Sunday, May 22, 2016

Chronology of the 19th Century

Below is a chronology of the 19th century with major military, political, social and cultural events of the time and biographical details of many historically important individuals:
5 February 1811 – the Prince of Wales George becomes the Prince Regent

25 October 1760–29 January 1820 – reign of George III

18 June 1815 – Battle of Waterloo

summer of 1816 – famous summer at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva, Switzerland, where Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley and Lord Byron meet

5 May 1818 – Karl Marx born to Heinrich Marx (a middle class lawyer) and Henrietta Pressburg in Trier

29 January 1820–26 June 1830 – reign of George IV

8 July 1822 – Percy Bysshe Shelley drowned in the Gulf of Spezia while returning from Leghorn (Livorno)

1824 – Marx was baptised as a Christian

19 April 1824 – death of Lord Byron

1830–1835 – Marx attended Trier High School

26 June 1830–20 June 1837 – reign of William IV (son of George III)

27 December 1831–2 October 1836 – the famous voyage of the Beagle of Charles Darwin

1835–1836 – Marx attended the University of Bonn to study law

1836 – before leaving for Berlin Marx became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen

1836–1840 – Marx attended the University of Berlin and joined the Young Hegelians

1837 – Marx was a follower of Hegel and neglected his studies, all to his father’s intense disapproval

20 June 1837 – accession of Queen Victoria (reigned from 1837–1901)

1838 – Marx visited his family in Trier to find his father on his death bed

late 1839 – Marx embarked on his Doctoral dissertation called The Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature

10 February 1840 – marriage of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

April 1841 – Marx was awarded his PhD from the University of Jena called The Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature

June 1841 – Marx returned to Trier, and had firm plans to be an academic, but the Prussian state had entered a period of pronounced hostility to the Young Hegelians

1842 – Marx moved to Cologne in 1842, and became a journalist, often writing for Rheinische Zeitung

October 1842–February 1843 – Marx is the informal editor of the Rheinische Zeitung

2 January 1843 – premiere of Richard Wagner’s opera The Flying Dutchman at the Semper Oper in Dresden

April 1843 – the Rheinische Zeitung was banned by the government and ceased publication

19 June 1843 – Marx marries Jenny von Westphalen

October 1843–1845 – Marx moves to Paris and writes for the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (German-French Annals) and then Vorwärts! (Forward!).

February 1844 – the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher publishes Marx’s “A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right,” and “On the Jewish Question.”

28 August 1844 – Marx meets Friedrich Engels in Paris

1844 – Marx wrote extended papers running to about 50,000 words called the “Paris Manuscripts” or “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844,” which were only published well after his death in 1927.

1843–1845 – Marx embarks on a reading of political economy, and in particular the works of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and James Mill in French translation, Jean-Baptiste Say and Wilhelm Schulz

January 1845 – the Prussian government demanded Marx’s expulsion and the French government agreed to this

April 1845 – Marx moves from Paris to Brussels

April 1845 – Helene “Lenchen” Demuth (1820–1890), a von Westphalen family servant, joined Marx’s household as a housekeeper and maid

1845–1847 – Marx lives in Brussels in Belgium

July 1845 – Marx and Engels visit Britain

1845 – Marx and Engels publish The Holy Family

1845–1847 – Marx and Engels wrote The German Ideology, but this was never published in Marx’s lifetime

1846 – Marx and Engels formed the Communist Correspondence Committee of Brussels

1847 – Marx publishes The Poverty of Philosophy, an attack on Pierre-Joseph Proudhon’s The System of Economic Contradictions, or The Philosophy of Poverty. Marx also set out his materialist view of history in this work, in which he had moved on from both Hegel and Ludwig von Feuerbach.

June 1847 – the London-based “League of the Just” held a meeting in London in which it decided to merge with Marx and Engels’ Communist Corresponding Committee. The new organisation was called the “Communist League” (1847–1852).

December 1847 to January 1848 – Marx and Engels write The Communist Manifesto

21 February 1848 – The Communist Manifesto first published

March 1848 – Belgium expels Marx after putting him in jail for a night

23 March 1848–24 March 1849 - First Italian War of Independence fought between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire

1848 – Marx in France

15 March 1848–4 October 1849 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848

April 1848 – Marx moved to Cologne

1848–1849 – Marx in Cologne

September 1848 – there was an insurrection in Cologne but this was suppressed by the Prussians and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung was shut down in October

September 1848 – Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood founded at the home of John Millais’s parents on Gower Street, London by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and William Holman Hunt

February 1849 – Marx was indicted for incitement to rebellion in Cologne, but in a trial was acquitted

19 May 1849 – Marx left Cologne

27 or 28 August 1849 – Marx arrived in London

12 November 1849 – Engels arrived in London

1849–1883 – Marx lives in London

1850 – Marx had an affair with Helene “Lenchen” Demuth (1820–1890) and an illegitimate son Frederick Demuth was born in 1851.

8 May–2 December 1850 – Marx lived at 64 Dean Street, Soho

June 1850 – Marx acquired an admission card to the library of the British Museum

1850–1856 – Marx lived at 28 Dean Street, Soho

c. November 1850 – Engels moves to Manchester to serve as a clerk in his father’s business Ermen and Engels

April 1851 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1 May–11 October 1851 – Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or The Great Exhibition, in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London

23 June 1851 – Marx’s illegitimate child Henry Frederick was born

November 1851 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

26 May–26 June 1852 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1852 – Marx published The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, an analysis of the French revolution of 1848 and the rise of the emperor Louis Napoleon III

October–November 1852 – the Cologne communist trial saw a number of the members of the Communist league connected with Marx and Willich jailed as seditious revolutionaries, and Marx agreed to the dissolution of the league

20 December 1852 – Lower Burma was formally annexed by the British empire

October 1853–30 March 1856 – Crimean war

1853–1862 – Marx turned to journalism in papers in England, the US, Prussia, Austria and South Africa, but mostly in the New York Tribune

30 April–May 1853 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1854 – Marx befriended by David Urquhart (1805–1877)

2 March 1855–13 March 1881 – reign of Alexander II of Russia

April 1855 – Marx’s son Edgar died

16 April–May 1855 – Marx and his wife visit Engels in Manchester

September–c.November 1855 – Marx and his wife visit Engels in Manchester

1856 – Marx moved out of Soho to 9 Grafton Terrace in Kentish town

6 May 1856 – birth of Sigmund Freud

c. July 1856 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1857–1858 – John Hanning Speke and Richard Francis Burton discover Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria, the source of the Nile

May 1857–June 1858 – Indian mutiny

2 May 1857 – the Reading Room of the British Library officially opened

2 August 1858 – Government of India Act 1858, the company was formally dissolved and its ruling powers over India were transferred to the British Crown

1856–1859 – the Second Opium War

1857 – UK recession

1857–1858 – Marx writes Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie (Outlines of the Critique of Political Economy), which were not even published until 1939

1 May–c. late May 1858 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

June 1859 – Marx published A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy

c.June–July 1859 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels and Dundee to see Peter Imandt and Heise

24 November 1859 – Origin of Species published

1859–1864 – the novelist Samuel Butler in New Zealand

1860 – Marx published Karl Vogt

1860 – Marx became anathema to the German émigré community in London when Karl Vogt accused Marx of being a police informer and having sold out his political allies

16 February–23 March 1860 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

11 May–30 September 1860 – Garibaldi’s Redshirts invade Sicily and Naples

November 1860 – Marx’s wife Jenny fell seriously ill with smallpox; Marx read Darwin’s revolutionary book On the Origin of Species

February–May 1861 – Marx travels to Germany, and arrived in Berlin on 18 March, in order to attempt to organise with Lassalle a new radical newspaper in Germany that he could edit. He visited Trier at this time and saw his mother, but the visit did not go well and she broke off contact. Marx visits Holland. Marx arrived back in England in May 1861

17 March 1861 – Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed King of Italy

12 April 1861–May 9 1865 – American Civil War

August–September 1861 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

14 December 1861 – death of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

11 February 1862 – death of Elizabeth Eleanor Siddal, wife of Dante Gabriel Rossetti

April 1862 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

July 1862 – the German radical Ferdinand Lassalle (1825–1864) visited Marx in London

c. September 1862 – Marx sought a job in a railway company but was turned down for bad handwriting

December 1862 – Jenny Marx travels to Paris to try and obtain a loan from an old friend, but fails

1863 – Marx starts to have severe health problems involving carbuncles, which may have been caused by an autoimmune disease

7 January 1863 – Mary Burns (1823–1863), partner of Friedrich Engels, dies

8 January 1863 – Marx writes a money-grubbing letter to Engels, which outrages Engels; however, Engels later sends £100 to Marx

30 November 1863 – Marx’s mother dies, and Marx journeys to Trier to claim an inheritance of £580

1864–December 1865 – King Ludwig II has Richard Wagner brought to Munich and Wagner’s time in Munich

8 January 1864 – birth of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale

1 February–30 October 1864 – Second Schleswig War

March 1864 – Marx moved to 1 Modena Villas (now 1 Maitland Park) in North London

12 March–25 March 1864 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

3 May–19 May 1864 – Marx visits Manchester to see Wilhelm Wolff with Engels

after 9 May 1864 – Marx receives an inheritance of £700 from his friend Wilhelm Wolff

31 August 1864 – death of Ferdinand Lassalle in a duel

28 September 1864 – Marx was involved with the International Workingmen’s Association or the First International (1864–1876), which was founded in a workmen’s meeting held in Saint Martin’s Hall, London

1865–1869 – Richard Burton in Brazil

January 1865 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

19 March–April 8 1865 – Marx visits Dutch relatives in Zalt-Bommel

20 and 27 June 1865 – Marx’s delivers a series of lectures later published as Value, Price and Profit (in 1898)

20 October–November 1865 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

November 1865 – Alfred Marshall elected to a fellowship at St John’s College at Cambridge

1866–1871 – David Livingstone’s famous trip to find the source of the Nile

March 1866 – Marx spends four weeks convalescing in Margate

14 June–23 August 1866 – Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks’ War

20 June–12 August 1866 – Third Italian War of Independence fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire

3–8 September 1866 – 1st General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association, held in Geneva, Switzerland

9 April 1867 – Marx took the manuscript of volume 1 of Capital to his in Hamburg.

22 May–2 June 1867 – Marx visits Manchester with Hermann Meyer to see Engels

2–8 September 1867 – 2nd General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), held in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland

14 September 1867 – the first volume of Das Kapital published in German

13–23 September 1867 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

14 November 1867 – Henrik Ibsen’s play Peer Gynt published in Copenhagen

2 April 1868 – Marx’s daughter Laura Marx marries Paul Lafargue

30 May–20 June 1868 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

6-13 September 1868 – the Brussels Congress of the First International

1869–1871 – Richard Francis Burton in Damascus

May–14 June 1869 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester with his daughter Eleanor

30 June 1869 – Engels retires from Ermen and Engels

August 1869 – John Ruskin appointed as the first Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford University

6–12 September 1869 – Basle Congress of the International Workingmen's Association

September 1869 – Engels and Lizzie Burns visit Dublin, Killarney and Cork

10 September-11 October 1869 – Marx and his daughter Jenny Marx visit Hanover

November 17 1869 – Suez Canal officially opened

25 August 1870 – Richard Wagner’s marriage to Cosima Liszt (the daughter of the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt)

summer 1870 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

20 September 1870 – Engels moved from Manchester to London and lived with Lydia “Lizzie” Burns, Mary Burns’s sister

19 July 1870–10 May 1871 – Franco-Prussian war

1870 – Italian troops take Rome from Papacy

2 September 1870 – Napoleon III surrenders to the Germans at Sedan

4 September 1870 – Léon Gambetta proclaimed the return of the French Republic

1871–1874 – Oscar Wilde attends Trinity College, Dublin

18 January 1871 – Wilhelm I formally proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles

28 January 1871 – the French Government of National Defence signs an armistice with the Prussians

1 March 1871 – the French national assembly officially deposed Napoleon III

18 March–28 May 1871 – Paris Commune

c. June 13 1871 – Marx published The Civil War in France

10 November 1871 – Livingstone’s famous meeting with H. M. Stanley

25 November 1871 – Henry Irving abandons his wife Florence O’Callaghan

1872 – Samuel Butler’s Erewhon: or, Over the Range is first published

1872–1890 – Richard Francis Burton British Consul in Trieste

January 1872 – Friedrich Nietzsche’s The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik) first published by E. W. Fritsch in Leipzig

22 April 1872 – Wagner leaves Switzerland and travels to live in Bayreuth

18 May 1872 – birth of Bertrand Russell at Ravenscroft, Trellech, Monmouthshire

26 June 1872–22 February 1873 – Engels publishes The Housing Question in Volksstaat

2–7 September 1872 – 5th congress of the First International meets in the Hague; Bakunin was expelled from the International and the General Council was moved to New York, which effectively killed the International so that it dissolved in 1876

10 October 1872 – Marx’s daughter Jenny Marx marries the French socialist Charles Longuet

19 March 1873 – Marx goes on a trip to Brighton with his daughter Eleanor

April 1873 – Marx leaves his daughter Eleanor in Brighton, since she wishes to leave home and find employment

8 April 1873–6 July 1875 – Julius Vogel is Premier of New Zealand

9 May 1873 – the Vienna Stock Exchange crashes, and a number of bank failures in Austria occur

22 May–June 1873 – Marx visits Manchester to see Dr Gumpert

June 1873 – the second German edition of volume I of Das Kapital is published in Hamburg

June 1873 – George Bernard Shaw leaves Dublin for London

Autumn 1873 – Freud enters Vienna University as medical student

early September 1873 – Marx’s daughter Eleanor returned to London

18 September 1873 - the American company Jay Cooke & Company declares bankruptcy; the Panic of 1873 begins

20 September 1873 - the New York Stock Exchange closes for ten days starting on this day

24 November 1873 – Marx leaves London for a spa in Harrogate (near Leeds in North England), owing to bad heath; he is accompanied by Eleanor “Tussy” Marx and visits Manchester twice during the holiday; he stays until December 15

