banking holiday in the United States

9 March 1933 – the US Emergency Banking Act (the Emergency Banking Relief Act) is passed by the United States Congress

13 March 1933 – the Institute for Social Research or Institut für Sozialforschung (IfS) is closed down by the German government, a research organisation and home of the Frankfurt School and critical theory, moves to Geneva and in 1934 moves to New York City, where it becomes affiliated with Columbia University

23 March 1933 – the Reichstag voted to pass the Enabling Act, which transforms Hitler’s government into a de facto legal dictatorship

28 March 1933 – Albert Einstein arrives in Antwerp and formally renounced his German citizenship

1 April 1933 – Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany

7 April 1933 – release date of the Radio Pictures film King Kong (release date in New York 7 March 1933), starring Fay Wray and Robert Armstrong

19 April 1933 – the United States abandoned the gold standard

2 May 1933 – Hitler outlawed German trade unions

June 1933 – Kim Philby graduates from Cambridge with upper second-class honours in economics

16 June 1933 – the US National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) signed into law by Franklin Delano Roosevelt

July–October 1933 – Albert Einstein flees from Belgium and lives in England

31 July 1933 – Fritz Lang flees Berlin

25 August 1933 – signing of the Haavara Agreement between Nazi Germany and German Jews

September 1933 – James Hilton publishes his novel Lost Horizon

October 1933 – Albert Einstein returns to the US to the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey

November 1933 – Karl Polanyi moves to London from Vienna (his wife follows him in 1936)

26 December 1933 – death of Henry Watson Fowler

1 January 1934 – UK publication of Murder on the Orient Express by Agatha Christie, featuring the fictional detective Hercule Poirot

30 January 1934 – the US Congress passed the Gold Reserve Act, which nationalised all gold and ordered the Federal Reserve banks to turn over gold supply to the US Treasury

12 February 1934–16 February 1934 – Austrian Civil War (or February Uprising), the battles between socialist and conservative-fascist forces in Austria, which in Vienna, Graz, Bruck an der Mur, Judenburg, Wiener Neustadt and Steyr

February 1934 – Kim Philby and Litzi Friedmann are married

March 1934 – Ludwig von Mises accepted an offer from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva to become a visiting professor

May 1934 – publication of I, Claudius by English writer Robert Graves

9 May–8 June 1934 – John Maynard Keynes in America

10 May 1934 – the White Star Line and Cunard merged to create Cunard-White Star Limited

23 May 1934 – deaths of Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (1 October 1910–23 May 1934) and Clyde Chestnut Barrow aka Clyde Champion Barrow (24 March 1909–23 May 1934)

28 May 1934 – John Maynard Keynes meets Franklin Delano Roosevelt

June 1934 – Theodor W. Adorno registers at Merton College, Oxford and spends four years at Oxford under the direction of Gilbert Ryle

12 June 1934 – the German film director Fritz Lang arrives in New York after fleeing Germany

29 June 1934 – Night of the Long Knives in Germany

14 June 1934 – Adolf Hitler meets Mussolini in Venice and they travel to Padua for a conference

July 1934 – Columbia university invites the Institute for Social Research (Frankfurt School) to affiliate with the university and move to America

14 July 1934 – John Tyndall born at Stork Nest, Topsham Road in Exeter, Devon

24 July 1934 – death of Hans Hahn, the Austrian mathematician and member of the Vienna circle

9 August 1934–17 October 1935 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story The Blue Lotus, set in China and mentioning the Japanese invasion of Manchuria

2 August 1934 – death of Paul von Hindenburg, President of Germany

9 September 1934 – death of Roger Eliot Fry (14 December 1866–9 September 1934), the English painter and critic

October 1934 – Donald Maclean graduated from Trinity Hall, Cambridge

October 1934 – James Hilton publishes his novel Goodbye, Mr. Chips in the UK (release date in the US June 1934)

1 October 1934–1936 – John Cairncross at Trinity College, Cambridge

25 October 1934 – Ludwig von Mises begins lecturing at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva

December 1934 – the short story “The Graveyard Duchess” published in Weird Tales by Flemish Belgian writer Raymundus Joannes de Kremer (under the pseudonym John Flanders)

December 1934 – Karl Popper publishes Logik der Forschung. Zur Erkenntnistheorie der modernen Naturwissenschaft (The Logic of Scientific Discovery)

December 1934 – Ludwig von Mises briefly returns to Vienna to work as consultant for the Vienna Kammer

December 1934 – Guy Burgess was recruited as a Soviet spy by Arnold Deutsch

1935 – Ronald Syme elected to lectureship at Oxford

1935 – fictional date of the Doctor Who serial “The Abominable Snowmen,” set in Tibet at the Detsen Monastery (or in 1930)

January 1935 – George L. S. Shackle arrives at the LSE as a PhD student of Hayek

March 1935 – publication of Claudius the God by English writer Robert Graves

c. March 1935 – fictional date of the film Lost Horizon

16 March 1935 – Adolf Hitler announces rearmament of Germany, construction of an air force, and plans for conscription, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles

28 March 1935 – the release date of Triumph of the Will directed, produced, edited, and co-written by Leni Riefenstahl about the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg

April 1935 – Guy Burgess leaves Cambridge

5 April 1935 – Olympic, withdrawn from transatlantic service, leaves New York for the last time

6 May 1935 – the Silver Jubilee of King George V and Queen Mary

8 May 1935–1940 – A. J. Ayer elected to a 5-year research studentship (fellowship) at Oxford

10 May 1935 – New York release date of the famous Universal picture Bride of Frankenstein, starring Boris Karloff

13 May 1935 – US release date of the famous Universal Pictures movie Werewolf of London, starring Henry Hull

19 May 1935 – death of T. E. Lawrence in a motorcycle accident in Dorset, near his cottage (Clouds Hill), near Wareham

7 June 1935–28 May 1937 – Stanley Baldwin is Prime Minister of the UK

13 June–22 June 1935 – fictional date of the film Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984), set in Pankot Province, in the country along the Yamuna River, 80–100 miles northeast of Delhi and 20–30 miles north of Rampur

18 June 1935 – the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935, a naval agreement between the UK and Germany; this regulated the size of the Kriegsmarine to 35% of the total tonnage of the Royal Navy; the agreement was renounced by Adolf Hitler on 28 April 1939

