Thursday, May 16, 2019

Chronology of the 12th Century

1100
5 December 1100–2 April 1118 – Baldwin I is King of Jerusalem:
Kings of Jerusalem
House of Boulogne (1099–1118)

22 July 1099–18 July 1100 – Godfrey of Bouillon is Defender of the Holy Sepulchre
5 December 1100–2 April 1118 – Baldwin I

House of Rethel (1118–1153)
14 April 1118–21 August 1131 – Baldwin II
1131–1153 – Melisende is Queen of Jerusalem

House of Anjou (1153–1205)
August 1131–13 November 1143 – Fulk
25 December 1143–10 February 1163 – Baldwin III
February 1163–11 July 1174 – Amalric
11 July 1174–16 March 1185 – Baldwin IV
16 March 1185–August 1186 – Baldwin V
1186–25 July 1190 – Sibylla is Queen of Jerusalem
August 1186–summer 1190/May 1192 – Guy of Lusignan
summer 1190/1192–5 April 1205 – Isabella I of Jerusalem
1101
May–August 1101 – crusade of 1101

June 1101–28 September 1105 – Simon is Count of Sicily

c. October 1101 – Almoravids begin siege of Valencia

1102
5 May 1102 – Valencia captured by the Almoravids

1105
c. 1 January 1105 – death of Barkiyaruq Sultan of the Seljuk Empire when travelling to Baghdad:
November 1092–c. 1 January 1105 – Barkiyaruq Sultan of the Seljuk Empire (proclaimed at Ray)

Baghdad
January 1105 – Malik-Shah II is Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad
1105–18 April 1118 – Muhammad I Tapar is Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad (theoretically the head of dynasty)
18 April 1118 – death of Muhammad I Tapar
April 1118–1131 – Mahmud II (Seljuq sultan of Baghdad)
1131–1134 – Toghrul II
1134–13 September 1152 – Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud
13 September 1152 – death of Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud at Hamadan
13 September 1152–1153 – Malik-Shah III
1153–December 1159/January 1160 – Muhammad II ibn Mahmud
December 1159/January 1160 – death of Muhammad II ibn Mahmud at Hamadan

Khorasan
1096 – Ahmad Sanjar given the province of Khorasan by Muhammad I
1097–1118 – Ahmad Sanjar is ruler of Khorasan
c. April 1118–8 May 1157 – Ahmad Sanjar is Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire (capital at Merv)
1119 – Ahmad Sanjar defeats Mahmud II at Sawa in northern Jibal

Hamadan
January 1159–October 1160 – Suleiman-Shah
1161–1176 – Arslan-Shah
1176–19 March 1194 – Toghrul III (last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire)
September 1105–26 February 1154 – Roger II is Count of Sicily:
July 1127 – Roger II inherits all Hauteville family possessions in the Italian peninsula and overlordship of the Principality of Capua after the death of William II of Apulia
25 December 1130 – the Kingdom of Sicily created by Roger II of Sicily
1106

1107
October 1107 – army of Bohemond of Tarente lands in Dyrrachium to conquer Byzantine Empire

November 1107–September 1108 – siege of Dyrrhachium by the Normans under Bohemond I of Antioch held by the doux Alexios Komnenos

1108
29 May 1108 – battle of Uclés between Christian forces of Castile and León under Alfonso VI and Muslim Almoravids under Tamim ibn-Yusuf, near Uclés just south of the river Tagus; Alfonso VI defeated

1109
21 April 1109 – death of Anselm of Canterbury, Archbishop of Canterbury

1110
May 1110 – crusaders conquer Beirut

1111
22 February 1111 – death of Roger Borsa (Duke of Apulia and Calabria)

22 February 1111–July 1127 – William II is Duke of Apulia

13–29 September 1111 – battle of Shaizar between Crusader army under King Baldwin I of Jerusalem and a Seljuk army led by Mawdud ibn Altuntash of Mosul, at Shaizar, Syria; the result is a tactical draw

1114
November 1114 – William II comes of age and invested with ducky of Apulia by Pope Pascal II at the Council of Ceprano

1127
July 1127 – Roger II inherits all Hauteville family possessions in the Italian peninsula and overlordship of the Principality of Capua after the death of William II of Apulia

1127
1127–14 September 1146 – Imad ad-Din Zengi is Atabeg of Mosul:
1128–14 September 1146 – Imad ad-Din Zengi rules Aleppo
1138
April 1138 – armies of the Byzantine emperor and the crusader princes besiege Shaizar

1144
24 December 1144 – Zengi captures the crusader County of Edessa

1146
14 September 1146 – Imad ad-Din Zengi killed by Frankish slave named Yarankash:
Zengid Rulers
Zengid Emir of Mosul and the Jezirah (northern Iraq)
14 September 1146–November 1149 – Saif ad-Din Ghazi I
November 1149–6 September 1170 – Qutb ad-Din Mawdud
6 September 1170–1180 – Ghazi II Saif ud-Din
22 January 1171 – Imad ad-Din Zengi II (from Aleppo) captures Mosul
1180–1193 – Izz ad-Din Mas'ud
1193–1211 – Nur ad-Din Arslan Shah I

Aleppo
14 September 1146–15 May 1174 – Nur ad-Din

Damascus
1156–15 May 1174 – Nur ad-Din
September 1146–15 May 1174 – Nur ad-Din is Emir of Damascus and Aleppo:
Aleppo
14 September 1146–15 May 1174 – Nur ad-Din

Damascus
1156–15 May 1174 – Nur ad-Din
4 March 1152–10 June 1190 – Frederick I Barbarossa is King of Germany:
6 April 1147–4 March 1152 – Frederick I Barbarossa is Duke of Swabia
1152–10 June 1190 – Frederick I Barbarossa is King of Burgundy
1155–10 June 1190 – Frederick I Barbarossa is King of Italy
2 January 1155–10 June 1190 – Frederick I Barbarossa is Holy Roman Emperor
13 September 1152 – death of Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud at Hamadan:
Breakup of Seljuk Empire
Baghdad
19 November 1092–c. 11 November 1094 – Mahmud I of Great Seljuq
c. 11 November 1094 – death of Mahmud I at Baghdad
1105 – Malik-Shah II is Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad
1105–1118 – Muhammad I Tapar is Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad (theoretically the head of dynasty)
1118–1131 – Mahmud II (Seljuq sultan of Baghdad)
1131–1134 – Toghrul II
1134–13 September 1152 – Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud
13 September 1152 – death of Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud at Hamadan
1152–1153 – Malik-Shah III
1153–1159 – Muhammad II ibn Mahmud

Ray
November 1092–1105 – Barkiyaruq Sultan of the Seljuk Empire (proclaimed at Ray)
February 1095? – Barkiyaruq recognised as sultan in Baghdad

Hamadan
January 1159–October 1160 – Suleiman-Shah
1161–1176 – Arslan-Shah
1176–19 March 1194 – Toghrul III (last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire)

Khorasan
1096 – Ahmad Sanjar given the province of Khorasan by Muhammad I
1097–1118 – Ahmad Sanjar is ruler of Khorasan
1118–8 May 1157 – Ahmad Sanjar is Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire

