Tuesday, October 2, 2018

Chronology of the 18th Century

23 January 1698–11 June 1727 – George I is Elector of Hanover

c. 1700 – ancestor of Baron Vordenberg moves Carmilla’s tomb

22 February 1700–10 September 1721 – Great Northern War between Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway (defeated 1700), Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania (defeated 1706) and Sweden under Charles XII

13 July 1700 – Treaty of Constantinople between Russia and the Ottomans in which the Sultan ceded Azov, the Taganrog fortress, Pavlovsk and Mius to Russia

1701
July 1701–August 1714 – War of the Spanish Succession (after the death of the childless Charles II of Spain) between Austrian Habsburgs and France

8 July 1709 – battle of Poltava between Peter the Great and the Swedish army under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld

1 August 1714–11 June 1727 – George I is King of Great Britain and Ireland:
22 June 1727–25 October 1760 – George II
25 October 1760–29 January 1820 – George III
15 August 1714 – execution of Constantin Brâncoveanu in Constantinople

1 September 1715–10 May 1774 – Louis XV is king of France

1719 – Wenzel Carl Graf Purgstall purchases Schloss Hainfeld from Count Leopold Josef Orsini-Rosenberg:
1275 – castle Hainfeld first documented, held by vassals of the Wildoner in Riegersburg
1332 – castle Hainfeld and its estate passes by marriage to Ulrich Winkler
1573 – Wolf Zwickl acquires castle Hainfeld
1550–1600 – Winkler family replaces castle with a fortified four-wing Renaissance castle
1719 – Wenzel Carl Graf Purgstall purchases Schloss Hainfeld from Count Leopold Josef Orsini-Rosenberg
c. 1721 – Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi writes “The Four Seasons” (“Le quattro stagioni”), four violin concerti

7 May 1724–17 May 1727 – Catherine I is Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias

1725 – Antonio Vivaldi’s “The Four Seasons” first published in Amsterdam

18 May 1727–30 January 1730 – Peter II Alexeyevich is Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias

22 June 1727–25 October 1760 – George II is King of Great Britain and Ireland and Elector of Hanover

30 January 1730–28 October 1740 – Anna Ioannovna is Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias

31 May 1740–17 August 1786 – Frederick the Great is King of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg

28 October 1740–6 December 1741 – Ivan VI Antonovich is Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias

6 December 1741–5 January 1762 – Elizabeth Petrovna is Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias

13 September 1745–18 August 1765 – Maria Theresa is Holy Roman Empress

1750
1750–March 1752 – François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) moves to Prussia

20 January 1752 – foundation stone of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Reggia di Caserta) laid, in Caserta, southern Italy, constructed for the Spanish Bourbon kings of Naples

20 January 1752–1774 – construction of the Royal Palace of Caserta (Reggia di Caserta), Naples, with the exterior completed in 1774

1760s
25 October 1760–29 January 1820 – reign of George III

5 January–9 July 1762 – Peter III is Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias

9 July 1762–17 November 1796 – Catherine II the Great is Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias

18 August 1765–20 February 1790 – Joseph II is Holy Roman Emperor

1770s
17 December 1770 – birth of Ludwig van Beethoven in Bonn

1772
August 1772 – First Partition of Poland: Russian, Prussian and Austrian troops invade Poland and divide the provinces among themselves

5 August 1772 – treaty signed between Russia, Prussia and Austria to partition Poland

22 September 1772 – Polish partition treaty ratified

1773
16 December 1773 – Boston Tea Party, protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, Massachusetts, against the Tea Act of May 10, 1773, which allowed the British East India company to sell tea from China in American colonies without paying taxes apart from those imposed by the Townshend Acts

10 May 1774–4 September 1791 – Louis XVI is King of France

October 1774 – Austrians occupy Bukovina

January 1775 – Bukovina formally annexed by Austria

19 April 1775–3 September 1783 – American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies (allied with France)

4 July 1776 – United States Declaration of Independence, ratified by the Second Continental Congress at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

1780s
29 November 1780 – death of Maria Theresa

March 1781 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart summoned to Vienna, where Archbishop Colloredo was attending the celebrations for the accession of Joseph II

1786
17 August 1786 – death of Frederick II the Great at Sanssouci

17 August 1786–16 November 1797 – Frederick William II is King of Prussia and Elector of Brandenburg

1787
19 August 1787–9 January 1792 – Russo–Turkish War

February 1788–4 August 1791 – Austro-Turkish War

21 June 1788 – United States Constitution ratified by the minimum of nine states required under Article VII

13 September 1788 – US Continental Congress passes a resolution to put the new Constitution into operation

1789
c. 1789–1792 – fictional dates when Victor Frankenstein studies at the University of Ingolstadt