15 December 1873 – Marx returns to London

1874–1878 – Oscar Wilde attends Magdalen College, Oxford

20 February 1874–21 April 1880 – Benjamin Disraeli is Prime Minister of the UK

mid-April 1874 – Marx takes a three-week seaside cure alone at Ramsgate (near Canterbury), owing to bad health (carbuncles and liver trouble)

July 1874 – Marx took a three-week vacation in Ryde on the Isle of Wight

15 August 1874 – Marx departed for the spa town of Karlsbad in Bohemia (which he also visited in 1875 and 1876) with his daughter Tussy

August–19 September 1874 – Marx in Karlsbad (a spa resort, now Karlovy Vary in the Czech Republic); before 8 September Marx breaks with Louis (Ludwig) Kugelmann

September 1874 – Marx went on a two-week tour of German cities and travels to Dresden, Leipzig (where he met Liebknecht), Berlin and Hamburg; he meets his publisher Meissner

17 October 1874 – Oscar Wilde enters Magdalen College, Oxford

30 November 1874 – birth of Winston Churchill

March 1875 – Marx family moves to 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street), and lived here until he died

April or early May 1875 – Marx writes the letter that would become the Critique of the Gotha Program, which was only published in 1891

21 April 1875 – Charles Stewart Parnell elected to the House of Commons

9 July 1875–4 August 1877 – Herzegovina Uprising, an uprising of ethnic Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, firstly in Herzegovina and then in Bosnia

August 1875 – Marx returned to the Karlsbad spa

November 1875 – Benjamin Disraeli buys the Khedive of Egypt’s 44% stake in the Suez canal

1876 – Cesare Lombroso’s L’Uomo Delinquente (Criminal Man) first published

24 February 1876 – the play Peer Gynt first performed in Oslo, with original music composed by Edvard Grieg

15 February 1876–1 September 1876 – Julius Vogel is Premier of New Zealand

April–May 1876 – April Uprising, the insurrection of Bulgarians against the Ottoman Empire

1 May 1876 – Queen Victoria declared empress of India

June-July 1876 – Serbia and Montenegro declare war on Turkey

18 June 1876–19 February 1878 – Montenegrin–Ottoman War, which ends in Montenegrin victory

30 June 1876–3 March 1878 – Serbo-Turkish War

13 August 1876 – beginning of the famous 1876 Bayreuth Festival and performance of Wagner’s Das Rheingold, prelude of Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelungen) at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus. The following plays are performed:
13 August 1876 – Das Rheingold (The Rhinegold)
14 August 1876 – Die Walküre (The Valkyrie)
16 August 1876 – Siegfried
17 August 1876 – Götterdämmerung (The Twilight of the Gods)
Marx arrives in Nuremberg at about 5 pm on 14 August and was unable to find accommodation in Nuremberg; he travels on to Weiden and arrives at midnight but finds no accommodation there either, because of the festival at Bayreuth; first Bayreuth Festival continues until 30 August 1876

16 August 1876 – Richard Wagner’s Siegfried premiered at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus

17 August 1876 – Richard Wagner’s Götterdämmerung (Twilight of the Gods) premiered at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus

19 August 1876 – Marx writes a letter to Engels from Karlsbad calling the Bayreuth Festival “Wagner’s Festival of Fools”

August–September 1876 – Marx returned to the Karlsbad spa with his daughter Tussy

21 August 1876 – Benjamin Disraeli was created Earl of Beaconsfield

5 September 1876 – William Gladstone published The Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East

6–12 September 1876 – Marx delayed in Karlsbad after his daughter Eleanor becomes ill with a fever

mid-September 1876 – Marx visits Max Oppenheim in Prague and then journeys the down the middle Rhine

21 September 1876 – Marx in Liège, Belgium

October 1876–August 1881 – Arthur Conan Doyle studies at the University of Edinburgh Medical School; Arthur Conan Doyle meets the Scottish lecturer Joseph Bell in 1877, who is the inspiration for Sherlock Holmes

November 1876 – Eugene Schuyler, the American Consul in Istanbul, publishes a report about the Bulgarian atrocities after his own investigation

23 December 1876–20 January 1877 – Constantinople Conference of the Great Powers (namely, Russia, Germany, France, Britain, Austria-Hungary and Italy) held in Istanbul

24 April 1877–3 March 1878 – Russo-Turkish War

August–September 1877 – Marx, his wife Jenny and daughter Eleanor travel for a holiday to Neuenahr, a spa town in Rhenish Prussia

August 1877 – establishment of the Dogberry Club, a Shakespeare reading group

3 March 1878 – the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano

25 May 1878 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s H.M.S. Pinafore first performed at the Opera Comique, London

4 June 1878 – Cyprus Convention, the secret agreement between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire which granted Cyprus to Great Britain

13 June–13 July 1878 – Congress of Berlin

July 1878 – Engels published the Anti-Dühring (1878), which was first published in serial form from January 3 1877 to July 7 1878 in the journal Vorwärts

13 July 1878 – Treaty of Berlin signed at the Radziwill Palace in Berlin

August 1878 – the famous Victorian actor Henry Irving takes the lease of the Lyceum Theatre, London; the Irish writer Bram Stoker becomes his business manager in October

12 September 1878 – Lydia “Lizzie” Burns dies

c. September 1878 to 1880 – Second Anglo–Afghan War

4–14 September 1878 – Marx is in Malvern, Worcester, with his wife, his daughter Jenny and his grandson

16 September 1878 – Engels leaves for Littlehampton (near Worthing)

20 September 1878 – Jenny Marx arrives in London

19 October 1878 – Anti-Socialist laws in Germany

November 1878 – Oscar Wilde graduates from Magdalen College, Oxford

25–26 November 1878 – James McNeill Whistler sues the critic John Ruskin, and wins

4 December 1878 – Florence Balcombe (1858–1937) and Bram Stoker married

30 December 1878 – Henry Irving revives the play Hamlet at the Lyceum with Ellen Terry as Ophelia

11 January–4 July 1879 – Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom

after January 1879 – Midlothian campaign

22 January 1879 – Battle of Isandlwana, first encounter of the Anglo–Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom

2 May 1879 – Friedrich Nietzsche resigns his position at the University of Basel

4 July 1879 – Battle of Ulundi, last major battle of the Anglo-Zulu War

c.6 August–28 August 1879 – Engels and Carl Schorlemmer are on holiday in Eastbourne

18 August 1879 – Marx’s daughter Jenny Longuet gives birth to a son, Edgar, in Ramsgate

8–20 August 1879 – Marx and Eleanor (Tussy) Marx on holiday in St. Aubin’s and St. Helier, on the Isle of Jersey

20 August 1879 – Marx and Eleanor (Tussy) Marx leave Jersey

21 August–17 September 1879 – Marx arrived in Ramsgate to visit his daughter Jenny Marx and her new son Edgar

17 September 1879 – Marx returns to London

21 October 1879 – Irish National Land League founded in Castlebar, with Charles Stewart Parnell elected president

1 November 1879 – Henry Irving’s production of The Merchant of Venice opened at the Lyceum; the famous Beefsteak Room dinners at the Lyceum begin

21 December 1879 – Henrik Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House premiered at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, Denmark

14 February 1880 – famous banquet held to celebrate the 100th performance of Henry Irving’s play The Merchant of Venice

March–May 1880 – Engels published Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (1880)

March–April 1880 – United Kingdom general election of 1880

3 April 1880 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Pirates of Penzance opens at at the Opera Comique

23 April 1880–9 June 1885 – William Ewart Gladstone Prime Minister of Britain

20 May 1880 – Henry Irving’s production of Iolanthe at the Lyceum

July 1880 – amnesty in France; Hippolyte-Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray returns to France on 4 July 1880

18 September 1880 – Henry Irving’s production of The Corsican Brothers opened at the Lyceum

3 January 1881 – Henry Irving’s production of Tennyson’s The Cup opened at the Lyceum; William Ewart Gladstone attends

24 January 1881 – William Ewart Gladstone introduced a Coercion Bill in the House of Commons, to deal with the Irish National Land League, with royal assent in March 1881

13 March 1881 – death of Alexander II of Russia

13 March 1881–1 November 1894 – reign of Alexander III of Russia

19 April 1881 – death of Benjamin Disraeli

23 April 1881 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s Patience first performed at the Opera Comique, London; the play moved to the famous Savoy Theatre on 10 October 1881

2 and 9 May 1881 – revival of Othello at the Lyceum

7 June 1881 – first meeting of the Social Democratic Federation (SDF), first socialist political party in Britain, organised by H. M. Hyndman, and whose members included William Morris, George Lansbury and Eleanor Marx

July 1881 – Eleanor Marx decides to become an actress

August–September 1881 – Marx and his wife visit Argenteuil near Paris

16 August 1881 – Marx gets a letter about his daughter Tussy’s break down, and returns to London

28 September 1881 – Charles Darwin meets Edward Aveling and Ludwig Büchner at Down House

October 1881 – Marx’s wife bedridden for weeks

10 October 1881 – the famous Savoy Theatre opened

2 December 1881 – Marx’s wife Jenny dies

5 December 1881 – Jenny Marx buried at Highgate cemetery

29 December 1881 – Marx and Tussy go to Ventnor on the Isle of Wight.

2 January 1882 – Oscar Wilde arrives in America

January 1882 – Eleanor Marx ends her engagement to Hippolyte-Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray

February 1882 – Marx goes to Argenteuil with Eleanor Marx to see his daughter Jenny

February 20 1882 – Marx arrives in Algiers and spent 3 months there, with stopovers in Argenteuil and Marseille on the way

8 March 1882 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Romeo and Juliet at the Lyceum, with Ellen Terry as Juliet

9 April 1882 – death of Dante Gabriel Rossetti

19 April 1882 – death of Charles Darwin

early May 1882 – Marx leaves Algiers for France via Monte Carlo

26 May–29 August 1882 – beginning of the second Bayreuth Festival with Richard Wagner’s play Parsifal

summer 1882 – Marx in Artenteuil

June 1882 – Arthur Conan Doyle sets up a medical practice at 1 Bush Villas in Elm Grove, Southsea, Portsmouth

30 June 1882 – Eleanor Marx attends the annual celebration of the Browning Society at University College London

July 1882–mid-August – Eleanor Marx goes to Artenteuil

31 July 1882 – Sigmund Freud begins clinical training at the General Hospital of Vienna

August 1882 – Marx then went from Artenteuil to Vevey in Switzerland, then returning to London

September 1882 – British conquer Egypt

14 September 1882 – Bram Stoker attempts to save a man attempting suicide while on a Thames ferry

20 September 1882 – Rudyard Kipling sails for India

October 1882 – Marx returns to London

11 October 1882 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Much Ado about Nothing at the Lyceum; production continues until June 1883

11 October 1882 – Eleanor Marx goes to the Lyceum to see Henry Irving’s production of Much Ado about Nothing

18 October 1882–9 March 1889 – Rudyard Kipling in India; from March to October 1889, he visits Japan and America

November 1882–January 1883 – Marx goes to Ventnor on the Isle of Wight

1883–1891 – Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen) is published

6 January 1883 – Oscar Wilde arrives in Liverpool from his American tour

11 January 1883 – Marx’s daughter Jenny dies

11 January 1883 – Marx informed of the death of his daughter Jenny from cancer on Marx and returned to London

13 January 1883 – Marx returns to London from Ventnor?

13 February 1883 – death of Wilhelm Richard Wagner

February–mid-May 1883 – Oscar Wilde in Paris

14 March 1883 – Marx dies in London of bronchitis and pleurisy

17 March 1883 – Marx buried at Highgate cemetery, with 11 in attendance

21 March 1883 – death of Harry Longuet, grandson of Marx, who was buried at Highgate cemetery

24 May 1883 – Eleanor Marx meets Beatrice Potter (later Beatrice Webb) in the Reading Room of the British Museum; Eleanor frequents the Reading Room

May 1883 – Eleanor Marx publishes an article on the life of Marx in Progress magazine

June 1883 – Eleanor Marx publishes “Karl Marx II,” Progress (June): 362–366

5 June 1883 – birth of John Maynard Keynes at 6 Harvey Road in Cambridge

15 June 1883 – Henry Irving’s production of Robert Macaire at the Lyceum

26–27 August 1883 – the famous 1883 eruption of Krakatoa in the Dutch East Indies

September 1883 – Eleanor Marx goes on a holiday to Eastbourne with Engels and Helene “Lenchen” Demuth; after her return to London the Marx family home at 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street) is vacated and Eleanor moves into 122 Great Coram Street, Bloomsbury

September 1883–6 May 1907 – Evelyn Baring (1st Earl of Cromer) is 1st Consul-General of Egypt

October 1883 – socialist debating group that would become the Fabian Society formed in London

11 October 1883 – Henry Irving leaves Britain for his American tour

October 1883–1884 – Henry Irving’s first American tour

29 October 1883 – Henry Irving’s American theatrical tour begins in New York

26 November 1883 – Henry Irving’s American tour opens in Philadelphia

4 January 1884 – Fabian Society was founded in London

March 1884 – demonstration at Highgate Cemetery to commemorate the death of Marx

20 March 1884 – Henry Irving and Bram Stoker meet Walt Whitman

April 1884 – Henry Irving returns to Britain

29 May 1884 – marriage of Oscar Wilde and Constance Lloyd

June 1884 – Eleanor Marx and Edward Aveling (1849–1898) decide to move in together

18 July 1884 – Eleanor Marx and Edward Aveling move into 55 Great Russell Street

July 1884 – Aveling and Eleanor join the launch of the Westminster branch of the Social Democratic Federation

8 July 1884 – Aveling and Eleanor leave for a honeymoon in Middleton, Derbyshire

8 July 1884 – Henry Irving’s production of Twelfth Night; Or What You Will at the Lyceum

August 1884 – Aveling and Eleanor elected to the Executive Council of the Social Democratic Federation (SDF)

30 September 1884 – Henry Irving’s second north American theatrical tour begins in Quebec City

October 1884 – Friedrich Engels first published Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats (The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State)

October 1884 – Laura Marx visits Eleanor

late November 1884 – the showman Tom Norman begins exhibiting Joseph Merrick (the Elephant man) at 123 Whitechapel Road; the doctor Frederick Treves sees Merrick

2 December 1884 – the doctor Frederick Treves presents Joseph Merrick (the Elephant man) to the Pathological Society of London at 53 Berners Street, Bloomsbury