Seljuq Sultan of Damascus
1078–1092 – Tutush I (Seljuq emir of Damascus)
c. November 1092–March/April 1094 – Tutush I
March/April 1094 – death of Tutush I after defeat by Sultan Barkiyaruq near Ray

Ruler of Damascus
1095–1104 – Duqaq is Emir of Damascus
1104–1128 – Toghtekin (atabeg of Damascus)

Ruler of Aleppo
1095–10 December 1113 – Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (Seljuq ruler of Aleppo)

Seljuq Sultans of Rum
c. November 1092–1107 – Kilij Arslan I
1110–1116 – Malik Shah

19 March 1194 – death of Toghrul III (last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire)
1153–1160 – Muhammad II ibn Mahmud is Seljuk Sultan of Hamadan:
Seljuk Sultans of Hamadan (1118–1194)
1118–1131 – Mahmud II
1131 – Da'ud (in Jibal and Iranian Azerbaijan)
1131–1134 – Tugrul II
1134–1152 – Mas'ud
1152–1153 – Malik Shah III
1153–1160 – Muhammad II
1160–1161 – Suleiman Shah
1161–1174 – Arslan Shah
1174–1194 – Tugrul III
1160
12 March 1160–18 December 1170 – Al-Mustanjid is 32nd Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad

23 July 1160–13 September 1171 – Al-Adid is last Caliph of the Fatimid Dynasty in Egypt

1161

1169
26 March 1169–11 September 1171 – Saladin is vizier of Fatimid Egypt; he receives the title of al-Malik al-Nasir (King Protector)

1170
28 November 1170–20 January 1191 – Frederick VI Hohenstaufen is Duke of Swabia

1171
13 September 1171 – death of Al-Adid, the last Caliph of the Fatimid Dynasty in Egypt

1171–1260 – Ayyubid Sultanate in Egypt and Syria

17 September 1171 – Abbasid khutba (Friday sermon) pronounced in Fustat and Cairo

1172
1172–1200 – Ala ad-Din Tekish is Shah of the Khwarazmian Empire:
Shah of the Khwarazmian Empire
1127–1156 – Atsiz
1156–1172 – Il-Arslan
1172–1200 – Ala ad-Din Tekish
1200–1220 – Terken Khatun (wife of Ala ad-Din Tekish) as regent
1200–1220 – Muhammad II of Khwarazm
1220–1231 – Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
1174
15 May 1174 – death of Nur ad-Din in the citadel of Damascus

1174 – As-Salih Ismail al-Malik is emir of Damascus (died 1181)

11 July 1174–16 March 1185 – Baldwin IV the Leper is King of Jerusalem

23 November 1174 – Saladin takes Damascus from the Zengids

1174? – Saladin assumes the title of sultan in Egypt

1174–4 March 1193 – Saladin is Sultan of Egypt and Syria

1182
11 May 1182 – Saladin leaves Cairo with half of the Egyptian Ayyubid army for Syria

21 May 1182 – Saladin camped near Aleppo

12 June 1182 – Aleppo taken by Saladin

10 November 1182 – Saladin lays siege to Mosul

30 December 1182 – Saladin takes Sinjar

1183

1184
1184–2 October 1187 – fictional date of film Kingdom of Heaven, directed and produced by Ridley Scott, starring Orlando Bloom, Eva Green, Ghassan Massoud, Jeremy Irons, David Thewlis, Brendan Gleeson, Iain Glen, Marton Csokas, Liam Neeson

1185
16 March 1185 – death of Baldwin IV the Leper, King of Jerusalem

16 March 1185–August 1186 – sole reign of Baldwin V as King of Jerusalem

1186
August 1186 – death of Baldwin V (King of Jerusalem) at Acre

1186–25 July 1190 – Sibylla is Queen of Jerusalem

August 1186–summer 1190/May 1192 – Guy of Lusignan is King of Jerusalem

1187
3–4 July 1187 – battle of Hattin between the Crusader states led by Guy of Lusignan and the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din (Saladin); Saladin captured or killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces

4 July 1187–May 1188 – Guy of Lusignan in captivity

20 September–2 October 1187 – siege of Jerusalem by Saladin; Balian of Ibelin surrenders the city to Saladin; capital of Kingdom of Jerusalem shifts first to Tyre and later to Acre after the Third Crusade

2 October 1187 – Balian of Ibelin surrenders Jerusalem to Saladin

1188
May 1188 – Guy of Lusignan released from imprisonment in Damascus

1189
1189–1192 – fictional date of the Doctor Who serial “Time Warrior”?

11 May 1189–2 September 1192 – Third Crusade led by King Richard I of England, King Philip II of France, and Frederick Barbarossa

3 September 1189–6 April 1199 – Richard I is King of England, Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, and overlord of Brittany

13 September 1189 – Richard I crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey

11 December 1189 – Richard I leaves England; government entrusted to William Longchamp (the Bishop of Ely) as chancellor

1190
10 June 1190 – Emperor Frederick Barbarossa drowns near Silifke Castle in the Saleph river

July/August 1190 – death of Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem in an epidemic

autumn 1190 – fictional date of the Doctor Who serial “Robot of Sherwood,” set in Sherwood Forest, Nottingham

September 1190–April 1191 – King Richard I of England and King Philip II of France occupy Sicily

1191
20 January 1191 – death of Frederick VI of Hohenstaufen (Duke of Swabia) dies of disease, aged 23, at Acre

8 June 1191 – King Richard I lands at Acre

October 1191 (or 1192) – fictional date of Doctor Who serial “The Crusade,” set in Jaffa, Palestine

1191 – fictional date of Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves

1192
May 1192 – Guy de Lusignan buys Cyprus from the Templars

9 October 1192 – King Richard I (ill with scurvy) leaves for England

1194
4 February 1194 – King Richard I released from imprisonment in Trifels Castle by Henry VI (Holy Roman Emperor)

March–May 1194 – Richard I returns to England

19 March 1194 – death of Toghrul III (last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire)

18 July 1194 – death of Guy of Lusignan in Cyprus

1199
6 April 1199 – death of Richard the Lionheart at Château de Chalus-Chabrol, Châlus, Haute-Vienne, France

27 May 1199–19 October 1216 – John is King of England

c. April 1199 – fictional date of Robin Hood (2010 film)

1202
October 1202–April 1204 – Fourth Crusade, called by Pope Innocent III, to reconquer Jerusalem by an invasion through Egypt; the Crusaders sacked Constantinople

12–13 April 1204 – capture of Constantinople

1207 – fictional date of early scene of the Doctor Who serial “The Bells of Saint John,” set in a monastery in Cumbria

3–5 March 1215 – fictional date of Doctor Who serial “The King’s Demons”

Tuesday, May 14, 2019

Chronology of the 11th Century

April 962 – Alp-Tegin (with his guard of Turkic slave-soldiers and group of Iranian ghazis) defeats a Samanid army at Balkh