4 July–14 August 1935 – the 1935 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition, including Eric Shipton

July 1935 – Bertrand Russell and Dora Black divorce

autumn 1935 – Guy Burgess graduates from Cambridge

10 September 1935 – assassination of Huey Pierce Long, Jr.

15 September 1935 – Nuremberg Laws introduced in Germany

October 1935 – George L. S. Shackle visits Cambridge for a research students’ seminar and listens to a talk by Joan Robinson on Keynes’ work on the General Theory; Shackle becomes a Keynesian

October 1935 – Donald Maclean begins work at the Foreign Office:
October 1935 – Donald Maclean begins work at the Foreign Office
24 September 1938–13 June 1940 – Donald Maclean is Third Secretary at HM Embassy, Paris
c. June 1940–April 1944 – Donald Maclean is Foreign Office’s expert in economic warfare, civil air matters, and military base negotiations
6 May 1944–November 1948 – Donald Maclean is First Secretary of the British embassy in Washington
October 1948–May 1950 – Donald Maclean is head of Chancery at the British embassy in Cairo
May 1950 – Donald Maclean returns to Britain
c. October 1950–25 May 1951 – Donald Maclean is head of the American Department in the Foreign Office
25 May 1951 – Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean flee from Britain to Russia
6 March 1983 – death of Donald Maclean in Russia
3 October 1935–May 1936 – the Second Italo-Ethiopian War (Second Italo-Abyssinian War), a colonial between Italy and the Ethiopian Empire; Italy occupied Ethiopia

11 October 1935 – Olympic leaves Southampton for the last time for Jarrow (arrives on the 13th)

November 1935 – the election of the first Labour Government in New Zealand under Michael Joseph Savage (23 March 1872–27 March 1940; Prime Minister from 6 December 1935–27 March 1940)

14 November 1935 – United Kingdom general election 1935. The result:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 387
Liberal National | John Simon | 33
National Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 8

Labour | Clement Attlee | 154
Liberal | Herbert Samuel | 21.
The result was a reduced majority for the National Government led by Conservative Stanley Baldwin

December 1935 – Rudolf Carnap moves from Prague to the University of Chicago

5 December 1935–25 February 1937 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story The Broken Ear in the Belgian newspaper Le Petit Vingtième

winter 1935 – Karl Polanyi visits the United States

1936–1940 – the future Neoconservative Irving Kristol attends City College of New York

1936–1938 – the Great Purge (or the Great Terror) in Russia

January 1936 – Bertrand Russell and Patricia Spence are married

January 1936 – Alfred Jules Ayer publishes his book Language, Truth and Logic

18 January 1936 – death of Rudyard Kipling

20 January 1936 – death of George V (reigned 6 May 1910–20 January 1936)

20 January 1936–11 December 1936 – reign of Edward VIII

22 January 1936 – fall of the government of Pierre Laval in France

5 February 1936 – Charlie Chaplin’s film Modern Times is released

February 1936 – John Maynard Keynes’ The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money is published

16 February 1936 – Spanish general legislative election, which was won by the Popular Front, a left-wing coalition of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), Republican Left (Spain) (IR), Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC), Republican Union (UR), Communist Party (PCE), Acció Catalana (AC) and other parties

March 1936 – Charles Coughlin begins publication of his weekly magazine Social Justice

4 March 1936 – the first flight of airship Hindenburg in Germany

7 March 1936 – reoccupation of the Rhineland by Hitler

March 1936 – Michał Kalecki arrived in England from Sweden

25 April–17 June 1936 – 1936 British Mount Everest expedition

28 April 1936–26 July 1952 – reign of Farouk of Egypt

9 May 1936 – Italy annexes Ethiopia

11 May 1936 – release date of the film Dracula’s Daughter by Universal Studios directed by Lambert Hillyer

June 1936 – Peter Cushing begins to work at the Connaught Theatre in Worthing

22 June 1936 – murder of Moritz Schlick

16 July 1936 – assassination attempt on Edward VIII as he rode through Hyde Park, after the Colour ceremony, when George McMahon threw a revolver at the king

17–18 July 1936 – Spanish coup of July 1936, a group of officers attempt to overthrow the left-wing Popular Front government

17 July 1936–1 April 1939 – Spanish Civil War

1–16 August 1936 – the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, Germany

August 1936 – King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson on a private cruise of the Adriatic Sea on board the Nahlin

4 August 1936 – a military coup in Greece by General Ioannis Metaxas

19–23 August 1936 – the first Moscow show trial

24 August 1936 – Germany increases duration of compulsory military service from 1 year to 2 years

26 August 1936 – the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 between the United Kingdom and Egypt signed in London; the UK was required to withdraw all troops from Egypt, except those protecting Suez Canal and its surroundings

29 August 1936 – the British–American Himalayan Expedition of 1936 (with Peter Lloyd and H. Adams Carter, Bill Tilman and Noel Odell) ascends Nanda Devi

September 1936–1939 – Gore Vidal attends St. Albans School in Washington

September 1936 – King Edward VIII received in Turkey on an unofficial visit

4 September 1936 – Lloyd George visits Hitler at the Berghof

7 September–7 October 1936 – fictional date of the film Raiders of the Lost Ark

October 1936 – Eric Hobsbawm went up to King’s College, Cambridge to read History

1 October 1936 – Guy Burgess starts work at the BBC Staff Training College, but soon works an assistant producer in the BBC corporation’s Talks Department

c. October 1936–November 1938 – Guy Burgess is an assistant producer in the BBC corporation’s Talks Department

4 October 1936 – Battle of Cable Street, in Cable Street, East End of London, a clash between British Union of Fascists (led by Oswald Mosley) and anti-fascist demonstrators

5–31 October 1936 – Jarrow March (or the Jarrow Crusade) from Jarrow to London, organised protest march against the unemployment suffered in the Tyneside town of Jarrow