30 April 1789–4 March 1797 – George Washington is first President of the United States

5 May 1789–9 November 1799 – the French Revolution

1790s
1790
20 February 1790 – death of Joseph II

autumn c. 1790 – fictional date of Washington Irving’s short story “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow”

30 September 1790–1 March 1792 – Leopold II is Holy Roman Emperor

1791
6 September 1791 – premiere of La clemenza di Tito (The Clemency of Titus, K. 621) an opera seria in 2 acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to an Italian libretto by Caterino Mazzolà, at the Estates Theatre, Prague

30 September 1791 – premiere of The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte, K. 620), an opera in 2 acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder, at Schikaneder's theatre, the Freihaus-Theater auf der Wieden, Vienna

5 December 1791 – death of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart in Vienna

1792
1792 – Matei Cantacuzino moves to Russia

9 January 1792 – signing of the Treaty of Jassy

November 1792 – Ludwig van Beethoven leaves Bonn for Vienna

c. 11 September 1797 – fictional date of the death of Victor Frankenstein

16 November 1797–7 June 1840 – Frederick William III is King of Prussia:
16 November 1797–6 August 1806 – Elector of Brandenburg
1 July 1798–2 September 1801 – the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria of Napoleon Bonaparte

c. 1799 – Francesco Filippo Indellicati (1767–1831) selected an early (“primo”) ripening plant of the Zagarese variety (from Croatian grapes Crljenak Kaštelanski and Tribidrag) and plants it in Liponti; Primitivo (Zinfandel) wines begin to be grown in Apulia

c. 1800 – Brâncoveanu Castle in Sâmbăta de Sus built by Grigore Brâncoveanu (1767–27 April 1832)

1800s
1800
May 1800 – University of Ingolstadt moved to Landshut

18 May 1804–6 April 1814 – Napoléon Bonaparte is Emperor of the French

1805–1807 – Lord Byron at Trinity College, Cambridge

1809–July 1811 – Lord Byron goes on a Grand Tour of Europe, to Spain and Greece, Malta

12 February 1809 – birth of Charles Darwin in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England

1810s
5 February 1811 – the Prince of Wales George becomes the Prince Regent

18 June 1815 – Battle of Waterloo

summer of 1816 – famous summer at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva, Switzerland, where Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley and Lord Byron meet

5 May 1818 – Karl Marx born to Heinrich Marx (a middle class lawyer) and Henrietta Pressburg in Trier

Chronology of the 17th Century

1588–28 February 1598 – Sir Edward Barton is English Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire

September 1591–June 1592 – Aaron the Tyrant (Aron Vodă) is Prince of Moldavia

October 1592–3/4 May 1595 – Aaron the Tyrant (Aron Vodă) is Prince of Moldavia

29 July 1593–11 November 1606 – Long Turkish War (Thirteen Years’ War), between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire, over the Principalities of Wallachia, Transylvania and Moldavia:
22 June 1593 – battle of Sisak, between Ottoman forces led by Telli Hasan Pasha and a Christian army of Habsburg and Croatian troops, at Sisak, central Croatia
29 July 1593 – an Ottoman army under Sinan Pasha attacks the Habsburgs and captures Győr and Komarom
March–10 July 1594 – Uprising in the Banat of Serbs led by Serbian Orthodox bishop Teodor of Vršac and Sava Temišvarac
1595 – Karl von Mansfeld captures Esztergom and Visegrád
18 October 1585 – battle of Târgovişte
22 October 1585 – battle of Bucharest
27–30 October 1595 – battle of Giurgiu
24–26 October 1596 – battle of Keresztes between Habsburg forces and the Ottoman Empire
11 October 1593–9 August 1601 – Michael the Brave (Mihail I Viteazul) is Prince of Wallachia:
October 1599 – Michael the Brave elected as voivode of Transylvania
1600 – Michael the Brave is prince of Moldavia
5 October 1594 – Sigismund Báthory decides to join the Holy League

November 1594 – alliance between Sigismund Báthory, Michael the Brave, and Aron Tiranuj

27 January 1595–20/21 December 1603 – Mehmed III is Ottoman Sultan

23 August 1595 – battle of Călugăreni between Wallachian troops of Michael the Brave and the Ottomans led by Koca Sinan Pasha

24–26 October 1596 – battle of Keresztes between Habsburg forces and the Ottoman Empire

16/17 January 1598–21 February 1613 – the Time of Troubles in Russia

21 February 1598–13 April 1605 – Boris Godunov is Tsar of All Rus’ (Godunov)

29 March–18 October 1599 – Andrew Báthory is Prince of Transylvania

18 October 1599 – battle of Şelimbăr (Battle of Sellenberk), in which Michael the Brave defeated Andrew Báthory near the village of Șelimbăr