September 963 – death of Alp-Tegin as Samanid governor of Ghazna:
Samanid Governor of Ghazna / Emir of Ghazna
September 963–November 966 – Abu Ishaq Ibrahim of Ghazna
12 November 966–975 – Bilgetegin
974/975–20 April 977 – Böritigin of Ghazni
20 April 977–5 August 997 – Abu Mansur Sabuktigin
5 August 997–998 – Ismail of Ghazni
998–30 April 1030 – Mahmud of Ghazni
18 March 978–1013 – Æthelred the Unready is king of England (first reign)

986–1014 – Sweyn I Forkbeard is king of Denmark

990–992 – Hasan (or Harun) b. Sulayman (a Karakhanid ruler) attackes the Samanids and captures Isfijab, Ferghana, Ilaq, Samarkand, and the Samanid capital Bukhara, but these are retaken late

997 – Kara-Khanid conquest of Tashkent

998
March 998–30 April 1030 – Mahmud of Ghazni is Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire:
Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire (977–1186)
Ghaznavids were Persianised Turks
May 1030–August 1030 – Muhammad of Ghazni (first reign)
August 1030–c. 23 December 1040 – Mas'ud I
21 December 1040–April 1041 – Muhammad of Ghazni (second reign)
28 April 1041–winter 1050 – Mawdud of Ghazni
999
February–October 999 – 'Abd al-Malik II is the last Samanid ruler

23 October 999 – Kara-Khanid conquest of Bukhara and Transoxiana; Kara-Khanid divide Samanid realm with Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud

1000
25 December 1000–15 August 1038 – Saint Stephen I is king of Hungary:
House of Árpád (c. 895–14 January 1301)
15 August 1038–September 1041 – Peter the Venetian
September 1046–December 1060 – Andrew I the White
6 December 1060–11 September 1063 – Béla I the Champion
September 1063–14 March 1074 – Solomon
14 March 1074–25 April 1077 – Géza I Magnus
25 April 1077–29 July 1095 – Saint Ladislaus I
1095–3 February 1116 – Coloman the Learned
25 December 1013–3 February 1014 – Sweyn Forkbeard is king of England:
18 March 978–1013 – Æthelred the Unready is king of England (first reign)
986–1014 – Sweyn I Forkbeard is king of Denmark
3 February 1014–23 April 1016 – Æthelred the Unready (second reign)
18 October 1016–12 November 1035 – Cnut the Great is king of England:
1018–12 November 1035 – Cnut the Great is King of Denmark
1028–12 November 1035 – Cnut the Great is King of Norway
18 October 1016–12 November 1035 – Cnut the Great is king of England:
House of Wessex
3 February 1014–23 April 1016 – Æthelred the Unready (second reign)
23 April 1016–30 November 1016 – Edmund Ironside

House of Denmark
18 October 1016–12 November 1035 – Cnut the Great
c. 18 October 1016–30 November 1016 – Edmund Ironside is king in Wessex
30 November 1016 – death of Edmund Ironside
12 November 1035–17 March 1040 – Harold Harefoot
17 March 1040–8 June 1042 – Harthacnut

House of Wessex
8 June 1042–5 January 1066 – Edward the Confessor

House of Godwin
6 January 1066–14 October 1066 – Harold Godwinson
c. 18 October 1016–30 November 1016 – Edmund Ironside is king in Wessex

30 November 1016 – death of Edmund Ironside

1020–June 1045 – Rainulf Drengot (Ranulf) is first Norman count of Aversa:
1045 – Asclettin Drengot
1045–1046 – Rodulf Cappello
1045–1048 – Rainulf II Trincanocte
1048–1049 – Herman
1049–1078 – Richard I
Count of Aversa and Prince of Capua
1058 – Richard I conquers the Principality of Capua and becomes prince of Capua
1078–1091 – Jordan I
1090/1091–1105/1106 – Richard II
1106–1120 – Robert I
1120 – Richard III
June 1120–19 December 1127 – Jordan II
1127–1156 – Robert II
15 December 1025–11 November 1028 – Constantine VIII is Byzantine Emperor

14 April 1028–5 October 1056 – Henry III is King of Germany (King of the Romans):
4 June 1039–5 October 1056 – Henry III is King of Italy
4 June 1039–5 October 1056 – Henry III is King of Burgundy
25 December 1046–5 October 1056 – Henry III is Holy Roman Emperor
1030
1030–17 January 1040 – Mas'ud I is Sultan of the Ghaznavid Empire

1032–21 March 1076 – Robert I the Old is Duke of Burgundy:
1004 – Burgundy annexed by the king
House of Capet (1004–1032)
House of Burgundy (1032–1361)
1032–21 March 1076 – Robert I the Old
21 March 1076–1079 – Hugh I
1079–23 March 1103 – Odo I Borel the Red
23 March 1103–1143 – Hugh II
April 1033/1034–21 April 1109 – life of Anselm of Canterbury, the Benedictine monk, abbot, philosopher and theologian, and archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109

1035
1035–25 October 1047 – Magnus the Good (Magnus Olafsson) is king of Norway

3 July 1035–9 September 1087 – William the Conqueror is Duke of Normandy

1037
1037–4 September 1063 – Tughril is Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire

1040
23 May 1040 – battle of Dandanaqan between Tughril (and his brother Chaghri Beg) of the Seljuqs and Mas'ud of Ghaznavid Empire; the Seljuq victory ends Ghaznavid domination in the Khorasan

September 1042–1046 – William I of Hauteville is elected count by the Normans

1046–25 September 1066 – Harald Sigurdsson (Hardrada) is king of Norway

1046–10 August 1051 – Drogo of Hauteville is Count of Apulia and Calabria

August 1051–August 1057 – Humphrey of Hauteville is Count of Apulia and Calabria

18 June 1053 – battle of Civitate between the Normans led by Humphrey of Hauteville (Count of Apulia) and a Swabian-Italian-Lombard army (organised by Pope Leo IX) led by Gerard (Duke of Lorraine) and Rudolf (Prince of Benevento); the Norman victory led to the capture of Leo IX, and his imprisonment in Benevento

November 1053–31 December 1105 – Henry IV is King of Germany:
November 1053–31 December 1105 – Henry IV is King of Germany
5 October 1056–31 December 1105 – Henry IV is King of Italy and Burgundy
5 October 1056–31 December 1105 – Henry IV is Holy Roman Emperor
5 June 1057–22 November 1059 – Isaac I Komnenos Byzantine emperor

August 1057–23 August 1059 – Robert Guiscard is Count of Apulia and Calabria:
23 August 1059–17 July 1085 – Robert Guiscard is duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily
23 August 1059 – Pope Nicholas II invests Robert Guiscard as duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily

24 November 1059–22 May 1067 – Constantine X Doukas is Byzantine emperor:
Macedonian Dynasty (867–1056)
10 January 976–15 December 1025 – Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer
15 December 1025–15 November 1028 – Constantine VIII the Purple-born
15 November 1028–June 1050 – Zoe the Purple-born
15 November 1028–11 April 1034 – Romanos III Argyros
11 April 1034–10 December 1041 – Michael IV the Paphlagonian
10 December 1041–20 April 1042 – Michael V the Caulker
19 April 1042–after 31 August 1056 – Theodora the Purple-born
11 June 1042–7/8/11 January 1055 – Constantine IX Monomachos