27 December 1884 – split in the Social Democratic Federation; William Morris, Belfort Bax, Eleanor Marx, and Edward Aveling resign and form the Socialist League on 29 December 1884, funded by William Morris

December 1884 – John Ruskin leaves Slade Professorship of Fine Arts in protest at vivisection in Oxford; resigns March 1885

January 1885 – Socialist League starts its newspaper the Commonweal

1885 – the second volume of Das Kapital published by Engels

26 January 1885 – defeat of General Gordon at the fall of Khartoum fell

4 March 1885 – Walter Pater’s philosophical novel Marius the Epicurean is published

14 March 1885 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Mikado; or, The Town of Titipu opens at the Savoy Theatre

April 1885 – Henry Irving returns to Britain from his second American tour

9 June 1885 – William Gladstone leaves office as Prime Minister of Britain

23 June 1885–28 January 1886 – Marquess of Salisbury is prime Minister of Britain

June 1885 – Eleanor Marx starts to become disenchanted with Edward Aveling

July 1885 – the famous Victorian actor Henry Irving and Bram Stoker visit Nuremburg in preparation for the production of Faust

August 1885 – Walter Pater moves to London to 12 Earls Terrace, Kensington from Oxford

18 September 1885 – unification of Bulgaria

21 September 1885 – Eleanor Marx in court over political meeting at Dod Street

7–29 November 1885 – Third Anglo-Burmese War

14–28 November 1885 – Serbo-Bulgarian War

19 December 1885 – opening night of the first run of Faust at the Lyceum theatre of Henry Irving; production runs from 19 December 1885 to 31 July 1886

26 December 1885 – Eleanor Marx organises a charity Christmas for 200 children

28 December 1885 – Bram Stoker delivers his lecture “Personal Impressions of America” at the London Institution, Finsbury Circus London

1886 – Friedrich Nietzsche first published Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy in Leipzig

1 January 1886 – Britain annexed Upper Burma by Lord Randolph Churchill

January 1886 – Eleanor Marx Aveling publishes “The Woman Question: From a Socialist Point of View” (Westminister Review 125: 207–222)

5 January 1886 – publication of the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson

1886 – new edition of Friedrich Nietzsche’s book The Birth of Tragedy, or: Hellenism and Pessimism (Die Geburt der Tragödie, Oder: Griechentum und Pessimismus)

1 February 1886–20 July 1886 – William Gladstone is Prime Minister of Britain

March 1886–9 November 1888 – Sir Charles Warren (1840–1927) is Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police

April 1886 – Sigmund Freud’s private medical practice opens

1 May 1886 – American workers demonstrate for an 8 hour day

24 June 1886 – arrival of Joseph Merrick at Liverpool Street Station from Belgium

25 July 1886–11 August 1892 – Marquess of Salisbury is prime Minister of Britain

25 July 1886 – performance of Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) at Bayreuth

31 July 1886 – end of first run of Faust at the Lyceum theatre

31 August 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor Marx leave Liverpool for an American trip

9 September 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor Marx arrive in New York

11 September 1886 – beginning of second run of Henry Irving’s Faust at the Lyceum theatre; productions runs from
11 September to 22 April 1887

2 October 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor set out from New York on a 3 month speaking tour

28 October 1886 – statue of liberty unveiled

25 December 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor depart from New York

4 January 1887 – Aveling and Eleanor arrive in Liverpool from New York; they stay with Engels and move to 65 Chancery Lane

22 January 1887 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s play Ruddigore; or, The Witch’s Curse opens at the Savoy Theatre

January 1887 – first English translation of volume 1 of Capital, translated by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (who had become the partner of Marx’s daughter Eleanor “Tussy” Marx in 1884)

March–April 1887 – Charles Stewart Parnell involved in the Pigott forgeries in The Times

22 April 1887 – end of second run of Henry Irving’s Faust

30 May 1887 – Aveling and Eleanor resign from the Socialist League

spring – Aveling and Eleanor move to Dodwell, Warwickshire

1 June 1887 – Henry Irving’s production of Werner at the Lyceum

20 June 1887 – the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated, to mark the 50th anniversary of her accession

October 1887 – Eleanor Marx returns to London from Dodwell

7 November 1887–March 1888 – Henry Irving’s third north American theatrical tour begins in New York; 7 November 1887–10 December 1887 New York; 12–23 December 1887 Philadelphia; 26 December 1887–21 January 21 1888 Chicago; 23 January 1888–18 February 1888 Boston; 20 February 1888–24 March 1888 New York

8 November 1887 – government bans meetings in Trafalgar square

13 November 1887 – Bloody Sunday; demonstration towards Trafalgar square with Eleanor Marx and Aveling broken up by military and police

December 1887 – publication of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel A Study in Scarlet in Beeton’s Christmas Annual 1887 in which Sherlock Holmes appears for the first time; first published as a book in July 1888

9 March 1888 – the death of the German Emperor Wilhelm I (king of Prussia from 2 January 1861)

9 March 1888–15 June 1888 – reign of the German Emperor Frederick III

11 March–14 March 1888 – the Great Blizzard of 1888 on the eastern coast of the United States of America

26 March 1888 – Henry Irving sailed for England after the end of his third north American theatrical tour

14 April 1888 – revival of Faust at the Lyceum theatre

15 April 1888 – death of Matthew Arnold

17 April 1888–December 1892 – Winston Churchill was sent to Harrow School

15 June 1888 – Wilhelm II becomes German Emperor

summer – Eleanor Marx in Dodwell, Warwickshire

23 July 1888 – performance of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Mastersingers of Nuremberg) at Bayreuth

4 August 1888 – opening of the play Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde at the Lyceum Theatre with the actor Richard Mansfield

9 August 1888 – Engels leaves for New York, with Aveling and Eleanor; they travel to Albany, Boston, Niagara falls, lake Ontario, Toronto, Montreal

August–September 1888 – Engels in America

31 August–9 November 1888 – period of the infamous Jack the Ripper murders

August 1888–1901 – Sir Robert Anderson (1841–1918) is Assistant Commissioner of the London Metropolitan Police

19 September 1888 – Engels, Aveling and Eleanor return to England

29 September 1888 – closing of the play Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde at the Lyceum Theatre in the wake of Jack the Ripper murders

3 October 1888 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s play The Yeomen of the Guard opens at the Savoy Theatre

29 December 1888 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Macbeth at the Lyceum theatre

3 January 1889 – Friedrich Nietzsche suffers a mental collapse

26 April 1889 – Henry Irving gives a command performance for the Prince of Wales and Queen Victoria at Sandringham

6 May–31 October 1889 – Exposition Universelle of 1889 in Paris

15 May 1889 – Eiffel Tower officially opened to the public

7 June 1889 – first performance of Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House at the Novelty theatre in Britain

29 June 1889 – end of Henry Irving’s production of Macbeth at the Lyceum

6 July 1889 – beginning of the Cleveland Street scandal

14 July 1889 – Second International (1889–1916) founded; Second International declared May 1 to be “May Day” (International Workers’ Day); Eleanor Marx in Paris

14 August 1889–16 September – London Dock Strike

September–14 December 1889 – Silvertown strike in London

28 September 1889 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of The Dead Heart at the Lyceum theatre

5 October 1889 – Rudyard Kipling arrives back in England

October 1889–December 1890 – the 1889–1890 flu pandemic, with recurrences March–June 1891, November 1891–June 1892, spring 1893 and winter 1893–1894

late 1889 – Eleanor Marx speaks at the International Working Men’s Club (IWMC) at 40 Berner Street

9 November 1889–May 1890 – Indian tour of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale

7 December 1889 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s play The Gondoliers; or, The King of Barataria opens at the Savoy Theatre

1890 – Alfred Marshall’s Principles of Economics first published

11 April 1890 – death of Joseph Merrick at London Hospital

30 April 1890 – Arminius Vambery meets Bram Stoker at the Lyceum during dinner in the Beefsteak Room

4 May – May day demonstration in Hyde Park, London

5 May 1890 – W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan end their collaboration

June 1890 – Vincent van Gogh paints the oil painting The Church at Auvers

July 1890 – Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray first published

July 1890 – Engels in Norway

29 July 1890 – death of Vincent van Gogh

6 August 1890 – Aveling and Eleanor Marx set sail for Norway for a 3 week tour

August 1890 – the novelist Bram Stoker takes a famous holiday at Whitby

20 September 1890 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Ravenswood at the Lyceum theatre

October 1890 – Eleanor Marx travels to the Lille congress of the French Workers’ Party

October 1890 – Bertrand Russell goes up to Trinity College, Cambridge

20 October 1890 – death of Sir Richard Burton

4 November 1890 – death of Helene “Lenchen” Demuth

17 November 1890 – Captain W. H. O’Shea obtains a decree nisi of divorce against his wife Katharine O’Shea; this ruins the political career of Parnell

December 1890 – Thomas Henry Huxley moves to Eastbourne

December 1890–24 March 1891 – Arthur Conan Doyle studies ophthalmology in Vienna

31 January 1891 – famous Royal English Opera House opened (renamed the Palace Theatre of Varieties in 1892)

25 June 1891 – first story of Arthur Conan Doyle’s character Sherlock Holmes published in The Strand Magazine

June 1891 – first meeting of Lord Alfred Douglas (1870–1945) and Oscar Wilde

22 August 1891 – performance of Tannhäuser at Bayreuth

22 August 1891–10 January 1892 – Rudyard Kipling visits South Africa, New Zealand (18 October–6 November), Australia, Ceylon (early December), India

September–12 December 1891 – Henry Irving and the Lyceum company undertake a tour of the provinces

6 October 1891 – death of Charles Stewart Parnell

1892 – Max Nordau’s book Degeneration first published in German; English edition in 1895

5 January 1892 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Henry VIII at the Lyceum theatre

14 January 1892 – death of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale

18 January 1892 – Carrie Balestier and Rudyard Kipling married in London

2 February 1892 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife travel to the US; visits New York, Chicago and the Rocky mountains

22 February 1892 – Oscar Wilde’s play Lady Windermere’s Fan, A Play About a Good Woman first produced at the St James’s Theatre in London

26 March 1892 – death of Walt Whitman

20 April–c.9 June 1892 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife travel to Japan

June 1892–29 August 1896 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife live in America

15 August 1892 – William Gladstone becomes British Prime Minister

6 October 1892 – death of Alfred Tennyson

10 November 1892 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of King Lear at the Lyceum theatre

December 1892 – Winston Churchill left Harrow

1893 – the year in which Bram Stoker’s famous novel Dracula is set

14–16 January 1893 – foundation conference of the Independent Labour Party

6 February 1893 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Becket at the Lyceum theatre

February 1893 – Winston Churchill sent to a “crammer” school in London to pass entrance examination for Sandhurst

February 1893 – Oscar Wilde’s play Salome first published in French

19 April 1893 – Oscar Wilde’s play A Woman of No Importance opens at London’s Haymarket Theatre

1 May 1893–30 October 1893 – World’s Columbian Exposition, world’s fair held in Chicago in 1893

summer 1893 – Bram Stoker takes a holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

summer 1893 – Walter Pater moves back to Oxford

summer 1893 – Henry Irving and Ellen Terry take a holiday in Canada; proceed to San Fancisco

6–13 August 1893 – the Zurich Socialist and Labour Congress, the 3rd congress of the Second International. Friedrich Engels gave a closing address; Eleanor Marx attends

16 August 1893 – death of Jean-Martin Charcot

1 September 1893 – Churchill enters Royal Military College, Sandhurst

4 September 1893–21 March 1894 – Henry Irving’s 4th American tour; opened in San Francisco with The Bells, and includes Chicago, Seattle, Portland, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Washington, Boston, New York

December 1893–February 1894 – Lord Alfred Douglas in Egypt

December 1893 – Arthur Conan Doyle’s story “The Adventure of the Final Problem” in which Sherlock Holmes dies is published in The Strand Magazine

1894 – publication of Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book

February 1894 – Oscar Wilde’s play Salome first published in English, with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley

2 March 1894 – William Gladstone leaves office as British Prime Minister

21 March 1894 – Henry Irving and Ellen Terry return to England after their 4th American tour

14 April 1894 – revival of Faust by Henry Irving at the Lyceum

April–August 1894 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife visit England on a holiday

August–October 1894 – Oscar Wilde spends a summer holiday in Worthing where he writes The Importance of Being Earnest

June 1894 – Bertrand Russell graduates from Cambridge

20 July 1894 – performance of Lohengrin at Bayreuth

30 July 1894 – death of Walter Pater

summer 1894 – Bram Stoker takes a second holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

August 1894 – Engels on holiday in Eastbourne suffers a stroke

September 1894 – publication of The Green Carnation by Robert Hichens, a parody of Oscar Wilde

21 September to 8 December 1894 – provincial tour of Henry Irving; first production of Henry Irving’s A Story of Waterloo played at the Princes Theatre, Bristol, on September 21, 1894; London performance at the Garrick Theatre on 17 December 1894

October 1894 – the third volume of Das Kapital published by Engels

1 November 1894 – accession of Nicholas II of Russia

28 November 1894 – final birthday of Engels

25 December 1894 – Eleanor Marx has Christmas dinner with Engels and is assured she will inherit Marx’s manuscripts

December 1894 – Winston Churchill graduated from Royal Military College, Sandhurst

December 1894 – treason conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus for allegedly sharing French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris

January–July 1895 – H. G. Wells’s Time Machine first published

3 January 1895 – Oscar Wilde’s play An Ideal Husband opens at the Haymarket Theatre

12 January 1895 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of King Arthur at the Lyceum theatre

24 January 1895 – death of Randolph Churchill

4 February 1895 – début of The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde at the St James’s Theatre

14 February 1895 – Oscar Wilde’s play The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People opens at St James's Theatre in London