21 October 1936 – the siege of Madrid begins during the Spanish Civil War

25 October 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis pact

November 1936 – John Cairncross joins the UK Foreign Office:
1 October 1934–1936 – John Cairncross at Trinity College, Cambridge
November 1936– December 1938 – John Cairncross works in UK Foreign Office
December 1938–September 1940 – John Cairncross works in the UK Treasury
September 1940–March 1942 – John Cairncross is private secretary to Lord Hankey, minister in Churchill’s cabinet and chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
March 1942 – Lord Hankey sacked by Churchill
March 1942–c. July 1943? – John Cairncross moves to Bletchley Park to Hut 3
1944 – John Cairncross joins MI6
1944–1945 – John Cairncross at MI6
1945–1952 – John Cairncross returns to work at the Treasury
1952 – John Cairncross resigns from the civil service
November 1936 – Edward VIII visits the depressed region of South Wales

16 November 1936 – Edward VIII tells the British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin at Buckingham Palace of his intention to marry Wallis Simpson

December 1936 – Abdication crisis in the UK

11 December 1936 – abdication of the British king Edward VIII

11 December 1936 – accession of George VI (reigned 11 December 1936–6 February 1952)

23 December 1936 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) sets out for Spain to fight in the Spanish Civil War; he stays until June 1937

1937 – James Hilton moves to California

1937 – George L. S. Shackle granted his PhD; he moves to New College, Oxford and took a D.Phil. in 1940

February 1937 – Bertrand Russell delivers his maiden speech in the House of Lords

4 February 1937 – Karl Popper sails for New Zealand from London

February 1937–July 1939 – Kim Philby in Spain as a journalist in the Spanish Civil War, from the side of the pro-Franco forces

March 1937 – Karl Popper arrives in New Zealand

2 March 1937 – release date of the Columbia Pictures movie Lost Horizon, directed by Frank Capra, and starring
Ronald Colman and Jane Wyatt

8 March 1937 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes The Road to Wigan Pier

27 April 1937 – death of Antonio Gramsci in Rome

15 April 1937–16 June 1938 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story The Black Island in Le Vingtième Siècle magazine

May 1937 – John Cairncross recruited to the Soviet cause by Arnold Deutsch

May 1937–June 1938 – the US Recession of 1937–1938

6 May 1937 – the Hindenburg disaster; the German airship LZ 129 Hindenburg catches fire and is destroyed during its attempt to dock at Naval Air Station Lakehurst in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States

12 May 1937 – the coronation of George VI

25 May 1937 – death of Florence Stoker, wife of Bram Stoker

28 May 1937–10 May 1940 – Neville Chamberlain is British Prime Minister

June 1937 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) returns to England from Spain

c. June 1937 – Peter Cushing joins a company at the Grand Theatre in Southampton

1 June 1937 – Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan depart from Miami, Florida, to fly around the world:
Earhart flies to South America, Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and Lae, New Guinea
29 June 1937 – Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan arrive in Lae, New Guinea
2 July 1937 – midnight GMT Earhart and Noonan take off from Lae Airfield, Papua New Guinea
2 July 1937 – Amelia Earhart disappears in the Pacific Ocean
3 June 1937 – ex-king Edward VIII marries Wallis Simpson in the Chateau de Candé near Tours in France

July 1937 – the Shaksgam Expedition explores and maps the northern approaches to K2 led by Eric Shipton

2 July 1937 – Amelia Earhart disappears in the Pacific Ocean, en route to Howland Island from Lae, Papua New Guinea, during an attempt to circumnavigate the world by plane, perhaps crashing at 10 am on 2 July 1937

7 July 1937–9 September 1945 – the Second Sino-Japanese War, the war between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan

17 July 1937 – F. S. Smythe and his porters see “yeti” tracks on a glacier pass north of the Bhyundar Valley, the Valley of Flowers, India

9 June 1937 – Theodor W. Adorno sails for New York and stayed there for two weeks

13 August 1937–26 November 1937 – battle of Shanghai between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA)

15–18 August 1937 – the Chinese fight numerically superior Japanese air force in intense air battles

18 September 1937–summer 1938 – John Kenneth Galbraith visits Europe and Cambridge University with a postdoctoral fellowship:
18 September 1937 – Galbraith sails from Manhattan
October 1937 – John Kenneth Galbraith visits Cambridge
December 1937 – John Kenneth Galbraith visits Bruges, Ghent, Brussels, Aachen, Cologne, Hamburg, Göttingen, Flensburg
24 December 1937 – Copenhagen
25 December 1937 – Sweden
May 1938 – Paris, Chartres, Compiègne, Amiens, Verdun, Burgundy, Provence, Geneva, Riviera, Genoa, Pisa, Siena, Rome, Naples, Florence, Ravenna, Venice, Vienna, Prague, Munich
summer 1938 – Berlin, East Prussia, Paris, Loire valley, Brittany, Rotterdam
October 1938 – back in Harvard
21 September 1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Hobbit, or There and Back Again

9 October–2 December 1937 – the Zemu glacier expedition of John Hunt and C. R. Cooke, to visit the Zemu glacier and find a route reaching the col between Kangchenjunga and the Twins, known as the North col

11–23 October 1937 – the Duke and Duchess of Windsor’s tour of Germany of 1937:
11 October 1937 – the Windsors arrive at Berlin’s Friedrichstraße station
22 October 1937 – Duke of Windsor meets Hitler at the Berghof
22 October 1937 – the Windsors dine at the Munich home of Rudolf and Ilse Hess in Harlaching; they stay at the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten
17 October 1937 – Bruce Ismay dies of a stroke in Mayfair, London

November 1937 – while ascending the Zemu glacier, Lord Hunt and H. W. Tilman found strange “yeti” tracks in the snow

1 November 1937 – Agatha Christie publishes the book Death on the Nile with the fictional detective Hercule Poirot

13 December 1937–January 1938 – the Nanking Massacre (or Rape of Nanking), the mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the people of Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War

10 February 1938 – king Carol II of Romania suspended the 1923 constitution and seized emergency powers

16 February 1938 – Theodor W. Adorno sails for New York and moves to America

8 March 1938–22 October 1940 – Joseph P. Kennedy is United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom

9 March 1938 – Schuschnigg scheduled an Austria plebiscite on the issue of unification with Germany on 13 March 1938

12 March 1938 – Austria was annexed by the Third Reich

April 1938 – A. J. Ayer visits America

25 April 1938 – Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair), a personal account of the Spanish Civil War, is published