September 1056–31 August 1057 – Michael VI Bringas Stratiotikos (the Old)

Komnenid Dynasty (1057–1059)
5 June 1057–22 November 1059 – Isaac I Komnenos

Doukid Dynasty (1059–1081)
24 November 1059–22 May 1067 – Constantine X Doukas
22 May 1067–24 March 1078 – Michael VII Doukas
1 January 1068–24 October 1071 – Romanos IV Diogenes
31 March 1078–4 April 1081 – Nikephoros III Botaneiates

Komnenid Dynasty (1081–1185)
4 April 1081–15 August 1118 – Alexios I Komnenos
15 August 1118–8 April 1143 – John II Komnenos
8 April 1143–24 September 1180 – Manuel I Komnenos the Great
24 September 1180–October 1183 – Alexios II Komnenos
1183–11 September 1185 – Andronikos I Komnenos
4 August 1060–29 July 1108 – Philip I the Amorous is king of France:
House of Capet
3 July 987–24 October 996 – Hugh Capet
24 October 996–20 July 1031 – Robert II the Pious (the Wise)
20 July 1031–4 August 1060 – Henry I
4 August 1060–29 July 1108 – Philip I the Amorous
29 July 1108–1 August 1137 – Louis VI the Fat
1 August 1137–18 September 1180 – Louis VII the Young
18 September 1180–14 July 1223 – Philip II Augustus
1061
May 1061 – Robert Guiscard and Roger I cross from Reggio and capture Messina in Sicily

May 1061–1091 – Norman conquest of Sicily:
June 1063 – battle of Cerami between the Normans under the command of Roger de Hauteville and a Muslim alliance of Sicilian and Zirid troops
25 December 1130 – the Kingdom of Sicily created by Roger II of Sicily, with the agreement of Pope Innocent II
1063
June 1063 – battle of Cerami between the Normans under the command of Roger de Hauteville and a Muslim alliance of Sicilian and Zirid troops

4 September 1063–15 December 1072 – Alp Arslan (Heroic Lion; Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri) is Sultan of the Seljuk Empire:
1037–4 September 1063 – Tughril Beg
4 September 1063–15 December 1072 – Alp Arslan
15 December 1072–19 November 1092 – Malik-Shah I
19 November 1092–1094 – Mahmud I
1092–1105 – Barkiyaruq
1105 – Malik-Shah II
1105–1118 – Muhammad I Tapar
1118–1131 – Mahmud II is Seljuq sultan of Baghdad
c. December 1063 – battle of Damghan between Qutalmısh and Alp Arslan

1066
5 January 1066 – Edward the Confessor dies at London

5 January–14 October 1066 – Harold Godwinson is king of England

20 March 1066 – Halley’s Comet reaches perihelion

April 1066 – Halley’s Comet appears over France and Britain

April–May 1066 – the fleet of Tostig raids Sandwich and the old kingdom of Lindsay (northern Lincolnshire)

August/September 1066 – fictional date of the Doctor Who serial “The Time Meddler,” set in Northumbria, north of the Humber river

c. 1–7 September 1066 – Hardrada raids Scarborough and slaughters inhabitants

18 September 1066 – Harald Hardrada of Norway sails his fleet up the Humber Estuary

20 September 1066 – forces of Hardrada and Tostig defeat the English earls Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria at the Battle of Fulford near York

25 September 1066 – battle of Stamford Bridge: Harold Godwinson defeats Hardrada and Tostig, who were both killed

1066–28 April 1069 – Magnus II is King of Norway

14 October 1066 – battle of Hastings between the Norman-French army of William (Duke of Normandy) and an English army under King Harold Godwinson, 7 miles (11 kilometres) northwest of Hastings, East Sussex

25 December 1066–9 September 1087 – William the Conqueror is king of England

30 December 1066 – 1066 Granada massacre: a Muslim mob storms the royal palace in Granada, in the Taifa of Granada and crucifies the vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela

1067
1067–22 September 1093 – Olaf III is co-king of Norway

1070s
1070s – the Bayeux Tapestry (commissioned by Bishop Odo) made in England

26 August 1071 – battle of Manzikert between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire near Manzikert; decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes

1072
January 1072 – Robert Guiscard invests Roger I as Count of Sicily

January 1072–22 June 1101 – Roger I is the first Norman Count of Sicily:
House of Hauteville 1130–1198
June 1101–28 September 1105 – Simon
September 1105–26 February 1154 – Roger II is Count of Sicily
July 1127 – Roger II inherits Hauteville possessions and overlordship of the Principality of Capua after death of William II of Apulia
25 December 1130 – the Kingdom of Sicily created by Roger II of Sicily
26 February 1154–7 May 1166 – William I the Bad

House of Hohenstaufen 1194–1266
November 1198–13 December 1250 – Frederick II
22 November 1220–17 July 1245 – Frederick II is Holy Roman Emperor
1085
c. 17 July 1085–22 February 1111 – Roger Borsa is Duke of Apulia and Calabria:
Duke of Apulia, Calabria, and Sicily
23 August 1059–17 July 1085 – Robert Guiscard
c. 17 July 1085–22 February 1111 – Roger Borsa
February 1111–July 1127 – William II is Duke of Apulia
September 1105–26 February 1154 – Roger II is Count of Sicily
1087
9 September 1087 – King William I (the Conqueror) dies in Rouen after a fall from his horse

26 September 1087–2 August 1100 – William II is king of England

1088
spring 1088 – rebellion of Odo of Bayeux and Robert (2nd Earl of Cornwall), half-brothers of William the Conqueror, against King William II

1089
1089–3 March 1111 – Bohemond I is Prince of Taranto

1089 – the Seljuks capture Samarkand and conquer the Western Kara-Khanid Khanate

1091
February 1091 – Normans take Noto: completion of 30-year-long conquest of Sicily

29 April 1091 – battle of Levounion: Alexios I Komnenos and his Cuman allies defeat an invading force of Pechenegs

June/July 1091 – Norman invasion of Malta by forces of Roger I

1092
October 1092–May 1094 – siege of Valencia by El Cid

19 November 1092 – death of Malik-Shah I after a hunting expedition outside Baghdad:
Breakup of Seljuk Empire
Baghdad
19 November 1092–c. 11 November 1094 – Mahmud I of Great Seljuq
c. 11 November 1094 – death of Mahmud I at Baghdad
1105 – Malik-Shah II is Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad
1105–1118 – Muhammad I Tapar is Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad (theoretically the head of dynasty)
1118–1131 – Mahmud II (Seljuq sultan of Baghdad)
1131–1134 – Toghrul II
1134–13 September 1152 – Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud
13 September 1152 – death of Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud at Hamadan
1152–1153 – Malik-Shah III
1153–1159 – Muhammad II ibn Mahmud

Ray
November 1092–c. 1 January 1105 – Barkiyaruq Sultan of the Seljuk Empire (proclaimed at Ray)
February 1095 – Barkiyaruq recognised as sultan in Baghdad