20 February 1895 – Winston Churchill commissioned as officer and joins the 4th Hussars, a cavalry regiment

March 1895 – Aveling and Eleanor travel to Hastings for a holiday

3 April 1895 – opening of the libel trial of the Marquess of Queensberry

4 May 1895 – performances of The Story of Waterloo and Don Quixote at the Lyceum

25 May 1895 – announcement of Henry Irving’s knighthood

25 May 1895 – Oscar Wilde convicted and sentenced to two years hard labour

June 1895 – Engels, Laura Marx and Eleanor take a holiday in Eastbourne

21 June 1895 – Lord Rosebery resigns as British Prime Minister

29 June 1895 – death of Thomas Henry Huxley

1 July 1895 – Eleanor and Edward Aveling start a holiday in Orpington in Kent

18 July 1895 – Henry Irving knighted at Windsor Castle

c. 21 July 1895 – Eleanor Marx learns that Frederick Lewis Demuth (1851−1929) is the son of Karl Marx

5 August 1895 – Friedrich Engels dies

10 August 1895 – funeral of Friedrich Engels

27 August 1895 – Friedrich Engels’ ashes scattered at sea off Eastbourne

October 1895 – Bertrand Russell receives a 5-year fellowship from Trinity College, Cambridge

November 1895 – publication of Rudyard Kipling’s The Second Jungle Book

November–December 1895 – Churchill visits America and Cuba

14 December 1895 – Eleanor Marx and Edward Aveling move into a new house in Sydenham

29 December 1895–2 January 1896 – the Jameson Raid, a failed raid on Paul Kruger’s Transvaal Republic by British colonial statesman Leander Starr Jameson and his troops

16 September 1895–May 1896 – Henry Irving’s 5th American tour; opened in Montreal with Faust, and includes New Orleans, Philadelphia, Chicago

May 1896 – Henry Irving returns to England from his 5th American tour

8 June 1896 – Eleanor Marx, Edward Aveling and Karl Liebknecht (1871–1919) visit Marx’s old houses in London

July 1896 – Bram Stoker takes a holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

26 July–1 August 1896 – International Socialist Workers and Trade Union Congress, held in London, the 4th congress of the Second International

29 August 1896 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife return to England from the US

22 September 1896 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Cymbeline at the Lyceum theatre

1 October 1896 – Winston Churchill arrives in Bombay, India and travels with his regiment to Bangalore

19 December 1896 – opening night of Henry Irving’s Richard III at the Lyceum; Irving injuries himself after the play and Lyceum closes until 25 January 1897

18 May 1897 – Oscar Wilde released from prison

26 May 1897 – publication of Bram Stoker’s Dracula

5 April–8 May 1897 – Greco-Turkish War of 1897

8 June 1897 – Edward Aveling secretly married the actress Eva Frye

22 June 1897 – Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee procession

July 1897 – Keynes undergoes Eton College Scholarship Examinations

August 1897 – Bram Stoker takes a holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

after 22 August 1897 – Edward Aveling abandons Eleanor Marx, but returns some days later

c. September 1897 – Edward Aveling and Eleanor Marx travel to Paris to see Laura Marx

September 1897 – John Maynard Keynes began study at Eton; educated at Eton from 1897–1902

16 September 1897 – Winston Churchill present on a cavalry patrol in India which is ambushed in the Mamund Valley

25 September 1897 – Rudyard Kipling and his family move to Rottingdean, East Sussex

December 1897 – Edward Aveling ill with the flu

January 1898 – H. G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds first published; first published as a serial in Pearson’s Magazine April to December 1897

1 January 1898 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Peter the Great at the Lyceum theatre

January 1898 – Edward Aveling asks Ellen Terry for a loan

9 February 1898 – Edward Aveling has surgery at University College Hospital

c. 18 February 1898 – Edward Aveling and Eleanor Marx travel to Margate

18 February 1898 – disastrous fire at the Lyceum storage area

27 March 1898 – Edward Aveling and Eleanor Marx return to their house in Sydenham

31 March 1898 – death of Eleanor Marx Aveling

2 April 1898 – inquest on the death of Eleanor Marx Aveling

5 April 1898 – funeral of Eleanor Marx Aveling

19 May 1898 – death of William Ewart Gladstone

June 1898 – Winston Churchill leaves India

July 1898 – Winston Churchill arrives in London from India

1898 – publication of Marx’s Value, Price and Profit (a series of lectures Marx delivered in 1865)

summer 1898 – Henry Irving begins his relationship with Elizabeth Aria

2 August 1898 – Winston Churchill arrives in Cairo

2 August 1898 – death of Edward Aveling

2 September 1898 – Battle of Omdurman, with Winston Churchill present in the army of Sir Herbert Kitchener

13 October 1898 – Henry Irving stricken at Glasgow with pleurisy and pneumonia while playing Madame Sans Gene

31 March 1899 – Henry Irving surrenders the lease of Lyceum theatre to a syndicate

March 1899 – Winston Churchill departs India

October 1899–May 1900 – Henry Irving’s 6th American tour

12 October 1899 – the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republics begins

14 October 1899 – Winston Churchill leaves England for South Africa to report on the Anglo-Boer War as correspondent for the Morning Post

15 November–12 December 1899 – capture and imprisonment of Winston Churchill; imprisoned in a POW camp in Pretoria

20 January 1900 – death of John Ruskin

25 August 1900 – death of Friedrich Nietzsche

22 November 1900 – death of Arthur Sullivan

30 November 1900 – death of Oscar Wilde

22 January 1901 – death of Queen Victoria

summer 1901 – Bram Stoker attends the Wagner Cycle at Bayreuth?

22 July 1901 – première of Richard Wagner’s play Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman) at Bayreuth

August 1901–April 1902 – Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel The Hound of the Baskervilles serialised in The Strand Magazine

19 July 1902 – Henry Irving’s farewell performance at the Lyceum

2 September 1902 – Rudyard Kipling and his family move to a home called Bateman’s, in Burwash, East Sussex, England

30 April 1903 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Dante at the Theatre Royal

October 1903–March 1904 – Henry Irving’s 8th American tour

winter 1904 – Henry Irving’s final provincial tour

13 October 1905 – death of Sir Henry Irving

1909 – Arthur Conan Doyle moves to Windlesham Manor, Crowborough, East Sussex
British Prime Ministers
1868 (Feb–Dec.) – Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)
1868–1874 – William Ewart Gladstone (Liberal)
1874–1880 – Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative)
1880–1885 – William Ewart Gladstone (Liberal)
1885–1886 – Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)
1886 (Feb.–July) – William Ewart Gladstone (Liberal)
1886–1892 – Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)
1892–1894 – William Ewart Gladstone (Liberal)
1894–1895 – Archibald Philip Primrose, fifth earl of Rosebery (Liberal)
1895–1902 – Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative)
1902–1905 – Arthur James Balfour (Conservative)
1905–1908 – Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (Liberal)

Monday, May 2, 2016

A Chronology of the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s

A work in progress:
8–16 March 1917 – February Revolution in Petrograd, mass demonstrations and armed clashes with police; on 12 March the Russian army sides with the revolutionaries. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated and the Russian Council of Ministers was replaced by a Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov

15 March 1917 – abdication of Tsar Nicholas II

7 November 1917–25 October 1922 – the Russian Civil War

7 November 1917 – the October Revolution (Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution), the armed insurrection in Petrograd on 25 October 1917 (under the Old Julian calendar); the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government in Petrograd, capital of Russia) captured

1918–1920 – Ronald Syme attends New Plymouth Boys’ High School, New Plymouth, Taranaki, New Zealand

3 March 1918 – the peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed by new Bolshevik government of Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire) to end Russia's participation in World War I

14 May 1918 – death of James Gordon Bennett Jr. (10 May 1841–14 May 1918)

July 1918 – Oswald Spengler publishes volume 1 of Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes)

17 July 1918 – execution of Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) at Yekaterinburg

20 July 1919 – birth of Edmund Percival Hillary

autumn 1918–summer 1921 – James Hilton attends Christ’s College, Cambridge, and graduates with a history degree

29 October–9 November 1918 – the first stage of the November Revolution, a civil conflict in the Germany at the end of the First World War

3 November 1918–11 August 1919 – second stage of the November Revolution, a civil conflict in the Germany at the end of the First World War

9 November 1918 – Wilhelm II abdicates as emperor of Germany while at the Imperial Army headquarters in Spa, Belgium

9 November 1918 – proclamation of the German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann; Friedrich Ebert assumes the chancellery

11 November 1918 – First World War ended

14 February 1919 – Albert Einstein divorces his first wife Mileva Marić (19 December 1875–4 August 1948), after being separated for five years

18 June 1919 – Germany given ultimatum to sign Treaty of Versailles

22 June 1919 – the German Reichstag ratifies the Versailles Treaty

28 June 1919 – the Versailles Treaty is signed in the Hall of Mirrors in France

11 August 1919 – the Weimar Constitution is announced

25 August 1919 – Ludwig Wittgenstein returns to his family in Vienna

16 November 1919 – the army of right-wing former admiral Miklós Horthy marches into Budapest and takes control of Hungary

1920–1934 – Ludwig von Mises holds a private seminar (Privatseminar) in his office at the Kammer in Vienna, held fortnightly in university term, on Fridays from 7 to 10 p.m.

1920–1926 – Ludwig Wittgenstein works as a school teacher; Wittgenstein given his first job as a primary school teacher in Trattenbach

1920 – Frank P. Ramsey won a scholarship to study mathematics in Trinity College, Cambridge

January 1920–July 1921 – the US Recession of 1920–1921

1 March 1920–15 October 1944 – Miklós Horthy is regent of the Kingdom of Hungary

April 1920 – Ludwig von Mises publishes his essay “Die Wirtschaftsrechnung im sozialistischen Gemeinwesen” [Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth] in Archiv fur Sozialwissenschaften, a paper that starts the Socialist Economic Calculation Debate

August 1920 – Bertrand Russell travels to Russia as part of an official delegation sent by the British government

August 1920–August 1921 – Bertrand Russell in China

1921 – Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung is published in Annalen der Naturphilosophische

1921–1922 – Ronald Syme attends Victoria University College of Wellington, enrolled in a BA course with majors in Latin and French

4 March 1921–2 August 1923 – Warren G. Harding is 29th President of the United States

April 1921 – Frank P. Ramsey elected as a new member of the Apostles

April–25 October 1921 – the 1921 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition (consisting of Charles Howard-Bury, Harold Raeburn, Alexander Kellas, George Mallory, Guy Bullock, Sandy Wollaston, Alexander Heron, Henry Morshead and Edward Wheeler)

4 May 1921 – the Federal Reserve Bank of New York cuts the discount rate from 7% to 6.5%

May 1921–November 1921 – the severe depreciation in the exchange value of the mark as the German government begins paying large cash reparations payments

5 May 1921 – London Ultimatum

June 1921–January 1924 – hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic

31 July 1921 – the Treaty of Trianon effective, the peace agreement signed 4 June 1920 between the Allies and Hungary

2 August 1921 – John Maynard Keynes publishes A Treatise on Probability

26 August 1921 – Bertrand Russell arrives back in England

December 1921 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) leaves Eton

1922 – Moritz Schlick assumes the chair of Naturphilosophie at the University of Vienna (previously held by Ludwig Boltzmann and Ernst Mach)

28 February 1922 – Egypt recognised as sovereign state by the British

4 March 1922 – release date of the German Expressionist horror film Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror), directed by F. W. Murnau

10 April–19 May 1922 – the Genoa Economic and Financial Conference, held in Genoa, Italy, to plan the restoration of Europe after World War I; this is attended by John Maynard Keynes

July 1922 – David Lloyd George moves into Bron-y-de house, in Churt, Surrey

12 July 1922 – Germany demands a moratorium on reparation payments

September 1922 – Ludwig Wittgenstein moves to teach in a secondary school in Hassbach; in November 1922, Wittgenstein moves to teach at a primary school at Puchberg in the Schneeberg mountains

October 1922 – Lydia Lopokova moves into a flat at 41 Gordon Square near 46 Gordon Square (Keynes’ London home)

19 October 1922 – Lloyd George steps down as British Prime Minister (PM from 6 December 1916–19 October 1922)

November 1922 – Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung is published in an English translation as Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

November 1922–July 1927 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) in Burma working in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma

November 1922 – the Swedish Academy of Sciences awards Albert Einstein the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics

26 November 1922 – Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon open the tomb of Tutankhamun

27 December 1922 – France occupies the Ruhr to force payment of war reparations from Germany in kind

1923 – Frank P. Ramsey graduates from Cambridge

1923–1924 – Ronald Syme becomes assistant lecturer in Classics at the Auckland University College; in late 1924 he graduates with Double First Class Honours in Latin and French

11 January 1923 – the Occupation of the Ruhr by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 when Weimar Republic fails to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I

March 1923–May 1924 – Friedrich Hayek visits America

2 August 1923–4 March 1929 – Calvin Coolidge (Republican) is 30th President of the United States

September 1923 – Frank P. Ramsey visits Wittgenstein in Vienna

8 November 1923 – the Beer Hall Putsch, a failed coup attempt by the Adolf Hitler with Erich Ludendorff, to seize power in Munich, Bavaria

6 December 1923 – the United Kingdom general election of 1923. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 258
Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 191
Liberal | H. H. Asquith | 158
Nationalist | Joseph Devlin | 3.
After the 1923 election, the Conservatives had lost their majority. When they lost a vote of confidence in January 1924 King George V calls on MacDonald to form a minority Labour government, with the support of the Liberals

11 December 1923 – John Maynard Keynes publishes A Tract on Monetary Reform

1924–1933 – Karl Polanyi is senior editor of the Der Österreichische Volkswirt (The Austrian Economist) magazine in Vienna

January 1924 – end of the hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic

21 January 1924 – Stanley Baldwin (Conservative) defeated in a vote of confidence

21 January 1924 – death of Vladimir Lenin

22 January 1924–4 November 1924 – Ramsay MacDonald (Labour) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

12 February 1924 – Howard Carter opens the sarcophagus of king Tutankhamun

April–11 June 1924 – the 1924 British Mount Everest expedition (with Charles G. Bruce, George Mallory, Howard Somervell, Edward Norton, Geoffrey Bruce, George Ingle Finch and Andrew Irvine); the second expedition trying to ascend Mount Everest, with three failed attempts. On 8 June, George Mallory and Andrew Irvine disappeared on the third attempt

May 1924 – Friedrich Hayek admitted into Mises’ Privatseminar in Vienna

26 May 1924 – enactment of the US Immigration Act of 1924 (or Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, and Asian Exclusion Act)