May 1938–August 1939 – the German Expedition to Tibet of 1938–1939, a German scientific expedition led by the German zoologist Ernst Schäfer (14 March 1910–21 July 1992)

26 May 1938 – the House Committee on Un-American Activities established as a special investigating committee, to investigate disloyalty and subversion, either communist or fascist; it was chaired by Martin Dies, Jr. and Dies Committee (from 1938–1944)

2 June 1938–26 June 1938 – fictional date of the film Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade

4 June 1938 – Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha leave Vienna on the Orient Express for Britain

6 June 1938 – Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha arrive in London at Victoria Station

14 July 1938 – the Manifesto of Race (“Manifesto della razza”) published by the government of Mussolini (favoured Jews were exempted)

4 August 1938 – 10 August 1939 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story King Ottokar's Sceptre in the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle

October 1938 – enactment of the Racial Laws in Fascist Italy

17 October 1938 – death of Karl Kautsky, the Czech-Austrian philosopher and Marxist theoretician, in Amsterdam

30 October 1938 – Orson Welles’ radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds, an episode of the American radio drama anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air

September 1938–30 March 1939 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) in French Morocco

15 September 1938 – Chamberlain travels to Berchtesgaden to meet with Hitler about the Sudeten crisis

17 September 1938 – Bertrand Russell sails for America on the Britannic

September 1938 – Bertrand Russell begins a year appointment at the University of Chicago

19 September 1938 – death of Lawrence Waddell at Craigmore, Rothesay, Island of Bute

23 September 1938 – the new military government in Czechoslovakia issues a decree for general mobilization

30 September 1938 – Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini and Édouard Daladier signed the Munich Agreement

30 September 1938 – the Czechoslovak government capitulates and agrees to the Munich Agreement

30 September 1938 – Neville Chamberlain returns to Britain and gives his “peace for our time” speech to a crowd at Heston Aerodrome

1–10 October 1938 – annexation of the Sudetenland by Germany

9 November 1938 – murder of the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in Paris by Herschel Grynszpan

9–10 November 1938 – Kristallnacht, a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany; from 12–13 November a similar attack happened in the Free City of Danzig

December 1938 – Guy Burgess begins to work for MI6’s D Section

23 December 1938–10 February 1939 – the Catalonia Offensive in Spain by the Nationalist Army of Franco to take Republican-held Catalonia

1939 – Stefan Zweig’s novel Beware of Pity (in German called Ungeduld des Herzens / “The Heart's Impatience”) is published

5 January 1939 – Josef Beck (Poland’s Foreign Minister) meets with Hitler at Berchtesgaden, to discuss German claims on Danzig and issues with the Polish Corridor

26 January 1939 – fall of Barcelona to Franco’s forces. The Nationalist Army of Franco began the Catalonia Offensive on December 23, 1938

10 February 1939 – Peter Cushing arrives in New York to pursue an acting career in Hollywood

14 March 1939 – Slovakia seceded from Czechoslovakia and became a separate pro-Nazi state

14 March 1939 – marriage of George Shackle and Gertrude Courtney (Susan) Rowe

15 March 1939 – German troops marched into Czechoslovakia

April 1939 – Ernst Badian and his family sail from Genoa for Christchurch, New Zealand

14 April 1939 – publication date of the novel The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck

May 1939–23 May 1940 – period of The Right Club, a small group of far right British led by the Scottish Unionist MP Archibald Ramsay, in opposition to war with Germany

May–June 1939 – George VI and Queen Elizabeth tour Canada and the United States

22 May 1939 – signing of the Pact of Steel, the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy

27 May 1939 – the German ocean liner MS St. Louis arrives in Havana harbour but the Cuban government refuses entry to Cuba to 908 refugees from Europe

6 June 1939 – St. Louis sails back to Europe

summer 1939 – Eric Hobsbawm in Paris carrying out research work on North Africa

June 1939 – Gore Vidal leaves New York for a trip to Europe

July 1939 – Ludwig Wittgenstein visits Vienna and Berlin

23 August 1939 – Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow

25 August 1939 – US release date of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer movie The Wizard of Oz, starring Judy Garland

27 August 1939 – the underground Cabinet War Rooms (under the Treasury building in the Whitehall area of Westminster) become fully operational

1 September 1939 – Germany invaded Poland

1 September 1939–2 September 1945 – World War II

1 September 1939 – Operation Pied Piper began, which officially relocated more than 3.5 million people

3 September 1939 – UK and France declare war on Germany; Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty

3 September 1939–9 May 1940 – Phoney War (French: Drôle de guerre; German: Sitzkrieg)

3 September 1939 – the speech of George VI to the British Empire on the outbreak of World War Two

7 September 1939 – Ronald Syme publishes The Roman Revolution

17 September 1939 – Stalin ordered his own invasion of Poland

17 September–6 October 1939 – Soviet invasion of Poland

23 September 1939 – death of Sigmund Freud in London

27 September 1939 – Warsaw surrendered to German troops encircling its borders

September 1939 – Turing designing the bombe

17 October 1939 – release date of Frank Capra’s film Mr. Smith Goes to Washington

by 5 November 1939 – the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) moves to Peterhouse College in Cambridge

30 November 1939 – Soviet Union attacks Finland in what would become known as the Winter War

30 November 1939–13 March 1940 – the Winter War, the military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland

5 January 1940 – Leslie Hore-Belisha (1st Baron Hore-Belisha) dismissed as Secretary of State for War (28 May 1937–5 January 1940)

18 January 1940 – Edward VIII flies to London and reports to Ironside, meets Churchill and persuades the military to lift the ban on visiting the front

24 January 1940 – release date of the film The Grapes of Wrath, directed by John Ford and based on John Steinbeck’s 1939 novel

February 1940 – John Maynard Keynes publishes his pamphlet How to Pay for the War

16 February 1940 – Eric Hobsbawm enrolled in 560th Field Company of the Royal Engineers in Cambridge

18 March 1940 – delivery and installation of Turing’s bombe to Bletchley Park; second bombe, named “Agnus dei,” later shortened to Agnes, or Aggie, was equipped with Welchman's diagonal board, and was installed on 8 August 1940; during 1940, 178 messages were broken on the two machines