Hamadan
January 1159–October 1160 – Suleiman-Shah
1161–1176 – Arslan-Shah
1176–19 March 1194 – Toghrul III (last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire)

Khorasan
1096 – Ahmad Sanjar given the province of Khorasan by Muhammad I
1097–1118 – Ahmad Sanjar is ruler of Khorasan
1118–8 May 1157 – Ahmad Sanjar is Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire

Seljuq Sultan of Damascus
1078–1092 – Tutush I (Seljuq emir of Damascus)
c. November 1092–26 February 1095 – Tutush I
26 February 1095 – death of Tutush I after defeat by Sultan Barkiyaruq near Ray

Ruler of Damascus
c. February 1095–8 June 1104 – Duqaq is Emir of Damascus
1104–October 1104 – Tutush II
October 1104 – Irtash
Burid Atabeg of Damascus
8 June 1104–12 February 1128 – Toghtekin (founder of the Burid dynasty of Damascus)
February 1128–9 June 1132 – Taj al-Muluk Buri
June 1132–1 February 1135 – Shams-ul-Mulk Isma'il
February 1135–23 June 1139 – Shihab ad-Din Mahmud
1139–1140 – Jemal ad-Din Muhammad
1140–April 1154 – Mujir ad-Din Abaq

Ruler of Aleppo
1095–10 December 1113 – Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (Seljuq ruler of Aleppo)

Seljuq Sultans of Rum
c. November 1092–1107 – Kilij Arslan I
1110–1116 – Malik Shah

19 March 1194 – death of Toghrul III (last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire)
November 1092–c. 1 January 1105 – Barkiyaruq Sultan of the Seljuk Empire (proclaimed at Ray)

19 November 1092–c. 11 November 1094 – Mahmud I of Great Seljuq

1093
winter 1093–1094 – Tutush spends winter in Damascus

1094
1094–28 February 1105 – Raymond IV is Count of Toulouse

May 1094 – El Cid completes conquest of Valencia, Spain

May 1094–10 July 1099 – Rodrigo Díal de Vivor (El Cid) is Prince of Valencia

8 October 1094 – St Mark’s Basilica consecrated in Venice

c. 11 November 1094 – death of Mahmud I at Baghdad

1095
January 1095 – Tutush gains recognition as sultan from the Abbāsid caliph; Tutush controls Syria, Anatolia, Iraq, and western Persia

26 February 1095 – battle of Dashlu between Tutush I and Sultan Barkiyaruq near Ray; defeat of Tutush I

c. 26 February 1095 – death of Tutush I near Ray

c. February 1095–8 June 1104 – Duqaq is Emir of Damascus:
Ruler of Damascus
c. February 1095–8 June 1104 – Duqaq is Emir of Damascus
1104–October 1104 – Tutush II
October 1104 – Irtash

Burid Atabeg of Damascus
8 June 1104–12 February 1128 – Toghtekin (founder of the Burid dynasty of Damascus)
February 1128–9 June 1132 – Taj al-Muluk Buri
June 1132–1 February 1135 – Shams-ul-Mulk Isma'il
February 1135–23 June 1139 – Shihab ad-Din Mahmud
1139–1140 – Jemal ad-Din Muhammad
1140–April 1154 – Mujir ad-Din Abaq
February 1095 – Barkiyaruq recognised as sultan in Baghdad

18–28 November 1095 – the Council of Clermont, a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, called by Pope Urban II, held at Clermont, Auvergne, Duchy of Aquitaine

27 November 1095 – Pope Urban’s speech and call for the First Crusade

1096
15 August 1096–15 July 1099 – the First Crusade

April–October 1096 – the People’s Crusade (Peasants’ Crusade, Paupers’ Crusade), led by Peter the Hermit with forces of Walter Sans Avoir; army destroyed by the Seljuk forces of Kilij Arslan at Civetot, northwestern Anatolia

c. August 1096 – four main crusader armies leave Europe

November 1096–April 1097 – armies of Princes gather in Constantinople

1097
21 October 1097–3 June 1098 – siege of Antioch during the First Crusade

1098
1098–1100 – Baldwin I is Count of Edessa

July 1098–3 March 1111 – Bohemond I is Prince of Antioch

1099
7 June–15 July 1099 – siege of Jerusalem during the First Crusade

14 July 1099 – night: Crusaders launch a two-pronged assault on the walls of Jerusalem

22 July 1099–18 July 1100 – Godfrey of Bouillon is Defender of the Holy Sepulchre:
Kings of Jerusalem
House of Boulogne (1099–1118)

22 July 1099–18 July 1100 – Godfrey of Bouillon is Defender of the Holy Sepulchre
5 December 1100–2 April 1118 – Baldwin I

House of Rethel (1118–1153)
14 April 1118–21 August 1131 – Baldwin II
1131–1153 – Melisende is Queen of Jerusalem

House of Anjou (1153–1205)
August 1131–13 November 1143 – Fulk
25 December 1143–10 February 1163 – Baldwin III
February 1163–11 July 1174 – Amalric
11 July 1174–16 March 1185 – Baldwin IV
16 March 1185–August 1186 – Baldwin V
1186–25 July 1190 – Sibylla is Queen of Jerusalem
August 1186–summer 1190/May 1192 – Guy of Lusignan
summer 1190/1192–5 April 1205 – Isabella I of Jerusalem
12 August 1099 – battle of Ascalon after the capture of Jerusalem: a crusader army led by Godfrey of Bouillon defeats a Fatimid army

1101
May–August 1101 – crusade of 1101

June 1101–28 September 1105 – Simon is Count of Sicily

c. October 1101 – Almoravids begin siege of Valencia

1102
5 May 1102 – Valencia captured by the Almoravids

1105
c. 1 January 1105 – Barkiyaruq Sultan of the Seljuk Empire in in Borujerd

September 1105–26 February 1154 – Roger II is Count of Sicily:
July 1127 – Roger II inherits all Hauteville family possessions in the Italian peninsula and overlordship of the Principality of Capua after the death of William II of Apulia
25 December 1130 – the Kingdom of Sicily created by Roger II of Sicily
1111–July 1127 – William II is Duke of Apulia

July 1127 – Roger II inherits all Hauteville family possessions in the Italian peninsula and overlordship of the Principality of Capua after the death of William II of Apulia

1207 – fictional date of early scene of the Doctor Who serial “The Bells of Saint John,” set in Cumbria

Monday, January 21, 2019

Chronology of the 14th Century

1295 – Marco Polo returns to Venice during the war with Republic of Genoa

26 March 1296–1 May 1328 – First War of Scottish Independence

May–11 September 1297 – Scottish uprising led by William Wallace

11 September 1297 – battle of Stirling Bridge: Andrew Moray and William Wallace defeat the English forces of John de Warenne (6th Earl of Surrey) and Hugh de Cressingham near Stirling, on the River Forth

November 1297 – William Wallace leads a large-scale raid into northern England, through Northumberland and Cumberland