June 1924 – the premiere of Hamilton Deane’s play Dracula at the Grand Theatre, Derby

13 July 1924 – the death of Alfred Marshall (26 July 1842–13 July 1924)

July 1924 – Lytton Strachey and Dora Carrington move to Ham Spray House, near Marlborough, Wiltshire

29 August 1924 – the Dawes Plan agreed by Reichstag

September 1924 – John Maynard Keynes and Lydia Lopokova at Tilton house, South Downs near Lewes

23 October 1924 – the Chinese warlord Feng Yuxiang seizes Beijing in a coup

25 October 1924 – the Daily Mail reports a purported letter from Grigory Zinoviev (President of the Communist International) to the British representative on the Comintern Executive

29 October 1924 – United Kingdom general election held. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 412
Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 151
Liberal | H. H. Asquith | 40
Constitutionalist | - | 7
Communist | Albert Inkpin | 1.
Churchill stands as MP for Epping for the Constitutionalist party

29 October 1924–5 July 1945 – Winston Churchill is Member of Parliament for Epping

4 November 1924–5 June 1929 – Stanley Baldwin (Conservative) is British Prime Minister

5 November 1924 – the soldiers of the Chinese warlord Feng Yuxiang expel Puyi, the last Qing emperor of China, from the Forbidden City

6 November 1924–4 June 1929 – Winston Churchill is Chancellor of the Exchequer

6 November 1924 – John Maynard Keynes delivers the Sidney Ball lecture at Oxford university on “The End of Laissez-Faire

winter 1924–1936 – the Vienna Circle, a meeting of logical positivists, is held in weekly discussions. The phases were as follows:
1921–1924 – irregular private phase with Hans Hahn and Moritz Schlick
1924–1928 – the Schlick Circle (non-public phase of the Vienna Circle)
1928–1934 – Verein Ernst Mach
The circle broke up from 1934 to 1936

20 December 1924 – Adolf Hitler released from Landsberg Prison in Germany

1 January 1925 – Edwin Hubble announces his discovery that galaxies exist outside the Milky Way

3 January 1925 – Mussolini gives a speech in the Italian Chamber of Deputies; this marks the beginning of fascist dictatorship

12 March 1925 – death of Sun Yat-sen (Premier of the Kuomintang of China 10 October 1919–12 March 1925), which leaves a vacuum in the Kuomintang

3 May 1925 – Oswald Mosley gives a speech on the Birmingham Proposals at the Birmingham Town Hall

13 May 1925 – the UK Gold Standard Act 1925

20 May 1925 – C. S. Lewis elected to a fellowship in Magdalen College, Oxford

summer 1925 – Ludwig Wittgenstein visits England and stays with Keynes in Cambridge and Eccles in Manchester

July 1925 – French and Belgian troops evacuate the Ruhr

10 July 1925 – in Dayton, Tennessee, the “Monkey Trial” of John Thomas Scopes (a high school science teacher) accused of teaching evolution in violation of a Tennessee state law begins; on July 21, Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution and fined $100; in 1927, Tennessee Supreme Court overturns the verdict

26 July 1925 – death of William Jennings Bryan in Dayton, Tennessee

4 August 1925 – John Maynard Keynes marries Lydia Lopokova at St Pancreas registry office; they take Oatlands house, near Iford for the summer

8 August 1925 – birth of the ancient historian Ernst Badian in Austria

August 1925 – John Maynard Keynes publishes The Economic Consequences of Mr Churchill

August 1925 – Oswald Mosley publishes Revolution by Reason

September 1925 – John Maynard Keynes and Lydia Lopokova visit Russia for two weeks; they visit Leningrad and Moscow; they return to England to live at 46 Gordon Square, Keynes’ London home

October 1925–1927 – Ronald Syme educated at Oriel College, Oxford

October 1925 – John Maynard Keynes decides to take Tilton house near Lewes

October 1925 – J. R. R. Tolkien appointed Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College, Oxford

3 October 1925 – birth of Gore Vidal in the cadet hospital of the U.S. Military Academy, at West Point, New York

November 1925 – Henry Watson Fowler moves to Hinton, St George, Somerset

December 1925 – John Maynard Keynes publishes A Short View of Russia

10 December 1925 – George Bernard Shaw awarded Nobel Prize

1926 – from 1926 Ludwig Wittgenstein takes part in discussions of the Vienna Circle

1926 – Frank Plumpton Ramsey becomes university lecturer in mathematics at King’s College, Cambridge; later he becomes Director of Studies in mathematics

17 January 1926 – Ayn Rand (Alisa Rosenbaum) leaves Russia for New York

19 February 1926 – Ayn Rand arrives in New York

3 March 1926 – John Maynard Keynes takes possession of Tilton house, South Downs near Lewes which he rents in a 21 year lease

20 March 1926 – the Canton Coup (or Zhongshan Incident), the purge of Communists in the Chinese Nationalist army in Guangzhou by Chiang Kai-shek

4–13 May 1926 – the 1926 general strike in the United Kingdom, called by the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) opposing the British government’s wage reduction for 1.2 million locked-out coal miners

summer 1926 – Ludwig Lachmann visits the University of Zurich and becomes interested in Austrian economics

5 June 1926 – Chiang Kai-shek named commander-in-chief of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army

July 1926 – Hogarth Press publishes The End of Laissez-Faire by John Maynard Keynes

25 September 1926 – John Maynard Keynes meets with David Lloyd George at Churt with 14 others to discuss a new Liberal radical program

October 1926 – Anthony Blunt arrives at Cambridge

8 November 1926 – arrest of Antonio Gramsci by Italian fascists

December 1926 – Piero Sraffa publishes “The Laws of Returns under Competitive Conditions” in the Economic Journal (vol. 36, 1926)

3–14 December 1926 – Agatha Christie disappears from her house in Styles, Sunningdale, Berkshire; she is found on 14 December 1926 at the Swan Hydropathic Hotel in Harrogate, Yorkshire

7 January 1927 – the first transatlantic telephone call from New York City to London

10 January 1927 – release date of the German expressionist science fiction film Metropolis, directed by Fritz Lang

14 February 1927 – Deane Hamilton’s play Dracula opens in London at the Little Theatre

April 1927 – Chiang Kai-shek makes Nanjing the new Kuomintang capital of China

April 1927 – Nicholas Kaldor arrived in London to study at the LSE; Kaldor enrols for a BSc. in economics from October 1927

4 May 1927 – filing of articles of incorporation of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)

20–21 May 1927 – Charles Lindbergh makes the first non-stop trans-Atlantic flight from New York to Paris in the monoplane Spirit of St. Louis

July 1927 – Piero Sraffa arrived in London; Sraffa accepts an offer by Keynes to take a lectureship at Cambridge university

1 August 1927–22 December 1936 – first phase of Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC)

September 1927 – Bertrand Russell and Dora Russell (Dora Black) rent Telegraph House at Harting near Petersfield in Hampshire; they set up an experimental school at Beacon Hill; Russell involved from 1927 to 1932

October 1927 – Anthony Blunt begins the study of modern languages

October 1927 – opening of the Broadway adaptation of Dracula at the Fulton Theatre (New York) starring Bela Lugosi; it runs until 19 May 1928

6 October 1927 – the release date of The Jazz Singer, the first feature-length motion picture with synchronized sound, directed by Alan Crosland and produced by Warner Bros

15 February 1928 – death of Herbert Henry Asquith

7 March – beginning of the Shakhty Trial in the Soviet Union; Soviet police arrest engineers in the town of Shakhty, who are accused of sabotaging the Soviet economy

April 1928 – John Maynard Keynes visits Russia

April 1928–December 1929 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) in Paris

3 May–11 May 1928 – the Jinan incident, armed conflict between the Japanese Army (with Northern Chinese warlords) and the Kuomintang’s southern army in Jinan, the capital of Shandong

May 1928 – Anthony Blunt elected to the Cambridge Apostles

July 1928 – Joan Robinson arrives in London from India

21 July 1928 – death of Ellen Terry

27 August 1928 – the Kellogg–Briand Pact (or Pact of Paris) is signed by Germany, France, and the United States, a treaty that outlaws aggressive warfare

1 October 1928 – Stalin announces the First Five Year Plan

10 October 1928 – Chiang Kai-shek becomes director of the Chinese State Council

6 November 1928 – the US presidential election of 1928, between the Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover (Republican) and New York Governor Al Smith (Democratic)

7 December 1928 – birth of Noam Chomsky

1929 – Ronald Syme elected tutor and fellow in ancient history at Trinity College, Oxford

1929–1931 – the Untouchables under Eliot Ness work to end crimes of Al Capone by enforcing Prohibition laws

January 1929 – Ludwig Wittgenstein returned to Cambridge

10 January 1929–8 May 1930 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (Hergé) story Tintin in the Land of the Soviets

February 1929 – Trotsky deported from the Soviet Union; he lives in Turkey from 1929 to 1933; in France from 1933 to 1935; in Norway from 1935 to 1936; in Mexico from 1936 to 1940

14 February 1929 – the Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre in Chicago

4 March 1929 – Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as 31st President of the United States (president from 4 March 1929–4 March 1933)

7–22 March 1929 – George Orwell admitted to the Hôpital Cochin, Paris from bronchitis

15 April 1929 – Ayn Rand marries Frank O’Connor

10 May 1929 – Hubert Henderson and John Maynard Keynes publish Can Lloyd George do it?, a pamphlet in support of the Liberal campaign under the leadership of David Lloyd George

16 May 1929 – the 1st Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) for the best films of 1927 and 1928, held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles, California

30 May 1929 – 1929 United Kingdom general election was held; Winston Churchill stands as MP for Unionists. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 260
Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 287
Liberal | David Lloyd George | 59.
The UK Labour Party under Ramsay MacDonald wins 287 seats, the most seats.

5 June 1929–7 June 1935 – Ramsay MacDonald is British Prime Minister

7 June 1929 – a Committee headed by American industrialist Owen D. Young submits its first report with the Young Plan, a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I

August 1929–March 1933 – the contractionary phase of the US Great Depression

15–17 September 1929 – the First Conference on the Epistemology of the Exact Sciences of logical positivists, held in Prague; this marks the international establishment of the Vienna circle

October 1929 – publication of the official manifesto of the Vienna Circle called Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Der Wiener Kreis (The Scientific Conception of the World. The Vienna Circle)

October 1929 – Kim Philby goes to Trinity College, Cambridge to read History and Economics

October 1929 – Winston Churchill in New York

October 1929 – A. J. Ayer goes up to Christ Church College, Oxford

October 1929 – Joan Robinson and Austin Robinson return to Cambridge; from 1929–1930 Joan Robinson attends Piero Sraffa’s lectures

24 October 1929 – “Black Thursday” on the New York stock exchange, the beginning of the US Stock Market Crash of 1929

29 October 1929 – “Black Tuesday” on the New York stock exchange, the Wall Street Crash of 1929

January 1930 – second Hague Conference in which the Young Plan is adopted

19 January 1930 – death of Frank Plumpton Ramsey

30 March 1930–30 May 1932 – Heinrich Brüning is Chancellor of Germany

21 April 1930 – release of the US movie All Quiet on the Western Front, adapted from a novel by Erich Maria Remarque

May 1930 – Oswald Mosley resigns from his ministerial position within the government of Ramsay MacDonald

June 1930–August 1932 – the Sino-Tibetan War between Tibet (under the 13th Dalai Lama) and Chinese warlords Ma Bufang and Liu Wenhui and Chiang Kai-shek (leader of the Republic of China)

17 June 1930 – the US Tariff Act of 1930 (known as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff) signed into law

30 June 1930 – French troops leave the Rhineland ahead of schedule

7 July 1930 – death of Arthur Conan Doyle in his house in Crowborough, East Sussex

28 July 1930 – the Canadian federal election of 1930; Richard Bedford Bennett’s Conservative Party wins a majority government, and defeats the Liberal Party led by Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King

September 1930–April 1931 – Kurdish revolt in Iraq

October 1930 – Guy Burgess arrives at Trinity College, Cambridge

October 1930 – John Maynard Keynes published “Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren” in The Nation and Athenaeum

October 1930 – John Maynard Keynes’ A Treatise on Money published

December 1930–January 1931 – Albert Einstein visited America

1931 – Rudolf Carnap accepts a chair of natural philosophy at the German University in Prague, Czechoslovakia

January 1931 – the future Edward VIII first meets Wallis Simpson, an American divorcée

January 1931 – Friedrich Hayek arrives in London; he gives four lectures at the London School of Economics (LSE) that are later published as Prices and Production (1931)

30 January 1931 – Charlie Chaplin’s silent film City Lights is released

14 February 1931 – release date of the famous Universal picture Dracula (12 February 1931 in New York), starring Bela Lugosi

3 March 1931 – death of Frank Russell; Bertrand Russell becomes the third Earl Russell

4 May 1931 – Piero Sraffa appointed as Marshall Librarian at Cambridge

11 May 1931 – the Austrian bank Kreditanstalt collapses

30 May 1931–18 July 1931 – John Maynard Keynes in America

summer 1931 – John Kenneth Galbraith arrives in Berkeley, California, to pursue a Master of Science and PhD in agricultural economics

20 June 1931 – Herbert Hoover announced the Hoover Moratorium (1 year moratorium on German debt payments), approved by Congress and, after some initial resistance by France, by 15 other nations

24 August 1931 – Ramsay MacDonald forms a National Government with Conservatives, Liberals and a new National Labour group

September 1931 – Friedrich Hayek publishes Prices and Production (1931)

3 September 1931–20 October 1932 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story Tintin in America in the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle

18 September 1931 – the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, in which the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invades Manchuria after the Mukden Incident; the invasion occurs from 18 September 1931–27 February 1932

20 September 1931 – Britain abandoned the gold standard

October 1931 – Donald Maclean arrives at Trinity College, Cambridge

17 October 1931 – Al Capone convicted on five tax evasion charges and sentenced to 11 years in prison

27 October 1931 – United Kingdom general election held. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
National Government
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 470
Liberal | Herbert Samuel | 33
Liberal National | John Simon | 35
National Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 13
National | - | 4