18 March 1940 – Hitler meets Mussolini on the Brenner Pass

21 March 1940–16 June 1940 – Paul Reynaud is Prime Minister of France

3 April 1940–May 1940 – the Katyn massacre, a series of mass executions of Polish intelligentsia carried out by the NKVD at several places, named after the Katyn Forest

9 April 1940 – the German invasion of Denmark:
9 April 1940 – 4:15 am: German forces invade Denmark at Sæd, Rens, Padborg and Krusaa
5:18 am: landing of a battalion of German forces at Copenhagen
6:00 am: Danish government capitulates in exchange for retaining political independence in domestic matters
9 April–10 June 1940 – Norwegian Campaign between Norway (and the Allies) and Germany; Germans land in several Norwegian ports and take Oslo

May 1940–January 1945 – operation of Auschwitz concentration camp:
May 1940 – Auschwitz I
c. November 1941– Auschwitz II-Birkenau
October 1942–January 1945 – Monowitz (Monowitz-Buna or Auschwitz III)
November 1943 – Auschwitz II (Birkenau) and Auschwitz III (Monowitz) camps to become separate concentration camps
by May 1940–c. April 1941 – Ronald Syme is Press Attache to the British Legation at Belgrade; at the fall of Belgrade he went to Ankara

7–8 May 1940 – the Norway Debate (Narvik Debate), debate in the House of Commons about the Norwegian Campaign

10 May 1940 – Germany invades Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands; Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom upon the resignation of Neville Chamberlain

10 May 1940–6 July 1940 – German war against Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands

10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945 – Churchill as Prime Minister

10 May 1940 – Germany invades Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands:
8 am – Chamberlain holds an emergency war cabinet
11.30 am – a second war cabinet in Britain
4.30 pm – third war cabinet in Britain
Labour tells Chamberlain that they will not serve in a coalition government under him; Chamberlain decides to resign in favour of Churchill
Churchill goes to the palace
13 May 1940 – Churchill’s “blood, toil, tears, and sweat” speech in the Commons

14 May 1940 – 1.20–3.30 pm: Germany aircraft attacks on Dutch city of Rotterdam; 900 civilians died and 85,000 others homeless

14 May 1940 – by 16:50: Henri Winkelman (Supreme Commander of the Dutch forces) surrenders to Germany

14 May 1940 – early morning: Keynes suffers a heart attack

May–June 1940 – Keynes lecturing in Cambridge

15 May 1940 – from this day after the Luftwaffe destroyed the centre of Rotterdam, the RAF also carried out operations east of the Rhine, attacking industrial and transportation targets

15 May 1940 – in a cabinet meeting, Churchill approves strategic bombing of Germany from 15 May to lure the German airforce over Britain, to relieve the pressure on France

16 May 1940 – Churchill flies to Paris to meet Reynaud

17 May 1940 – Germans enter Brussels and also take Antwerp

17 May 1940 – Churchill charges Chamberlain to study evacuation of the BEF through the Channel ports

19 May 1940 – Trinity Sunday morning, Churchill at Chartwell
afternoon – Cabinet meeting London

20 May 1940 – Tyler Kent (American diplomat who stole thousands of secret documents while working as a cipher clerk at the US Embassy in London) arrested under the Official Secrets Act

21 May 1940 – the battle of Arras, an Allied counter-attack against the flank of the German Army, near Arras; Anglo-French attack makes early gains but was repulsed after 10 km advance and forced to withdraw after dark

22 May 1940 – French and British accept the Weygand Plan

22 May 1940 – UK War Cabinet agrees to amend Defence Regulation 18B to allow internment of those with sympathy towards enemy powers

22–26 May 1940 – siege of Calais

23 May 1940 – Oswald Mosley interned under Defence Regulation 18B

24 May 1940 – 11.42 am: Hitler decides to halt the German offensive

25 May 1940 – the Allied forces, British and French alike, retreat to Dunkirk

25 May 1940 – Churchill’s decision to pull out the BEF telephoned to Reynaud

26 May 1940 – Reynaud visits London

26 May 1940 – UK National Day of Prayer on Sunday

26 May 1940 – Hitler orders advance on Dunkirk

26 May–4 June 1940 – Operation Dynamo, the Battle of Dunkirk: the defence and evacuation of British and allied forces in Europe

28 May 1940 – Belgium surrenders to the Germans; King Leopold III of Belgium surrenders and is interned

28 May 1940 – Edward VIII (Duke of Windsor) driven from Paris to Biarritz

28 May 1940 – the May 1940 War Cabinet Crisis:
Churchill meets with his 25-member Outer Cabinet; he rejects negotiation with Italy
7 pm – Churchill meets with War Cabinet
30 May 1940 – crucial British Cabinet meeting: Churchill wins a vote on continuing the war, in spite of vigorous arguments by Lord Halifax and Chamberlain

May 1940 – British start aerial war on German cities

June 1940 – Anthony Blunt recruited by MI5 as a military liaison officer

by 4 June 1940 – over 338,000 Allied troops evacuated from Dunkirk, including 228,000 British and 110,000 French

4 June 1940 – Churchill gives his “We shall fight on the beaches” speech to the House of Commons

5 June 1940 – German army begins second phase of the invasion of France (Fall Rot) by attacking across the Somme and Aisne rivers

7 June 1940 – King Haakon VII of Norway (reigned 18 November 1905−21 September 1957), the Norwegian Royal Family and government evacuated from Tromsø on aboard HMS Devonshire to UK

10 June 1940 – Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom. Norway surrenders

14 June 1940 – Paris occupied by German troops

14 June 1940 – Germans penetrate the Maginot Line south of Saarbrücken

15 June 1940 – USSR invades Lithuania

16 June 1940 – USSR invades Estonia and Latvia

16 June 1940 – c. 8 pm: Marshal Pétain becomes Premier:
16 June 1940–17 April 1942 – Marshal Pétain is Prime Minister of France
11 July 1940–20 August 1944 – Chief of the French State
16 June 1940 – General de Gaulle in Britain:
afternoon 16 June 1940 – de Gaulle at 10 Downing Street for talks on Anglo-French political union
18:30 16 June 1940 – de Gaulle takes off from London on a British aircraft and lands at Bordeaux at around 22:00
22:00 16 June 1940 – de Gaulle learns he is no longer a minister; Reynaud had resigned; Pétain becomes prime minister
17 June 1940 – de Gaulle’s flight to London:
9:00 am – de Gaulle and Edward Spears fly to London
12:30 – De Gaulle lands at Heston Airport
3 pm – De Gaulle visits Churchill at 10 Downing Street
17 June 1940 – 15:48: RMS Lancastria (a British Cunard liner) bombed by a Junkers Ju 88 and sunk c. 4:08 pm off the French port of St. Nazaire during Operation Ariel, with 3,000–5,800 fatalities