27 July 1298–1 May 1308 – Albert I is King of the Romans

summer 1299–May 1300 – Mongol invasion of Syria and Palestine under Ghazan:
December 23/24 1299 – defeat of the Mamluks in the Battle of Wadi al-Khazandar (3rd Battle of Homs)
c. 30 December 1299–6 January 1300 – capture of Damascus
February 1300 – retreat of Ghazan from Palestine
August 1299 – Marco Polo released from captivity and returns home to Venice

13 May 1301–16 July 1342 – Charles I is King of Hungary and Croatia (Capetian House of Anjou)

5 August 1305 – John de Menteith (a Scottish knight loyal to Edward) turns over William Wallace to English soldiers at Robroyston near Glasgow

23 August 1305 – execution of William Wallace at the Elms at Smithfield, London

1307–1323 – Bernard Gui is Inquisitor of Toulouse against the Albigenses at the behest of Pope Clement V and Pope John XXII:
26 August 1323–20 July 1324 – Bernardo Guido is Bishop of Diocese of Tui-Vigo
1324–30 December 1331 – Bernard Gui is bishop of Lodeve
1308–1330 – Frederick I the Fair is Duke of Austria and Styria:
House of Habsburg
1278–1282 – Rudolf I
1282–1308 – Albert I
1282–1283 – Rudolf II the Debonair
1298–1307 – Rudolf III the Good
1308–1330 – Frederick I the Fair
8 July 1307–20 January 1327 – Edward II (Edward of Caernarfon) is king of England:
House of Anjou
3 September 1189–6 April 1199 – Richard I (Richard the Lionheart)
27 May 1199–19 October 1216 – John (John Lackland)
House of Plantagenet
28 October 1216–16 November 1272 – Henry III (Henry of Winchester)
20 November 1272–7 July 1307 – Edward I Longshanks
8 July 1307–20 January 1327 – Edward II
25 January 1327–21 June 1377 – Edward III
22 June 1377–29 September 1399 – Richard II
House of Lancaster
30 September 1399–20 March 1413 – Henry IV
c. 1310–1351/1352 – Basarab I is first voivode ruler of Wallachia

29 June 1312–24 August 1313 – Henry VII is Holy Roman Emperor (House of Luxembourg)

October 1314–11 October 1347 – Louis IV, the Bavarian is Holy Roman Emperor (House of Wittelsbach)

1316-1 December 1335 –

8–9 January 1324 – death of Marco Polo in Venice

1324–30 December 1331 – Bernard Gui is bishop of Lodeve

November–December 1327 – fictional date of Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose (Il nome della rosa) set in a northern Italian monastery inspired by Sacra di San Michele (Saint Michael’s Abbey), Susa Valley, Piedmont

1328–15 June 1341 – Andronikos III Palaiologos is Byzantine emperor:
Palaiologos Emperors
15 August 1261–11 December 1282 – Michael VIII Palaiologos
11 December 1282–24 May 1328 – Andronikos II Palaiologos
1328–15 June 1341 – Andronikos III Palaiologos
15 June 1341–12 August 1376 – John V Palaiologos
1 July 1379–14 April 1390 – John V Palaiologos
30 December 1331 – death of Bernard Gui at the castle of Lauroux, Hérault department, south France

April 1333–5 November 1370 – Casimir III the Great (30 April 1310–5 November 1370) is King of Poland

December 1335 – disintegration of the Ilkhanate after the death of Abu Sa’id Bahadur Khan

December 1335–1336 – Arpa Ke’un is Ilkhan during the disintegration of the Mongol state in Persia

12 April 1336–1337 – Musa Khan is Ilkhan after being installed by the governor of Baghdad, ’Ali Padsah

September 1343 – the crisis of Tana: a Venetian noble kills a Tatar merchant, followed by pillaging and massacre of Italians in Tana

1344
February 1344 – first siege of Feodosia (Caffa) by the Mongols

1345
by 1345–1358 – Amir Qazaghan is effective ruler of the western part of the Chagatai Khanate

summer 1345 – second siege of Feodosia (Caffa) by the Mongols

1346
11 July 1346–29 November 1378 – Charles IV is Holy Roman Emperor (House of Luxembourg)
1245/1250–29 June 1312 – Great Interregnum with no formal emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
House of Luxembourg
29 June 1312–24 August 1313 – Henry VII is Holy Roman Emperor
House of Wittelsbach
October 1314–11 October 1347 – Louis IV, the Bavarian is Holy Roman Emperor
House of Luxembourg
11 July 1346–29 November 1378 – Charles IV
1411–1437 – Sigismund is King of Germany
31 May 1433–9 December 1437 – Sigismund
winter 1346–1347 – third siege of Feodosia (Caffa) by the Mongols under the command of Janibeg

1347
c. 1347 – Chagatai Khanate splits into the Western Chagatai Khanate and the Eastern Chagatai Khanate (Moghulistan)

c. 1347–1363 – Tughlugh Timur is Khan of the Eastern Chagatai Khanate (Moghulistan), raised up by the Dughlat amir Bulaji

spring 1347 – plague strikes Caffa

July 1347–1353 – the Black Death (Great Plague or the Black Plague) kills an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis; it peaks in Europe from 1347 to 1351

October 1347 – the Black Death reaches Sicily

1348
1348–1358 – Bayan Qulï is Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate

June 1348 – the Black Death reaches France, Spain, Portugal and England

c. 1352–November 1364 – Nicholas Alexander is Voivode of Wallachia

1354–1380 – Manuel Kantakouzenos (restored) is Despot of the Morea:
Despots of the Morea
1354–1380 – Manuel Kantakouzenos (restored)
1380–1383 – Matthew Kantakouzenos
1383 – Demetrios I Kantakouzenos
1383–1407 – Theodore I Palaiologos
1407–1443 – Theodore II Palaiologos
1428–1449 – Constantine Palaiologos (from 1449 emperor)
1428–1460 – Thomas Palaiologos
1449–1460 – Demetrios II Palaiologos
1358
1358 – assassination of Amir Qazaghan (effective ruler of the western part of the Chagatai Khanate):
Amir and Ruler of the Qara’unas of the Western Chagatai Khanate
by 1345–1358 – Amir Qazaghan
1358–1359 – amir Abdullah
1359 – Buyan Suldus is appointed as emir of the Ulus
c. 1359–1369/1370 – amir Husayn
c. March 1360 – Tughlugh Timur invades the Western Chagatai Khanate
27 June 1358 – Treaty of Zadar forces Venice to yield all claims to Dalmatia, and Dubrovnik accepts hegemony of King Louis I of Hungary:
1399 – Dubrovnik acquires the area between Ragusa and Pelješac (Primorje / Dubrovačko primorje) with Slano
1403–1404 – Bosnian–Ragusan War
1419–1426 – Dubrovnik acquires Konavle region, south of Astarea (Župa dubrovačka)
1458 – Republic of Ragusa signs treaty with the Ottoman Empire to be a tributary of the sultan
1481 – Dubrovnik accepts Ottoman protection
1360
1360–1393 – Bagrat V is king of Georgia

c. March 1360 – Tughlugh Timur invades the Western Chagatai Khanate

c. spring/summer 1360 – Tughlugh Timur appoints Timur (Tamerlane) as ruler of Hajji Beg’s former territories (Transoxania) around Kesh

c. 1360/1361 – Hajji Beg ousts Timur (Tamerlane)