Labour | Arthur Henderson | 46
Ind. Labour Party | Fenner Brockway | 3
Opposition Liberal | David Lloyd George | 4
Nationalist | Joseph Devlin | 2
New Party | Oswald Mosley | 0.
Churchill stands as MP for Epping for the Conservative party; the opposition Liberal party under David Lloyd George is reduced to 4 seats

5 November 1931–7 June 1935 – the Second National Ministry in office in the UK, which was coalition of National Labour, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, and the Liberal National Party

21 November 1931 – US release date of the famous Universal Pictures movie Frankenstein, starring Boris Karloff

13 December 1931 – John Maynard Keynes addresses a socialist group on “The Dilemma of Modern Socialism”

1932–1933 – Paul M. Sweezy in London at the London School of Economics for the academic year; he travelled to Vienna during breaks

1932 – Nicholas Kaldor appointed to an Assistant Lectureship at the LSE

1932–1934 – John Cairncross spends two years at the Sorbonne in Paris

1932–1933 – the Soviet famine of major grain-producing areas in the Soviet Union; the Holodomor (or the Great Famine of the Ukraine) is part of this

21 January 1932 – death of Giles Lytton Strachey from stomach cancer

January 1932 – John Maynard Keynes visits Hamburg, Germany and Berlin; Keynes meets Heinrich Brüning

March 1932 – Piero Sraffa publishes his article “Dr. Hayek on Money and Capital” in the Economic Journal

1 March 1932 – Puyi, the last Qing emperor of China, installed by Japanese as the ruler of Manchukuo (the Japanese puppet state); he was officially crowned the emperor of Manchukuo in 1934

20 May 1932–25 July 1934 – Engelbert Dollfuss Chancellor of Austria

1 June 1932–17 November 1932 – Franz von Papen is Chancellor of Germany

16 June–9 July 1932 – Lausanne Conference; the Western nations agree to suspend German reparations payments. Even though it was rejected by US Congress, the pre-Nazi German government still had enough power to refuse to make any more debt repayments

June 1932 – final exams of A. J. Ayer before his graduation with a Bachelor of Arts from Christ Church College, Oxford; Ayer appointed to a lectureship in philosophy

June 1932 – A. J. Ayer meets Ludwig Wittgenstein in Whewell’s Court, Trinity College, Cambridge

6 June 1932 – The US Revenue Act of 1932 signed into law, which raises tax rates across the board

21 July 1932 – Emergency Relief and Construction Act enacted by Herbert Hoover

August 1932–1933 – Willard Van Orman Quine travels in Europe, meets the Polish logicians Stanislaw Lesniewski and Alfred Tarski, members of the Vienna Circle including Rudolf Carnap, and A. J. Ayer

September 1932 – Joseph Schumpeter moves to the United States and takes up a professorship at Harvard University

October 1932 – Anthony Blunt elected a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge

October 1932–1 March 1933 – Willard Van Orman Quine visits Vienna

19 October 1932 – a letter signed by Friedrich Hayek, Lionel Robbins and others is printed in the Times rejecting government spending

November 1932 – Guy Burgess elected to the Apostles

8 November 1932 – the US presidential election of 1932

25 November 1932 – A. J. Ayer marries Renée Lees

December 1932 – the US Congress rejects the Allied war debt reduction plan agreed on at the Lausanne Conference

December 1932–March 1933 – Alfred Jules Ayer attended meetings of the Vienna Circle in Vienna, Austria

3 December 1932–28 January 1933 – Kurt von Schleicher is Chancellor of Germany

8 December 1932–8 February 1934 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story Cigars of the Pharaoh in the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle

22 December 1932 – release date of the Universal Studios film The Mummy, directed by Karl Freund and starring Boris Karloff

1933–1937 – Paul M. Sweezy at Harvard for a doctorate degree

1933 – Anthony Blunt visits the Soviet Union

9 January 1933 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Down and Out in Paris and London

30 January 1933 – Paul von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as chancellor of Germany

February–March 1933 – Albert Einstein visits America

27 February 1933 – in Germany the Reichstag building was set on fire

28 February 1933 – Paul von Hindenburg passes the Reichstag Fire Decree

spring 1933 – Ludwig Lachmann comes to England to the LSE from Germany

1 March–April 1933 – Willard Van Orman Quine visits Prague to see Rudolf Carnap

March 1933 – end of the contractionary phase of the US Great Depression

March 1933 – the Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss dissolved Austria’s National Assembly and ruled by emergency decree

c. March 1933 – Joan Robinson publishes The Economics of Imperfect Competition

2 March–May 1933 – the failed British Mount Everest expedition (of Lawrence Wager, Percy Wyn-Harris, E. E. Shipton, Hugh Ruttledge, C. G. Crawford and F. S. Smythe) attempts to climb Everest

4 March 1933 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt became President of the United States (in office from 4 March 1933–12 April 1945)

5 March 1933 – Federal elections held in Germany; National Socialist German Workers Party 43.91% of the vote; Social Democratic Party of Germany 18.25%; Communist Party of Germany 12.32%; Centre Party 11.25%

6 March 1933 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt declares a four-day banking holiday in the United States

9 March 1933 – the US Emergency Banking Act (the Emergency Banking Relief Act) is passed by the United States Congress

13 March 1933 – the Institute for Social Research or Institut für Sozialforschung (IfS) is closed down by the German government, a research organisation and home of the Frankfurt School and critical theory, moves to Geneva and in 1934 moves to New York City, where it becomes affiliated with Columbia University

23 March 1933 – the Reichstag voted to pass the Enabling Act, which transforms Hitler’s government into a de facto legal dictatorship

28 March 1933 – Albert Einstein arrives in Antwerp and formally renounced his German citizenship

1 April 1933 – Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany

7 April 1933 – release date of the Radio Pictures film King Kong (release date in New York 7 March 1933), starring Fay Wray and Robert Armstrong

19 April 1933 – the United States abandoned the gold standard

2 May 1933 – Hitler outlawed German trade unions

June 1933 – Kim Philby graduates from Cambridge with upper second-class honours in economics

16 June 1933 – the US National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) signed into law by Franklin Delano Roosevelt

July–October 1933 – Albert Einstein flees from Belgium and lives in England

September 1933 – James Hilton publishes his novel Lost Horizon

October 1933 – Albert Einstein returns to the US to the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey

November 1933 – Karl Polanyi moves to London from Vienna (his wife follows him in 1936)

26 December 1933 – death of Henry Watson Fowler

1 January 1934 – UK publication of Murder on the Orient Express by Agatha Christie, featuring the fictional detective Hercule Poirot

30 January 1934 – the US Congress passed the Gold Reserve Act, which nationalised all gold and ordered the Federal Reserve banks to turn over gold supply to the US Treasury

12 February 1934–16 February 1934 – Austrian Civil War (or February Uprising), the battles between socialist and conservative-fascist forces in Austria, which in Vienna, Graz, Bruck an der Mur, Judenburg, Wiener Neustadt and Steyr

February 1934 – Kim Philby and Litzi Friedmann are married

March 1934 – Ludwig von Mises accepted an offer from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva to become a visiting professor

9 May–8 June 1934 – John Maynard Keynes in America

23 May 1934 – deaths of Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (1 October 1910–23 May 1934) and Clyde Chestnut Barrow aka Clyde Champion Barrow (24 March 1909–23 May 1934)

28 May 1934 – John Maynard Keynes meets Franklin Delano Roosevelt

June 1934 – Theodor W. Adorno registers at Merton College, Oxford and spends four years at Oxford under the direction of Gilbert Ryle

12 June 1934 – the German film director Fritz Lang arrives in New York after fleeing Germany

29 June 1934 – Night of the Long Knives in Germany

July 1934 – Columbia university invites the Institute for Social Research (Frankfurt School) to affiliate with the university and move to America

24 July 1934 – death of Hans Hahn, the Austrian mathematician and member of the Vienna circle

9 August 1934–17 October 1935 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story The Blue Lotus, set in China and mentioning the Japanese invasion of Manchuria

2 August 1934 – death of Paul von Hindenburg, President of Germany

9 September 1934 – death of Roger Eliot Fry (14 December 1866–9 September 1934), the English painter and critic

October 1934 – Donald Maclean graduated from Trinity Hall, Cambridge

October 1934 – James Hilton publishes his novel Goodbye, Mr. Chips in the UK (release date in the US June 1934)

25 October 1934 – Ludwig von Mises begins lecturing at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva

December 1934 – Karl Popper publishes Logik der Forschung. Zur Erkenntnistheorie der modernen Naturwissenschaft (The Logic of Scientific Discovery)

December 1934 – Ludwig von Mises briefly returns to Vienna to work as consultant for the Vienna Kammer

December 1934 – Guy Burgess was recruited as a Soviet spy by Arnold Deutsch

1935 – Ronald Syme elected to lectureship at Oxford

January 1935 – George L. S. Shackle arrives at the LSE as a PhD student of Hayek

6 May 1935 – the Silver Jubilee of King George V and Queen Mary

8 May 1935–1940 – A. J. Ayer elected to a 5-year research studentship (fellowship) at Oxford

10 May 1935 – New York release date of the famous Universal picture Bride of Frankenstein, starring Boris Karloff

13 May 1935 – US release date of the famous Universal Pictures movie Werewolf of London, starring Henry Hull

7 June 1935–28 May 1937 – Stanley Baldwin is Prime Minister of the UK

18 June 1935 – the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935, a naval agreement between the UK and Germany; this regulated the size of the Kriegsmarine to 35% of the total tonnage of the Royal Navy; the agreement was renounced by Adolf Hitler on 28 April 1939

4 July–14 August 1935 – the 1935 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition, including Eric Shipton

July 1935 – Bertrand Russell and Dora Black divorce

autumn 1935 – Guy Burgess graduates from Cambridge

10 September 1935 – assassination of Huey Pierce Long, Jr.

15 September 1935 – Nuremberg Laws introduced in Germany

October 1935 – George L. S. Shackle visits Cambridge for a research students’ seminar and listens to a talk by Joan Robinson on Keynes’ work on the General Theory; Shackle becomes a Keynesian

October 1935 – Donald Maclean begins work in the British Foreign Office

3 October 1935–May 1936 – the Second Italo-Ethiopian War (Second Italo-Abyssinian War), a colonial between Italy and the Ethiopian Empire; Italy occupied Ethiopia

November 1935 – the election of the first Labour Government in New Zealand under Michael Joseph Savage (23 March 1872–27 March 1940; Prime Minister from 6 December 1935–27 March 1940)

14 November 1935 – United Kingdom general election 1935. The result:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 387
Liberal National | John Simon | 33
National Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 8

Labour | Clement Attlee | 154
Liberal | Herbert Samuel | 21.
The result was a reduced majority for the National Government led by Conservative Stanley Baldwin

December 1935 – Rudolf Carnap moves from Prague to the University of Chicago

5 December 1935–25 February 1937 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story The Broken Ear in the Belgian newspaper Le Petit Vingtième

winter 1935 – Karl Polanyi visits the United States

1936–1940 – the future Neoconservative Irving Kristol attends City College of New York

1936–1939 – Gore Vidal attends St. Albans School in Washington

1936–1938 – the Great Purge (or the Great Terror) in Russia

January 1936 – Bertrand Russell and Patricia Spence are married

January 1936 – Alfred Jules Ayer publishes his book Language, Truth and Logic

18 January 1936 – death of Rudyard Kipling

20 January 1936 – death of George V (reigned 6 May 1910–20 January 1936)

20 January 1936–11 December 1936 – reign of Edward VIII

22 January 1936 – fall of the government of Pierre Laval in France

5 February 1936 – Charlie Chaplin’s film Modern Times is released

February 1936 – John Maynard Keynes’ The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money is published

16 February 1936 – Spanish general legislative election, which was won by the Popular Front, a left-wing coalition of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), Republican Left (Spain) (IR), Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC), Republican Union (UR), Communist Party (PCE), Acció Catalana (AC) and other parties

4 March 1936 – the first flight of airship Hindenburg in Germany

7 March 1936 – reoccupation of the Rhineland by Hitler

March 1936 – Michał Kalecki arrived in England from Sweden

25 April–17 June 1936 – 1936 British Mount Everest expedition

28 April 1936–26 July 1952 – reign of Farouk of Egypt

9 May 1936 – Italy annexes Ethiopia

11 May 1936 – release date of the film Dracula’s Daughter by Universal Studios directed by Lambert Hillyer

June 1936 – Peter Cushing begins to work at the Connaught Theatre in Worthing

22 June 1936 – murder of Moritz Schlick

17–18 July 1936 – Spanish coup of July 1936, a group of officers attempt to overthrow the left-wing Popular Front government

17 July 1936–1 April 1939 – Spanish Civil War

1–16 August 1936 – the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, Germany

August 1936 – King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson on a private cruise of the Adriatic Sea on board the Nahlin

4 August 1936 – a military coup in Greece by General Ioannis Metaxas

19–23 August 1936 – the first Moscow show trial

24 August 1936 – the introduction of conscription law in Germany

26 August 1936 – the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 between the United Kingdom and Egypt signed in London; the UK was required to withdraw all troops from Egypt, except those protecting Suez Canal and its surroundings

29 August 1936 – the British–American Himalayan Expedition of 1936 (with Peter Lloyd and H. Adams Carter, Bill Tilman and Noel Odell) ascends Nanda Devi

September 1936 – King Edward VIII received in Turkey on an unofficial visit

October 1936 – Eric Hobsbawm went up to King’s College, Cambridge to read History

October 1936 – Guy Burgess joined the BBC as talks producer

4 October 1936 – Battle of Cable Street, in Cable Street, East End of London, a clash between British Union of Fascists (led by Oswald Mosley) and anti-fascist demonstrators

5–31 October 1936 – Jarrow March (or the Jarrow Crusade) from Jarrow to London, organised protest march against the unemployment suffered in the Tyneside town of Jarrow

21 October 1936 – the siege of Madrid begins during the Spanish Civil War

25 October 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis pact

November 1936 – John Cairncross joins the UK Foreign Office

November 1936 – Edward VIII visits the depressed region of South Wales

16 November 1936 – Edward VIII tells the British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin at Buckingham Palace of his intention to marry Wallis Simpson