18 June 1940 – 3:49 pm: Churchill gives his “This was their finest hour” speech to the House of Commons for 36 minutes

18 June 1940 – 7 pm: de Gaulle gives his “Appeal of 18 June” speech on the BBC

22 June 1940 – Franco-German armistice signed; 22 June, France signed an armistice at Compiègne with Germany that gave Germany control over the north and west of the country, including Paris and all of the Atlantic coastline

24 June 1940 – signing of the Italian–French armistice

26 June 1940 – Romania agrees to withdraw from Northern Bukovina, Hertza and Bessarabia

28 June–3 July 1940 – Soviet occupation of Northern Bukovina, Hertza and Bessarabia

28 June 1940 – Keynes offered membership of a consultative council for the Treasury

30 June 1940 – Germany invades the Channel Islands

1 July 1940 – the government of Pétain moves to Vichy

3 July 1940 – the British attack and destroy the French navy at its Mers El Kébir base on the coast of French Algeria, fearing that it would fall into German hands

4 July–9 October 1940 – Piero Sraffa interned in the Isle of Man as an enemy alien

6 July 1940 – 3 pm: Hitler returns to Berlin

11 July 1940–20 August 1944 – Philippe Pétain is Chief of State of Vichy France

12 July 1940 – Luftwaffe attacks on Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland

16 July 1940 – Hitler signs Directive No. 16 (Operation Sealion)

19 July 1940 – Friday: Hitler gives a speech to the Reichstag with offer of peace with Britain

22 July 1940–15 January 1946 – period of the UK Special Operations Executive (SOE)

July 1940 – Kim Philby appointed as instructor in the art of clandestine propaganda at the SOE’s training establishment in Beaulieu, Hampshire

23 July 1940 – Hitler goes to Bayreuth

25 July 1940 – Ludwig von Mises leaves Europe from Lisbon by ship for America

August 1940–1943 – Karl Polanyi teaches at Bennington College in Vermont

August 1940–c. 6 April 1941 – Ronald Syme serves as Press Attache for the British Legation in Belgrade

3 August 1940 – Ludwig von Mises arrives in New York

July–September 1940 – Luftwaffe attacked RAF Fighter Command to gain air superiority as a prelude to invasion

17 August 1940 – Hitler declares a blockade of the British Isles

1 August 1940 – Edward VIII and the Duchess leave Lisbon on aboard the American Export Lines steamship Excalibur for Bermuda

9 August 1940 – Edward VIII arrives in Bermuda

12 August 1940 – Keynes given a general commission and placed on several committees of the UK Treasury, with an office in Treasury Chambers in Great George Street

18 August 1940–16 March 1945 – Edward VIII is Governor of the Bahamas

24 August 1940 – German aircraft mistakenly bomb London including church in Cripplegate, accidentally dictating the future shape of the Battle of Britain.

25 August 1940 – Churchill orders the bombing of Berlin in retaliation for the previous night's bombing of London

30 August 1940 – the bombing of England continues; London is now bombed in retaliation for the bombing of Berlin

30 August 1940 – the Second Vienna Award (2nd of two territorial disputes arbitrated by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy): Northern Transylvania (including all of Maramureș and part of Crișana) assigned to Hungary

4 September 1940 – Hitler declares the Luftwaffe would “erase” British cities as a reprisal for the R.A.F. bombing of Berlin

5 September 1940 – General Ion Antonescu becomes Prime Minister of Romania, and King Carol transfers most of his dictatorial powers to him. The political history of Romania:
5 September 1940–23 August 1944 – General Ion Antonescu is Prime Minister of Romania

6 September 1940 – abdication of Carol II of Romania (8 June 1930–6 September 1940)

6 September 1940–30 December 1947 – second reign of Michael I of Romania; Michael makes Ion Antonescu conducător (leader), or effective dictator of Romania

14 September 1940–14 February 1941 – the National Legionary State in Romania, a one-party totalitarian dictatorship dominated by the Iron Guard in conjunction with Prime Minister Ion Antonescu

23 September 1940 – Charles Coughlin announces in Social Justice that he was forced off radio

23 November 1940 – Romania signs the Tripartite Pact, and formally joins the Axis Powers

21–23 January 1941 – the Legionnaires’ rebellion and the Bucharest pogrom in Bucharest, Romania; after the privileges of the Iron Guard were reduced by Ion Antonescu, the Iron Guard stages a failed rebellion; the Iron Guard movement was banned and 9,000 of its members were imprisoned

14 February 1941 – the National and Social State proclaimed in Romania

23 August 1944 – King Michael’s Coup, a coup d’état led by King Michael I of Romaniain 1944 to remove the government of Ion Antonescu

1 June 1946 – execution of Ion Antonescu by military firing squad near Jilava
7 September 1940 – in one of the major misjudgements of the war, the Luftwaffe shifts its focus to London, away from the RAF airfields

7 September 1940–21 May 1941 – The Blitz

7 September 1940 – first major raid in this regard took place on London

13 September 1940 – Keynes gives a BBC broadcast to the empire and the US on UK finance

18 September 1940 – a landmine explodes opposite Keynes’ house in London

by 24 September 1940 – Kim Philby a Section D officer in SIS

24 September 1940 – Berlin suffers a large bombing raid by the RAF

24 September 1940 – release date of the German movie Jud Süß, directed by Veit Harlan

27 September 1940 – the Tripartite Pact is signed in Berlin by Germany, Italy, and Japan, promising mutual aid. Its informal name “Axis”

15 October 1940 – New York release date of Charlie Chaplin’s film The Great Dictator (release date in London 7 March 1941)