1361
March/April 1361 – Tughlugh Timur invades the Western Chagatai Khanate and executes Amir Bayazid and Buyan Suldus

spring 1361? – Hajji Beg Barlas (leader of the Barlas tribe) is killed in Khurasan

spring 1361? – Timur (Tamerlane) given the area of Kesh (as chief of the Berlas) and commander of a tumen

spring/summer 1361 – amir Husayn is defeated by Tughlugh Timur

spring/summer 1361 – Tughlugh Timur appoints his son Ilyas Khoja as viceroy of Transoxiana:
1361–1363 – Ilyas Khoja is viceroy of Transoxiana
spring 1361 – Hajji Beg Barlas (leader of the Barlas tribe) is killed in Khurasan
1363 – death of Tughlugh Timur
1365 – Ilyas Khoja invades Transoxiana
May 1365 – Ilyas Khoja defeats Amir Husayn and Timur
summer 1365 – Ilyas Khoja besieges Samarkand
summer 1361? – Timur (Tamerlane) flees to Amir Husayn near Khiva in Khorasan

summer 1361–1364 – Timur in exile

1363
1363 – Adil-Sultan is puppet Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate under the Tribal Confederation of Amir Husayn and Amir Timur

1364
1364? – Timur (Tamerlane) is wounded in a campaign in Sistan

12 May 1364 – issue of royal charter of foundation for Jagiellonian University (University of Kraków) in Kraków, Poland

1364? – Amir Husayn and Amir Timur invade Balkh

1364–1370 – Khabul Shah is Khan of Western Chagatai Khanate (controlled by amir Husayn)

November 1364–1377 – Vladislav I is Voivode of Wallachia

winter 1364–1365 – Timur (Tamerlane) winters in Kesh

1365
spring 1365 – Ilyas Khoja invades Transoxiana

May 1365 – Ilyas Khoja defeats Amir Husayn and Timur at the battle of the Mire near Tashkent; Timer flees across the Amu-Darya to Balkh

summer 1365 – Ilyas Khoja besieges Samarkand

1366
spring 1366 - Timur and Husayn defeat the Sarbadar ruler of Samarkand; they take Samarkand

1366-1368 - Timur in exile; he invades the Ulus Chaghatay periodically against Amir Husayn

1367
winter 1367 - Timur in Qarshi near Kesh; he sends Hajji Mahmudshah Yasa'uri to govern Bukhara and collect its taxes

summer 1367 - Timur returns to Transoxiana and takes Qarshi

1367 - Timur retreats north to Tashkent

1368
1368-1392 - Qamar-ud-din Khan Dughlat is Khan of the Eastern Chagatai Khanate (Moghulistan)

1368 - Timur and Amir Husayn make peace; Timur returns to Kish

summer 1368 - Amir Husayn and Amir Timur campaign on the southern edge of the Ulus

late 1368 - Amir Husayn and Amir Timur went together to Balkh, and begin to build fortifications

1369
spring 1369? – Timur attacks Husayn, amir at Balkh

April 1369? – Timur becomes amir of Transoxania

1370
spring 1370? – Timur attacks Husayn, amir at Balkh

9 April 1370 – Timur officially becomes amir of Transoxania in a meeting of members of the Ulus Chagatai

9 April 1370–1384 – Suurgatmish is puppet Khan of the Western Chagatai Khanate

1372
1372/1373 – Timur attacks the Sufi dynasty of Khorezm

1380
1380 – Timur invades Khorasan

16 September 1380–21 October 1422 – Charles VI the Beloved is King of France:
House of Valois (1328–1589)
16 September 1380–21 October 1422 – Charles VI the Beloved
21 October 1422–22 July 1461 – Charles VII
22 July 1461–30 August 1483 – Louis XI
1382
1382–1410 – Ahmad Jalayir is Jalayirid (Mongol dynasty) is ruler of Iraq

1383
c. 1383–1386 – Dan I (Dănești) is Voivode of Wallachia

1383 – Timur conquers Herat

1384
1384–26 October 1403/1404 – Francesco II Gattilusio is Lord of Lesbos:
Lord of Lesbos
1384–26 October 1403/1404 – Francesco II Gattilusio
26 October 1404–1428 – Jacopo Gattilusio
1428–30 June 1455 – Dorino Gattilusio
1384

1385

1386
24 February 1386–6 August 1414 – Ladislaus the Magnanimous is king of Naples is King of Naples:
Kings of Naples
Anjou

24 February 1386–6 August 1414 – Ladislaus the Magnanimous is king of Naples
6 August 1414–2 February 1435 – Joanna II is queen of Naples
Bourbon
c. 1416 – James II (Count of La Marche)
Valois-Anjou
2 February 1435–2 June 1442 – René of Anjou is king of Naples
23 September 1386–1418 – the two reigns of Mircea I the Old as Voivode of Wallachia

23 September 1386–1395 – Mircea I the Old (first reign; Basarab) is Voivode of Wallachia

21 November 1386 – Timur captures Tbilisi (Georgia)

1387
1387–1437 – Sigismund is King of Hungary (House of Luxembourg)

spring 1387 – Timur invades Georgia

1388
1388–1394 – Nerio I Acciaioli is Duke of Athens:
Duchy of Athens
Florentine Acciaioli

1394–1395 – Antonio I Acciaioli
1395–1402 – Venetian control
1390
1390–1391 – John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus is Byzantine Emperor:
Byzantine Emperors
1391–1425 – Manuel II Palaiologos
1425–1448 – John VIII Palaiologos
1449–29 May 1453 – reign of Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos / Palaeologus (son of Manuel II)
February 1390–June 1399 – Barquq is Sultan of Egypt and Syria:
Sultan of Egypt and Syria
July 1399–1405 – An-Nasir Faraj (first reign)
1405–c. May 1412 – An-Nasir Faraj (second reign)
7 May 1412–6 November 1412 – Al-Musta'in (Abbasid caliph) is Sultan of Egypt
6 November 1412–1421 – Shaykh al-Muayyad
1393
29 August 1393 – Timur arrives at Baghdad after an 8 day march from Fars; Ahmad Jalayir (Jalayirid ruler) flees to Syria

1394
1394–1397 – Vlad I the Usurper (Dănești) is Voivode of Wallachia

1394 – Sultan Ahmad (Jalayirid ruler) retakes Baghdad

1395
5 September 1395–3 September 1402 – Gian Galeazzo Visconti is Duke of Milan:
Dukes of Milan
House of Visconti

3 September 1402–16 May 1412 – Giovanni Maria Visconti
16 May 1412–13 August 1447 – Filippo Maria Visconti
1397
1397 – Shah Rukh appointed as governor of Khorasan with capital at Herat

1397–31 January 1418 – Mircea I the Old (second reign; Basarab) is Voivode of Wallachia