December 1936 – Abdication crisis in the UK

11 December 1936 – abdication of the British king Edward VIII

11 December 1936 – accession of George VI (reigned 11 December 1936–6 February 1952)

23 December 1936 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) sets out for Spain to fight in the Spanish Civil War; he stays until June 1937

1937–1938 – John Kenneth Galbraith visits Cambridge University with a postdoctoral fellowship

1937 – James Hilton moves to California

1937 – George L. S. Shackle granted his PhD; he moves to New College, Oxford and took a D.Phil. in 1940

February 1937 – Bertrand Russell delivers his maiden speech in the House of Lords

4 February 1937 – Karl Popper sails for New Zealand from London

February 1937–July 1939 – Kim Philby in Spain as a journalist in the Spanish Civil War, from the side of the pro-Franco forces

March 1937 – Karl Popper arrives in New Zealand

2 March 1937 – release date of the Columbia Pictures movie Lost Horizon, directed by Frank Capra, and starring
Ronald Colman and Jane Wyatt

8 March 1937 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes The Road to Wigan Pier

27 April 1937 – death of Antonio Gramsci in Rome

15 April 1937–16 June 1938 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story The Black Island in Le Vingtième Siècle magazine

May 1937 – John Cairncross recruited to the Soviet cause by Arnold Deutsch

May 1937–June 1938 – the US Recession of 1937–1938

6 May 1937 – the Hindenburg disaster; the German airship LZ 129 Hindenburg catches fire and is destroyed during its attempt to dock at Naval Air Station Lakehurst in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States

12 May 1937 – the coronation of George VI

25 May 1937 – death of Florence Stoker, wife of Bram Stoker

28 May 1937–10 May 1940 – Neville Chamberlain is British Prime Minister

June 1937 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) returns to England from Spain

c. June 1937 – Peter Cushing joins a company at the Grand Theatre in Southampton

3 June 1937 – ex-king Edward VIII marries Wallis Simpson in the Chateau de Candé near Tours in France

July 1937 – the Shaksgam Expedition explores and maps the northern approaches to K2 led by Eric Shipton

July 1937 – F. S. Smythe in an expedition to the Valley of Flowers, India

7 July 1937–9 September 1945 – the Second Sino-Japanese War, the war between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan

9 June 1937 – Theodor W. Adorno sails for New York and stayed there for two weeks

21 September 1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Hobbit, or There and Back Again

November 1937 – while ascending the Zemu glacier, Lord Hunt and H. W. Tilman found strange “yeti” tracks in the snow

1 November 1937 – Agatha Christie publishes the book Death on the Nile with the fictional detective Hercule Poirot

13 December 1937–January 1938 – the Nanking Massacre (or Rape of Nanking), the mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the people of Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War

10 February 1938 – king Carol II of Romania suspended the 1923 constitution and seized emergency powers

16 February 1938 – Theodor W. Adorno sails for New York and moves to America

8 March 1938–22 October 1940 – Joseph P. Kennedy is United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom

9 March 1938 – Schuschnigg scheduled an Austria plebiscite on the issue of unification with Germany on 13 March 1938

12 March 1938 – Austria was annexed by the Third Reich

April 1938 – A. J. Ayer visits America

25 April 1938 – Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair), a personal account of the Spanish Civil War, is published

May 1938–August 1939 – the German Expedition to Tibet of 1938–1939, a German scientific expedition led by the German zoologist Ernst Schäfer (14 March 1910–21 July 1992)

26 May 1938 – the House Committee on Un-American Activities established as a special investigating committee, to investigate disloyalty and subversion, either communist or fascist; it was chaired by Martin Dies, Jr. and Dies Committee (from 1938–1944)

4 June 1938 – Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha leave Vienna on the Orient Express for Britain

6 June 1938 – Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha arrive in London at Victoria Station

4 August 1938 – 10 August 1939 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story King Ottokar's Sceptre in the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle

17 October 1938 – death of Karl Kautsky, the Czech-Austrian philosopher and Marxist theoretician, in Amsterdam

30 October 1938 – Orson Welles’ radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds, an episode of the American radio drama anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air

September 1938 – Bertrand Russell begins a year appointment at the University of Chicago

September 1938–30 March 1939 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) in French Morocco

15 September 1938 – Chamberlain travels to Berchtesgaden to meet with Hitler about the Sudeten crisis

23 September 1938 – the new military government in Czechoslovakia issues a decree for general mobilization

30 September 1938 – Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini and Édouard Daladier signed the Munich Agreement

30 September 1938 – the Czechoslovak government capitulates and agrees to the Munich Agreement

30 September 1938 – Neville Chamberlain returns to Britain and gives his “peace for our time” speech to a crowd at Heston Aerodrome

1–10 October 1938 – annexation of the Sudetenland by Germany

9 November 1938 – murder of the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in Paris by Herschel Grynszpan

9–10 November 1938 – Kristallnacht, a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany; from 12–13 November a similar attack happened in the Free City of Danzig

December 1938 – Guy Burgess begins to work for MI6’s D Section

23 December 1938–10 February 1939 – the Catalonia Offensive in Spain by the Nationalist Army of Franco to take Republican-held Catalonia

1939 – Stefan Zweig’s novel Beware of Pity (in German called Ungeduld des Herzens / “The Heart's Impatience”) is published

5 January 1939 – Josef Beck (Poland’s Foreign Minister) meets with Hitler at Berchtesgaden, to discuss German claims on Danzig and issues with the Polish Corridor

26 January 1939 – fall of Barcelona to Franco’s forces. The Nationalist Army of Franco began the Catalonia Offensive on December 23, 1938

10 February 1939 – Peter Cushing arrives in New York to pursue an acting career in Hollywood

14 March 1939 – Slovakia seceded from Czechoslovakia and became a separate pro-Nazi state

15 March 1939 – German troops marched into Czechoslovakia

April 1939 – Ernst Badian and his family sail from Genoa for Christchurch, New Zealand

14 April 1939 – publication date of the novel The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck

May–June 1939 – George VI and Queen Elizabeth tour Canada and the United States

27 May 1939 – the German ocean liner MS St. Louis arrives in Havana harbour but the Cuban government refuses entry to Cuba to 908 refugees from Europe

6 June 1939 – St. Louis sails back to Europe

summer 1939 – Eric Hobsbawm in Paris carrying out research work on North Africa

June 1939 – Gore Vidal leaves New York for a trip to Europe

July 1939 – Ludwig Wittgenstein visits Vienna and Berlin

23 August 1939 – Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow

25 August 1939 – US release date of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer movie The Wizard of Oz, starring Judy Garland

1 September 1939 – Germany invaded Poland

1 September 1939–2 September 1945 – World War II

September 1939–April 1940 – Phony War

1 September 1939 – Operation Pied Piper began, which officially relocated more than 3.5 million people

3 September 1939 – UK and France declare war on Germany; Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty

3 September 1939 – the speech of George VI to the British Empire on the outbreak of World War Two

7 September 1939 – Ronald Syme publishes The Roman Revolution

17 September 1939 – Stalin ordered his own invasion of Poland

23 September 1939 – death of Sigmund Freud in London

27 September 1939 – Warsaw surrendered to German troops encircling its borders

September 1939 – Turing designing the bombe

17 October 1939 – release date of Frank Capra’s film Mr. Smith Goes to Washington

c. November 1939 – the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) moves to Peterhouse College in Cambridge

30 November 1939 – Soviet Union attacks Finland in what would become known as the Winter War

30 November 1939–13 March 1940 – the Winter War, the military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland

1940–1941 – Ronald Syme is Press Attache to the British Legation at Belgrade; at the fall of Belgrade he went to Ankara

1940–1943 – Karl Polanyi teaches at Bennington College in Vermont

24 January 1940 – release date of the film The Grapes of Wrath, directed by John Ford and based on John Steinbeck’s 1939 novel

February 1940 – John Maynard Keynes publishes his pamphlet How to Pay for the War

16 February 1940 – Eric Hobsbawm enrolled in 560th Field Company of the Royal Engineers in Cambridge

18 March 1940 – delivery and installation of Turing’s bombe to Bletchley Park; second bombe, named “Agnus dei,” later shortened to Agnes, or Aggie, was equipped with Welchman's diagonal board, and was installed on 8 August 1940; during 1940, 178 messages were broken on the two machines

9 April 1940 – Germans land in several Norwegian ports and take Oslo; the Norwegian Campaign lasts two months. The British begin their Norwegian Campaign. Denmark surrenders

10 May 1940 – Germany invades Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands; Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom upon the resignation of Neville Chamberlain

10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945 – Churchill as Prime Minister

10 May 1940 – Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister (PM until 26 July 1945)

13 May 1940 – Churchill's "blood, toil, tears, and sweat" speech in Commons.

14 May 1940 – Germany aircraft attacks on Dutch city of Rotterdam into the ground. 900 civilians died and 85,000 others homeless

15 May 1940 – from this day after the Luftwaffe destroyed the centre of Rotterdam – the RAF also carried out operations east of the Rhine, attacking industrial and transportation targets.

17 May 1940 – Germans enter Brussels and also take Antwerp

23 May 1940 – Oswald Mosley interned under Defence Regulation 18B

25 May 1940 – the Allied forces, British and French alike, retreat to Dunkirk

26 May–4 June 1940 – the Battle of Dunkirk: the defence and evacuation of British and allied forces in Europe

28 May 1940 – Belgium surrenders to the Germans; King Leopold III of Belgium surrenders and is interned

30 May 1940 – crucial British Cabinet meeting: Churchill wins a vote on continuing the war, in spite of vigorous arguments by Lord Halifax and Chamberlain

May 1940 – British start aerial war on German cities

June 1940 – Anthony Blunt recruited by MI5 as a military liaison officer

10 June 1940 – Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom. Norway surrenders

13 June 1940 – Paris occupied by German troops

16 June 1940 – Marshal Pétain becomes Premier

22 June 1940 – Franco-German armistice signed; 22 June, France signed an armistice at Compiègne with Germany that gave Germany control over the north and west of the country, including Paris and all of the Atlantic coastline

24 June 1940 – Franco-Italian armistice signed

by 25 June 1940 – almost 192,000 Allied personnel, 144,000 of them British, had been evacuated through various French ports

30 June 1940 – Germany invades the Channel Islands

3 July 1940 – the British attack and destroy the French navy at its Mers El Kébir base on the coast of French Algeria, fearing that it would fall into German hands

4 July–9 October 1940 – Piero Sraffa interned in the Isle of Man as an enemy alien

12 July 1940 – Luftwaffe attacks on Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland

25 July 1940 – Ludwig von Mises leaves Europe from Lisbon by ship for America

3 August 1940 – Ludwig von Mises arrives in New York

July–September 1940 – Luftwaffe attacked RAF Fighter Command to gain air superiority as a prelude to invasion

17 August 1940 – Hitler declares a blockade of the British Isles

24 August 1940 – German aircraft mistakenly bomb London including church in Cripplegate, accidentally dictating the future shape of the Battle of Britain.

25 August 1940 – Churchill orders the bombing of Berlin in retaliation for the previous night's bombing of London

30 August 1940 – the bombing of England continues; London is now bombed in retaliation for the bombing of Berlin

7 September 1940 – in one of the major misjudgements of the war, the Luftwaffe shifts its focus to London, away from the RAF airfields

7 September 1940–21 May 1941 – The Blitz

7 September 1940 – first major raid in this regard took place on London

24 September 1940 – Berlin suffers a large bombing raid by the RAF

27 September 1940 – the Tripartite Pact is signed in Berlin by Germany, Italy, and Japan, promising mutual aid. Its informal name “Axis”

15 October 1940 – New York release date of Charlie Chaplin’s film The Great Dictator (release date in London 7 March 1941)

17 October 1940–18 October 1941 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story The Crab with the Golden Claws in the Belgian newspaper Le Soir Jeunesse

28 October 1940 – the Italian Royal Army launches attacks into Greece from Italian-held Albania and begins the Greco-Italian War

5 November 1940 – President Roosevelt wins a third term

6–9 December 1940 – British and Indian troops of the Western Desert Force launch Operation Compass, an offensive against Italian forces in Egypt

28 December 1940 – Greco-Italian War continues to go badly for the Italians and the Greeks hold roughly one-quarter of Albania: Italy requests military assistance from Germany against the Greeks

29 December 1940 – large German air-raids on London; St Paul’s Cathedral is damaged

1941–1942 – Ronald Syme works at the British Embassy at Ankara

1941–1945 – Ernst Badian enrolled in BA at Canterbury College, University of New Zealand; he graduates with an BA in 1945; an MA in 1946

11 March 1941 – United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs the Lend Lease Act (now passed by the full Congress) allowing Britain, China, and other allied nations to purchase military equipment and to defer payment until after the war

24 March 1941 – Rommel attacks and reoccupies El Agheila, Libya in his first offensive. The British retreat and within three weeks are driven back to Egypt

28 March 1941 – suicide of Virginia Woolf

6 April 1941 – Forces of Germany, Hungary, and Italy, moving through Romania and Hungary, initiate the invasions of Yugoslavia and Greece

8 May–28 July 1941 – John Maynard Keynes in America

20 May 1941 – German paratroopers land on Crete; the battle for Crete will continue for seven days.

22 June 1941 – Operation Barbarossa begins

1 June 1941 – Commonwealth forces complete the withdrawal from Crete

9 August 1941 – Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet at NS Argentia, Newfoundland. The Atlantic Charter is created, signed, and released to the world press

5 September 1941 – US release date of Orson Welles’ movie Citizen Kane; 1 May 1941 release date at the Palace Theatre

20 October 1941–21 May 1942 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story The Shooting Star in Le Soir magazine

7 December 1941 – Japanese planes attacked the United States Naval Base at Pearl Harbour

8 December 1941 – just after midnight, Japanese invasion of Malaya began

12 December 1941 – release date of the famous Universal Pictures movie the The Wolf Man, starring Lon Chaney, Jr.

1942–1945 – Ronald Syme is Professor of Classical Philology at University of Istanbul

11 June 1942–14 January 1943 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story The Secret of the Unicorn in the Belgian newspaper Le Soir

winter 1942–1943 – John Cairncross moves to Bletchley Park to Hut 3

8 November 1942 – Operation Torch, the British-American invasion of French North Africa during the North African Campaign; three amphibious Allied task forces attack areas of Morocco (targeting Casablanca and Safi) and Algeria (Oran and Algiers)