17 October 1940–18 October 1941 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story The Crab with the Golden Claws in the Belgian newspaper Le Soir Jeunesse

22 October 1940 – Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. (US Ambassador to the UK: 8 March 1938–22 October 1940) sails for America

28 October 1940 – the Italian Royal Army launches attacks into Greece from Italian-held Albania and begins the Greco-Italian War

28 October 1940–23 April 1941 – Greco-Italian War (Italian Campaign in Greece):
25 November 1935–1 April 1947 – George II (Glücksburg) is king of Greece
13 April 1936–29 January 1941 – Ioannis Metaxas is Prime Minister of Greece
29 January 1941–18 April 1941 – Alexandros Koryzis is Prime Minister of Greece
21–29 April 1941 – Emmanouil Tsouderos is Prime Minister of Greece
28 October–13 November 1940 – Italian offensive against Greece
14 November 1940–6 January 1941 – Greek counter-offensive
20 April 1941 – 18:00: Georgios Tsolakoglou signs Greek protocol of surrender
23 April 1941 – King George II flees the Greek mainland for Crete, and then Egypt
27 April 1941 – Germans occupy Athens
5 November 1940 – President Roosevelt wins a third term

9 November 1940 – Neville Chamberlain dies of cancer at the age of 71

6–9 December 1940 – British and Indian troops of the Western Desert Force launch Operation Compass, an offensive against Italian forces in Egypt

28 December 1940 – Greco-Italian War continues to go badly for the Italians and the Greeks hold roughly one-quarter of Albania: Italy requests military assistance from Germany against the Greeks

29 December 1940 – large German air-raids on London; St Paul’s Cathedral is damaged

1941 – Karl Theodore Dussik from the University of Vienna uses ultrasound for brain imagining

1941–1942 – Ronald Syme works at the British Embassy at Ankara

1941–1945 – Ernst Badian enrolled in BA at Canterbury College, University of New Zealand; he graduates with an BA in 1945; an MA in 1946

January 1941–June 1944 – Guy Burgess rejoins the BBC Talks Department

January 1941 – UK Treasury moves out of Great George Street to the top of Whitehall

January 1941 – Halifax set sail for the US as British Ambassador to the United States

11 February 1941 – death of Rudolf Hilferding in La Santé, Paris

11 March 1941 – United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs the Lend Lease Act (now passed by the full Congress) allowing Britain, China, and other allied nations to purchase military equipment and to defer payment until after the war

24 March 1941 – Rommel attacks and reoccupies El Agheila, Libya in his first offensive. The British retreat and within three weeks are driven back to Egypt

28 March 1941 – suicide of Virginia Woolf

3 April 1941 – suicide of Pál Teleki (Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hungary) in opposition to German invasion of Yugoslavia via Hungary:
1 March 1920–15 October 1944 – Miklós Horthy (Admiral Horthy) is Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary
Prime Minister of Hungary
14 May 1938–16 February 1939 – Béla Imrédy
16 February 1939–3 April 1941 – Pál Teleki
3 April 1941–7 March 1942 – László Bárdossy
9 March 1942–22 March 1944 – Miklós Kállay
March 1944 – Germans occupy Hungary
16 October 1944–28 March 1945 – Ferenc Szálasi is Leader of the Nation and Prime Minister (Arrow Cross Party)
6 April 1941 – Forces of Germany, Hungary, and Italy, moving through Romania and Hungary, initiate the invasions of Yugoslavia and Greece

6–18 April 1941 – the German invasion of Yugoslavia (April War or Operation 25):
6–7/8 April 1941 – Operation Retribution, German bombing of Belgrade
12 April 1941 – Hungarian Third Army invades Yugoslavia
12 April 1941 – Germans occupy Belgrade
17 April 1941 – Foreign Minister Aleksandar Cincar-Marković and General Milojko Janković signs armistice and unconditional surrender all Yugoslav troops
c. 25 April 1941–c. July 1942 – Ronald Syme Press Attache at the British Embassy, Ankara

8 May–28 July 1941 – John Maynard Keynes in America

10 May 1941 – 17:45–23:06: Rudolf Hess’ flight from Augsburg-Haunstetten airfield, Augsburg, Bavaria to Floors Farm, Eaglesham, south of Glasgow

20 May 1941 – German paratroopers land on Crete; the battle for Crete will continue for seven days

1 June 1941 – Commonwealth forces complete the withdrawal from Crete

4 June 1941 – Wilhelm II dies of a pulmonary embolus in Doorn, Netherlands

22 June 1941 – Operation Barbarossa begins

30 June 1941 – the Declaration of Ukrainian Independence announced by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) under Stepan Bandera in Lviv:
30 June–September 1941 – Ukrainian national government, led by Stepan Bandera; leader of the government was Yaroslav Stetsko
September 1941–August 1944 – Reichskommissariat Ukraine administered by Reichskommissar Erich Koch
5 July 1941 – Stepan Bandera transferred to Berlin after arrest

9 August 1941 – Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet at NS Argentia, Newfoundland. The Atlantic Charter is created, signed, and released to the world press

September 1941–August 1944 – Reichskommissariat Ukraine administered by Reichskommissar Erich Koch

5 September 1941 – US release date of Orson Welles’ movie Citizen Kane; 1 May 1941 release date at the Palace Theatre

29–30 September 1941 – the Babi Yar ravine massacre outside Kiev

October 1941–November 1943 – Operation Reinhard in Poland:
1 October 1941–22 July 1944 – Lublin/Majdanek
16 March 1942 – Operation Reinhard begins
March 1942 – Majdanek converted into killing center
17 March 1942–June 1943 – Bełżec
16 May 1942–14 October 1943 – Sobibór
22 July 1942–October 1943 – Treblinka
19 October 1943 – Odilo Globočnik announces completion of Operation Reinhard
20 October 1941–21 May 1942 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story The Shooting Star in Le Soir magazine

30 November, 8 December 1941 – Rumbula massacre in which about 25,000 Jews were killed in or on the way to Rumbula forest near Riga, Latvia