1398
September 1398–March 1399 – Timur's invasion of India:
30 September 1398 – Timur crosses the Indus River
October 1398 – Timur advances and captures Multan
11 December 1398 Timur reaches Delhi
12 December 1398 – first battle of Delhi
18 December 1398 – second battle of Delhi
20 December 1398 – Delhi surrendered to Timur
31 December 1398 – Timur leaves Delhi
1 January 1399 – Timur leaves Delhi and goes through Firuzabad
9 January 1399 – Timur storms Meerut
16 January 1399 – Timur captures Kangra
26 January–24 February 1399 – Timur ravages territory between Haridwar and Jamuna
3 March 1399 – Timur crosses the river Chenab
1 May 1399 – Timur reaches the Oxus
1399
1399–1408 – Shams-i-Jahan is Khan of the Eastern Chagatai Khanate (Moghulistan)

1400
1 January 1399 – Timur leaves Delhi and goes through Firuzabad

9 January 1399 – Timur storms Meerut

16 January 1399 – Timur captures Kangra

26 January–24 February 1399 – Timur ravages territory between Haridwar and Jamuna

3 March 1399 – Timur crosses the river Chenab

1 May 1399 – Timur reaches the Oxus

September 1399 – Timur leaves Samarqand for his Seven Year Campaign in the West

winter 1399–1400 – Timur in Qarabagh

1400
spring–summer 1400 – Timur invades and devastates Georgia

August 1400 – Timur sacks Sivas

autmun 1400–spring 1401 – Timur's attack on Mamluk Syria

7 October 1400 – Timur captures the Syrian castle at Behesna

11 November 1400 – Timur sacks Aleppo

20 December 1400 – Timur leaves Baalbek

1401
19 January 1401 – Mamluk army routed by Timur near Damascus

23 January 1401 – Damascus submits to Timur

January–February 1401 – siege of the citadel of Damascus by Timur

May–9 July 1401 – siege of Baghdad by Timur

1402
20 July 1402 – Battle of Ankara: Bayezid captured by Timur and the Ottoman army was defeated

1403
8 March 1403 – death of Bayezid I in captivity at the court of Timur

August 1403 – Timur captures the fortress of Birtvisi in Georgia

autumn 1403 – Qara Yusuf driven out of Baghdad by Aba Bakr (grandson of Tlmur)

1404
1404–1420 – Dobruja controlled by Wallachia

1405
18 February 1405 – death of Timur on the farther side of the Syr Darya at Farab

18 February 1405–c. 13 May 1409 – Khalil Sultan is ruler of the Timurid Empire:
Rulers of the Timurid Empire (1370–1512)
18 February 1405–c. 13 May 1409 – Khalil Sultan (Transoxiana)
13 May 1409 – Shah Rukh captures Samarkand
c. May 1409–1411 – Khalil Sultan is govenor of Rayy
May 1409–March 1447 – Ulugh Beg is governor of Transoxiana
c. February 1405–13 March 1447 – Shah Rukh (ruled from Herat)
c. March 1447–27 October 1449 – Ulugh Beg (Mirza Muhammad Tāraghay)
c. March 1447–c. October 1449 – division of Timurid Empire into (1) Transoxiana and (2) Khurasan, Herat, Fars, and Iraq-e-Ajam with multipel rulers in Iran

Transoxiana
27 October 1449–9 May 1450 – Abdal-Latif Mirza
9 May 1450–June 1451 – Abdullah Mirza
June 1451–c. 17 February 1469 – Abu Sa’id Mirza is rule of Transoxiana:
1451–17 February 1469 – Samarkand and Transoxiana
March 1459–17 February 1469 – Herat
Khurasan, Herat, Fars, and Iraq-e-Ajam
c. March 1447–spring 1448 – Ala al-Dawla Mirza (Khorasan and Herat; lived on as minor ruler)
1447–1451 – Sultan Muhammad (Persia and Fars)
1449–1457 – Abul-Qasim Babur Mirza
1457 – Mirza Shah Mahmud
1457–March 1459 – Ibrahim Mirza (Herat)

March 1459–17 February 1469 – sole rule of Abu Sa’id Mirza in Transoxiana and Iran
February 1469 – the sons of Abu Sa’id Mirza divide Transoxiana after his death into Samarkand, Bukhara, Hissar, Balkh, Kabul and Farghana
1406
22 January 1406–9 March 1414 – Al-Musta'in Billah is Abbasid caliph in Cairo:
Abbasid Caliph of Cairo
9 March 1414–23 July 1441 – Al-Mu'tadid II
23 July 1441–29 January 1451 – Al-Mustakfi II
1451–1455 – Al-Qa'im
1455–7 April 1479 – Al-Mustanjid
8 April 1479–27 September 1497 – Al-Mutawakkil II
27 September 1497–1508 – Al-Mustamsik (first reign)
1508–1516 – Al-Mutawakkil III
1516–1517 – Al-Mustamsik
22 January 1517 – Al-Mutawakkil III (second reign)
1406–August 1410 – Ahmad Jalayir is ruler at Baghdad

14 October 1406 – battle of Nakhchivan: Qara Yusuf the ruler of the Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep Turkomans) defeats Abu Bakr bin Miran Shah (Timurid ruler of Azerbaijan)

1408
20 April 1408 – battle of Sardrud: Qara Yusuf defeats and kills Abu Bakr and his father Miran Shah who attempt to recapture Azerbaijan

1409
13 May 1409 – Shah Rukh captures Samarkand

May 1409–March 1447 – Ulugh Beg is governor of Transoxiana

May 1409–13 March 1447 – Shah Rukh (ruled from Herat) is sole ruler of the Timurid Empire

c. May 1409–1411 – Khalil Sultan is govenor of Rayy

1410
August 1410 – execution of Ahmad Jalayir by Qara Yusuf

c. August 1410–1411 – Shah Walad is Jalayir ruler

1411
29 April 1411 – Shah Muhammad captures Baghdad after months of resistance

29 April 1411–1432 – Shah Muhammad (Kara Koyunlu) is Wali of Baghdad (nominal ruler from c. August 1410)

1412
7 May 1412–6 November 1412 – Al-Musta'in (Abbasid caliph) is Sultan of Egypt

17 November 1420 – death of Qara Yusuf

1429–1431 – Abu Said Busat is ruler of the Kara Koyunlu under the suzerainty of the Timurids

1432
1432 – the Jalayirid state in lower Iraq conquered by the Kara Koyunlu

1433
1433–1445 – Ispend bin Yusuf is Kara Koyunlu ruler of Baghdad


c. 1438–1467 – Jahan Shah is Sultan of Kara Koyunlu (Black Sheep Turks)

1147
13 March 1447 – death of Shah Rukh (ruled from Herat)

c. March 1447–27 October 1449 – Ulugh Beg (Mirza Muhammad Tāraghay)

c. March 1447–c. October 1449 – division of Timurid Empire into (1) Transoxiana and (2) Khurasan, Herat, Fars, and Iraq-e-Ajam with multipel rulers in Iran

27 October 1449–9 May 1450 – Abdal-Latif Mirza is Timurid ruler of Transoxiana