23 January 1943 – US release date of the movie Casablanca, starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman

15 April 1943 – Ayn Rand publishes The Fountainhead

c. May 1943–May 1944 – the Bengal famine of 1943 in Bengal Province of pre-partition India; between 1.5 and 4 million people died of starvation, malnutrition and disease

May 1943 – de Gaulle moved his headquarters to Algiers

July 1943 – Gore Vidal enlists in the army after his graduation; he serves from December 1944 to March 1945

1944 – Karl Polanyi’s The Great Transformation is published

3 June 1944 – de Gaulle flies back to the UK

26 August, 1944 – de Gaulle liberates Paris

September 1944 – publication of Friedrich Hayek’s The Road to Serfdom by the University of Chicago Press

10 November 1944 – Churchill flew to Paris to a reception by de Gaulle and the two together were greeted by thousands of cheering Parisians on the next day

1945 – Karl Popper publishes The Open Society and Its Enemies

7 May 1945 – SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany’s surrender

8 May 1945 – Victory in Europe Day

5 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election of 1945; some polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks

17 July–2 August 1945 – Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany

26 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election results counted and declared on 26 July owing in part to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas

26 July 1945 – Churchill resigns as British Prime Minister

26 July 1945–26 October 1951 – Clement Attlee as British Prime Minister

15 August 1945 – Emperor Hirohito issues a radio broadcast announcing the Surrender of Japan

17 August 1945 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Animal Farm: A Fairy Story in Britain; on 26 August 1946 in the US

2 September 1945 – The Japanese Instrument of Surrender is signed on the deck of the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay

2 September 1945 – formal end of WWII

5 September 1945 – Singapore is officially liberated by British and Indian troops

9 September 1945 – The Japanese troops in China formally surrender, end of the Second Sino-Japanese War

24 October 1945 – the United Nations officially comes into existence on the ratification of the UN Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council (France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the UK and the US) and a majority of the other 46 signatories

22 December 1945 – death of Otto Neurath in Britain

January 1946 – Karl Popper arrives back in England from New Zealand

6 January 1946 – the first meeting of the UN General Assembly (with 51 nations present) and the Security Council takes place in London (the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the United Nations; the facility was completed in 1952)

20 January 1946 – de Gaulle abruptly resigned

5 March 1946 – Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri

21 April 1946 – John Maynard Keynes dies at his home Tilton in Firle, Sussex

22 July 1946 – release date of the film Beware of Pity, starring Lilli Palmer, Albert Lieven and Cedric Hardwicke

13 August 1946 – death of H. G. Wells

20 December 1946 – release date of Frank Capra’s film It’s a Wonderful Life

1947–1948 – Ernst Badian is Junior Lecturer in Classics and Ancient History at Victoria University in Wellington

1947–1953 – Karl Polanyi teaches at Columbia University as Professor of Economics in New York; he retired in 1953

1947 – Eric Hobsbawm appointed as Lecturer in History at Birkbeck College, London

26 May 1947 – release date of the film Black Narcissus, starring Deborah Kerr

18 July 1947 – the Indian Independence Act 1947 is given royal assent; the act partitioned British India into India and Pakistan

15 August 1947 – India partitioned British India into India and Pakistan

September–November 1947 – the 1947 Jammu massacres in the Jammu region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India

October 1947 – the House on Un-American Activities Committee holds nine days of hearings in Los Angeles about communists in Hollywood

22 October 1947–1 January 1949 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948

c. 1948 – Ernst Badian leaves New Zealand for University College, Oxford

30 January 1948 – assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

30 June 1948 – UK release date of film Oliver Twist, starring Alec Guinness

22 November 1948 – release of the British anthology film Quartet, adapted from W. Somerset Maugham stories

1949–1970 – Ronald Syme is Camden Professor of Ancient History at Oxford, and fellow of Brasenose; 1970–1989 fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford

1949 – Ludwig Lachmann appointed to a chair in Economics and Economic History at the University of Wittwatersrand in South Africa

1949 – Paul M. Sweezy publishes Karl Marx and the Close of His System and Böhm-Bawerk’s Criticism of Marx (August M. Kelley, New York)

1949 – Ronald Syme elected as Camden Professor of Ancient History at Oxford; he retired in 1970

May 1949 – the first issue of Paul M. Sweezy and Leo Huberman’s Monthly Review

June 1949 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Nineteen Eighty-Four

October 1949 – Kim Philby arrives in Washington as British intelligence liaison to the US intelligence agencies

c. October 1949 – Nicholas Kaldor appointed as a fellow and lecturer of King’s College, Cambridge

October 1949 – Theodor W. Adorno left America and returns to Germany, where he teaches at Frankfurt University

1950 – Ernst Badian awarded his BA in literae humaniores at University College, Oxford

1950–1952 – Ernst Badian held a fellowship in Classics at the British School in Rome

8 January 1950 – death of Joseph Schumpeter

21 January 1950 – death of George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair)

23 February 1950 – British general election gave Labour a massively reduced majority of five

February 1950 – Friedrich Hayek submits a letter of resignation to the London School of Economics (LSE); Hayek teaches at the University of Chicago (from 1950–1962)

25 June 1950–27 July 1953 – Korean War

1 August 1950 – release of the British anthology film Trio, based on three short stories by W. Somerset Maugham

September 1950 – The Authoritarian Personality is published, by Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson, and Nevitt Sanford, who were working at the University of California, Berkeley

October 1950 – China invades Tibet

16 October 1950 – C. S. Lewis publishes The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (the novel is set in 1940)

25 May 1951 – Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean flee from Britain to Russia

July 1951 – Kim Philby resigns from MI6

27 August 1951–21 November 1951 – the 1951 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition led by Eric Shipton reconnoitres possible routes for climbing Mount Everest from Nepal; the best one found was through the Khumbu Icefall, Western Cwm and South Col; Edmund Hillary is part of the expedition

15 October 1951 – C. S. Lewis publishes Prince Caspian, second volume of the The Chronicles of Narnia

25 October 1951 – United Kingdom general election. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Labour | Clement Attlee | 295
Conservative | Winston Churchill | 302
National Liberal | James Stuart | 19
Liberal | Clement Davies | 6.
The Conservatives won.

26 October 1951 – Winston Churchill as British Prime Minister (26 October 1951–6 April 1955)

November 1951 – the Himalayan expedition of Eric Shipton (with Michael Ward, Bill Murray, and Tom Bourdillon), while scouting for a new route to Everest, discover so-called “yeti” tracks in the snow near the head of Menlung Glacier

14 November 1951 – release of the British anthology film Encore, an adaptation of three short stories by W. Somerset Maugham

1952 – John Cairncross resigns from the government

1952–1954 – Ernst Badian at the University of Sheffield

6 February 1952 – death of George VI; accession of Elizabeth II

August 1952 – C. S. Lewis first meets Joy Davidman Gresham

18 September 1952 – Charlie Chaplin boards the RMS Queen Elizabeth with his family but the next day has his re-entry revoked

1953 – Noam Chomsky and his wife Carol Doris Schatz visit England, France, Switzerland and Italy, and 6 weeks at a kibbutz in Israel

January 1953 – Charlie Chaplin and his family move to Manoir de Ban, overlooking Lake Geneva in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland

20 January 1953–20 January 1961 – Dwight D. Eisenhower is President of the United States

5 March 1953 – death of Stalin

29 May 1953 – Edmund Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers to reach the summit of Mount Everest

2 June 1953 – coronation of Queen Elizabeth II as monarch of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon

18 June 1953 – the Egyptian Republic was declared

27 July 1953 – end of the Korean War

15–19 August 1953 – the 1953 Iranian coup d’état, the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of the shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, with help from the United Kingdom and the United States

14 September 1953–14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

1954 – Ernst Badian takes an MA at University College, Oxford

1954–1965 – Ernst Badian at the University of Durham

January 1954 – Daily Mail Snowman Expedition leaves Katmandu

7 June 1954 – death of Alan Turing

18–27 June 1954 – the 1954 Guatemalan coup d’état, a covert operation CIA to depose the democratically-elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz; it installs the military dictatorship of Carlos Castillo Armas

29 July 1954 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Fellowship of the Ring, the first volume of The Lord of the Rings

11 November 1954 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Two Towers, the second volume of The Lord of the Rings

6 April 1955 – Winston Churchill steps down as British Prime Minister

6 April 1955–10 January 1957 – Anthony Eden (Conservative) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

October 1955 – Kim Philby officially cleared by Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan

20 October 1955 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Return of the King, the third volume of The Lord of the Rings

25 February 1956 – Nikita Khrushchev gives a secret speech denouncing Stalin at the 20th Soviet Party Congress

23 April 1956 – Helen Joy Davidman marries C. S. Lewis in a civil marriage at the register office, 42 St Giles’, Oxford

13 June 1956 – British forces complete their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone

19 July 1956 – the US State Department rejects American financial assistance for the Egyptian High Dam

26 July 1956 – Nasser nationalised the Suez Canal

5 October 1956 – release date of the film The Ten Commandments, directed by Cecil B. DeMille and starring Charlton Heston and Yul Brynner

29 October 1956–7 November 1956 – the Suez Crisis (Tripartite Aggression), the invasion of Egypt by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France

1957 – Noam Chomsky is promoted to the position of associate professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

1957 – Ayn Rand publishes Atlas Shrugged

10 January 1957–19 October 1963 – Harold Macmillan (Conservative) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

February 1957 – publication of Syntactic Structures by Noam Chomsky, which introduces the idea of transformational generative grammar

2 May 1957 – release date of the film The Curse of Frankenstein, directed by Terence Fisher, and starring Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee

26 August 1957 – release date of the film The Abominable Snowman, starring Peter Cushing and Forrest Tucker

February–June 1958 – the Slick-Johnson Snowman Expedition, led by Gerald Russell and Peter and Bryan Byrne

27 March 1958–14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union

8 May 1958 – release date of the film UK Dracula, directed by Terence Fisher and starring Christopher Lee and Peter Cushing

1 June 1958 – de Gaulle became Premier and was given emergency powers for six months by the National Assembly, fulfilling his desire for parliamentary legitimacy

1 June 1958–8 January 1959 – de Gaulle Prime Minister of France

17 September 1958–25 November 1959 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story Tintin in Tibet in Tintin magazine

28 September 1958 – a French referendum took place and 79.2 percent of those who voted supported the new constitution and the creation of the Fifth Republic

8 January 1959–28 April 1969 – de Gaulle President of the French Republic

18 November 1959 – release date of the film Ben-Hur, directed by William Wyler and starring Charlton Heston

December 1959 – Slick-Johnson Snowman Expedition, with Peter Byrne

February 1960 – Friedrich Hayek publishes The Constitution of Liberty

27 May 1960 – Piero Sraffa publishes The Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities; Italian publication on 6 June 1960

13 July 1960 – death of Helen Joy Davidman

September 1960–June 1961 – the World Book Encyclopedia scientific expedition to the Himalayas, led by Sir Edmund Hillary and Marlin Perkins, to study adaptation to high altitude and to search for the yeti

8 January 1961 – referendum on self-determination for Algeria was held in France

20 January 1961 – John F. Kennedy inaugurated as US president (in office 20 January 1961–22 November 1963)

1 June 1962 – Friedrich Hayek leaves New York for Naples (arriving on 13 June)

c. 15 June 1962–July 1968 – Friedrich Hayek is professor at the University of Freiburg, Germany

3 July 1962 – France recognised Algerian independence

October 1962 – Cuban missile crisis

5 October 1962 – release date of the James Bond film Dr. No in the United Kingdom

10 December 1962 – release date of the film Lawrence of Arabia, directed by David Lean and starring Peter O’Toole

23 January 1963 – Kim Philby vanishes from Beirut

June 1963 – John F. Kennedy visits Ireland

1 July 1963 – Kim Philby’s flight to Moscow officially confirmed

11 October 1963 – release date of the James Bond film From Russia with Love in the United Kingdom

22 November 1963 – the assassination of John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, at 12:30 pm Central Standard Time on Friday; Lyndon B. Johnson sworn in as President on Air Force One in Dallas on 22 November 1963

22 November 1963 – death of C. S. Lewis

23 November 1963 – broadcast date of the first Doctor Who TV program An Unearthly Child in the UK

25 November 1963 – a Requiem Mass held for John F. Kennedy at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle

21 December 1963–1 February 1964 – broadcast dates of the Doctor Who TV program The Daleks in the UK

23 April 1964 – Anthony Blunt secretly confessed to MI5 about his spying

18 September 1964 – release date of the James Bond film Goldfinger in the United Kingdom

14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is forced to resign as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union

14 October 1964–10 November 1982 – Leonid Brezhnev is General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Brezhnev becomes Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union on 16 June 1977

24 January 1965 – death of Winston Churchill

23 August 1965 – release date of the film Dr. Who and the Daleks, starring Peter Cushing

22 September 1965 – the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (or the Hart–Celler Act) is passed in the US Senate (25 August 1965 in the House); effective from 30 June 1968

21 December 1965 – release date of the James Bond film Thunderball in the United States; released in the UK on 29 December 1965

1966 – Paul A. Baran and Paul M. Sweezy publish Monopoly Capital: An Essay on the American Economic and Social Order (Monthly Review Press)

5 August 1966 – release date of the film Daleks – Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D., starring Peter Cushing

4 April 1968 – murder of Martin Luther King

April 1968 – UK Race Relations Bill

20 April 1968 – Enoch Powell’s notorious address to the General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Centre, which became known as the “Rivers of Blood” speech

6 June 1968 – death of Randolph Spencer-Churchill (1911–1968), son of Winston

5 November 1968 – the United States presidential election of 1968, between the Republican nominee Richard Nixon and the Democratic nominee Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon won the electoral college by 301–191

20 January 1969–9 August 1974 – Richard Nixon is US president

December 1969–1977 – Friedrich Hayek is professor at the University of Salzburg

3 January 1970 – broadcast date of “Spearhead from Space,” the first serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

18 June 1970 – the United Kingdom general election of 1970; the Conservative Party under Edward Heath defeats the Labour Party under Harold Wilson