7 December 1941 – Japanese planes attacked the United States Naval Base at Pearl Harbour

8 December 1941 – just after midnight, Japanese invasion of Malaya began

8 December 1941–11 April 1943
23 June 1944–18 January 1945
– Chełmno extermination camp

8 December 1941 – the US Congress declares war on the Empire of Japan an hour after the Infamy Speech of Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered to a Joint Session of Congress

11 December 1941 – the US Congress declares war on Germany; the vote was 88–0 in the Senate and 393–0 in the House

12 December 1941 – release date of the famous Universal Pictures movie the The Wolf Man, starring Lon Chaney, Jr.

20 January 1942 – Wannsee Conference in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee, called by the director of the Reich Main Security Office SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich

March 1942–c. July 1943? – John Cairncross moves to Bletchley Park to Hut 3

11 June 1942–14 January 1943 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story The Secret of the Unicorn in the Belgian newspaper Le Soir

c. July 1942–May 1945 – Ronald Syme is Professor of Classical Philology at University of Istanbul

August 1942 – Heinrich Himmler tells Karl Wolff (Chief of Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS) of Operation Reinhard

23 August 1942–2 February 1943 – the battle of Stalingrad

8 November 1942 – Operation Torch, the British-American invasion of French North Africa during the North African Campaign; three amphibious Allied task forces attack areas of Morocco (targeting Casablanca and Safi) and Algeria (Oran and Algiers)

21 December 1942 – death of Franz Boas

1943–1948 – Ludwig Lachmann teaches at the University of Hull

January–May 1943 – Christopher Lee works as an intelligence officer for the RAF in North Africa

23 January 1943 – US release date of the movie Casablanca, starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman

February–September 1943 – Hergé’s Red Rackham’s Treasure serialised daily in Le Soir

13 March 1943 – assassination attempt on Hitler by Henning von Tresckow at Smolensk on the Eastern Front, when Lieutenant Colonel Heinz Brandt is given a bottle of Cointreau that was a bomb

10 April 1943 – marriage of Peter Cushing and Helen Beck

13 April 1943 – Reichssender Berlin broadcast to the world of the discovery of the Katyn forest massacre near Smolensk

15 April 1943 – Ayn Rand publishes The Fountainhead

19 April–16 May 1943 – Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the 1943 act of Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland

c. May 1943–May 1944 – the Bengal famine of 1943 in Bengal Province of pre-partition India; between 1.5 and 4 million people died of starvation, malnutrition and disease

May 1943 – de Gaulle moved his headquarters to Algiers

12 May 1944 – death of Harold Godfrey Lowe (5th officer of the RMS Titanic) in Deganwy, Wales

July 1943 – Gore Vidal enlists in the army after his graduation; he serves from December 1944 to March 1945

5 July 1943–23 August 1943 – the battle of Kursk:
5–16 July 1943 – the Operation Citadel German offensive
12 July–23 August 1943 – Soviet offensive with the Kursk Strategic Offensive Operation and Operation Kutuzov
19 October 1943 – Odilo Globočnik announces to Himmler the completion of Operation Reinhard

December 1943–September 1944 – first serialisation of The Seven Crystal Balls in Le Soir; story cancelled after Allied liberation in September 1944, when Hergé accused of collaborating with Germans

1944 – Karl Polanyi’s The Great Transformation is published

1944–1945 – John Cairncross at MI6

March 1944 – mass production of penicillin at an old ice factory in Brooklyn by Charles Pfizer & Co. under its vice-president John L. Smith

19 March 1944 – German troops occupy Hungary

June 1944 – Guy Burgess accepts employment in the News Department of the Foreign Office

3 June 1944 – de Gaulle flies back to the UK

20 July 1944 – Claus von Stauffenberg and other conspirators attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler at the Wolf's Lair field headquarters near Rastenburg, East Prussia; Operation Valkyrie

21 July 1944 – Stauffenberg, 1st Lieutenant Werner von Haeften, General Friedrich Olbricht, and Colonel Albrecht Mertz von Quirnheim executed before 1 am by firing squad in the courtyard of the Bendlerblock

26 August 1944 – de Gaulle liberates Paris

September 1944 – publication of Friedrich Hayek’s The Road to Serfdom by the University of Chicago Press

September 1944 – Kim Philby appointed by Major General Stewart Menzies, Director-General of MI6 as head of Section IX (Soviet Affairs)

10 November 1944 – Churchill flew to Paris to a reception by de Gaulle and the two together were greeted by thousands of cheering Parisians on the next day

1945 – John Cairncross returns to work at the Treasury

1945 – Karl Popper publishes The Open Society and Its Enemies

26 March 1945 – Lloyd George died of cancer aged 82

7 May 1945 – SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany’s surrender

8 May 1945 – Victory in Europe Day

5 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election of 1945; some polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks

17 July–2 August 1945 – Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany

26 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election results counted and declared on 26 July owing in part to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas

26 July 1945 – Churchill resigns as British Prime Minister

26 July 1945–26 October 1951 – Clement Attlee as British Prime Minister

15 August 1945 – Emperor Hirohito issues a radio broadcast announcing the Surrender of Japan

17 August 1945 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Animal Farm: A Fairy Story in Britain; on 26 August 1946 in the US

2 September 1945 – The Japanese Instrument of Surrender is signed on the deck of the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay

2 September 1945 – formal end of WWII

5 September 1945 – Singapore is officially liberated by British and Indian troops

9 September 1945 – The Japanese troops in China formally surrender, end of the Second Sino-Japanese War

24 October 1945 – the United Nations officially comes into existence on the ratification of the UN Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council (France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the UK and the US) and a majority of the other 46 signatories

22 December 1945 – death of Otto Neurath in Britain

January 1946 – Karl Popper arrives back in England from New Zealand

6 January 1946 – the first meeting of the UN General Assembly (with 51 nations present) and the Security Council takes place in London (the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the United Nations; the facility was completed in 1952)

20 January 1946 – de Gaulle abruptly resigned

5 March 1946 – Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri

21 April 1946 – John Maynard Keynes dies at his home Tilton in Firle, Sussex

22 July 1946 – release date of the film Beware of Pity, starring Lilli Palmer, Albert Lieven and Cedric Hardwicke

13 August 1946 – death of H. G. Wells

20 December 1946 – release date of Frank Capra’s film It’s a Wonderful Life