October 1599 – Michael the Brave elected as voivode of Transylvania

October 1599–1600 – Michael the Brave is voivode of Transylvania

1600s
1600
17 February 1600 – Giordano Bruno burned at stake

September 1600 – Giorgio Basta invades Transylvania, and defeats Wallachian army of Michael the Brave at Miraslau

1601
1601–1603 – Russian famine, killing perhaps two million people, a third of Russians

24 March 1601 – Sigismund Báthory returns to Transylvania from Moldavia at the head of a Polish army

3 April 1601–March 1602 – Sigismund Báthory is Prince of Transylvania

3 August 1601 – battle of Guruslău (Battle of Goroszló), between Habsburg troops led by Giorgio Basta (with Cossacks and Wallachian troops led by Michael the Brave) and Transylvanian troops led by Sigismund Báthory (who was defeated)

9 August 1601 – assassination of Michael the Brave near Câmpia Turzii

6 September 1601 – Sigismund Báthory returns to Transylvania

1602
20 January 1602 – Giorgio Basta appointed as commander-in-chief of the Imperial Army in Transylvania

July 1602–December 1610 – Radu Șerban is voivode of Wallachia

17 July 1603 – the battle of Brașov between Wallachian troops led by Radu Șerban (and the Habsburg Empire) and Transylvanian troops led by Mózes Székely; Mózes Székely defeated and killed on the battlefield

July 1603–September 1603 – Radu Şerban of Wallachia is voivode of Transylvania

September 1603–1604 – Transylvania administered by General Giorgio Basta

4 January 1604 – death of Ferenc Nádasdy

2 July 1604 – Rudolph II restores Stephen Bocskai’s estates in Transylvania

28 September 1604–23 June 1606 – the Bocskai uprising in Hungary, Transylvania and modern Slovakia, against Rudolf II, led by István Bocskai, a Protestant Hungarian nobleman

15 October 1604 – Stephen Bocskai defeats Belgioso near Álmosd

27 November 1604 – Giorgio Basta defeats Stephen Bocskai near Edelény but could not capture Kassa

1605
21 February 1605 – Stephen Bocskai is elected Prince of Transylvania by Transylvanian noblemen and Székelys in Nyárádszereda (now Miercurea Nirajului in Romania):
21 February 1605–29 December 1606 – Stephen Bocskai
12 February 1607–5 March 1608 – Sigismund Rákóczi
7 March 1608–21 October 1613 – Gabriel Báthory
October 1613–15 November 1629 – Gabriel Bethlen
15 November 1629–21 September 1630 – Catherine of Brandenburg
20 April 1605 – Stephen Bocskai acclaimed prince of Hungary by delegates of 22 counties from Upper Hungary and Partium at Szerencs

23 April–10 June 1605 – Fyodor II Borisovich Godunov is Tsar of All Rus’:
10 June 1605–17 May 1606 – Dmitry Ivanovich (False Dmitry I)
19 May 1606–19 July 1610 – Vasili IV
19 July 1610–21 February 1613 – Władysław IV Vasa (Polish prince from the Royal House of Vasa)
21 February 1613–12 July 1645 – Michael I (House of Romanov)
3 October 1605 – Lala Mehmed Pasha captures Esztergom

4/5 November 1605 – around midnight: arrest of Guy Fawkes during a search of the House of Lords and detection of Gunpowder Plot, a plot against King James I by provincial English Catholics led by Robert Catesby

11 November 1605 – Grand Vizier Lala Mehmed Pasha meets Stephen Bocskai at Pest, and styles Bocskai king with a royal crown

1606
31 January 1606 – execution of Guy Fawkes in London

April–summer 1606? – fictional date of Karl von Wachsmann’s The Mysterious Stranger

23 June 1606 – signing of the Treaty of Vienna between Stephen Bocskay and Rudolph: all constitutional and religious rights and privileges were granted to the Hungarians in both Transylvania and Royal Hungary

August 1606 – possible first performance of William Shakespeare’s tragedy Macbeth in London

24 October–11 November 1606 – negotiations for the Peace of Zsitvatorok at the former mouth of the Žitava River

11 November 1606 – the Peace of Zsitvatorok (or Treaty of Sitvatorok) between the Ottomans and Habsburgs

1607
12 February 1607–5 March 1608 – Sigismund Rákóczi is Prince of Transylvania

1608
5 March 1608 – Sigismund Rákóczi abdicates as Prince of Transylvania at the Diet in Kolozsvár

7 March 1608–21 October 1613 – Gabriel Báthory is Prince of Transylvania

25 June 1608 – Rudolf II cedes Hungary, Austria and Moravia to Matthias

winter 1608–1814 – River Thames frost fairs held on the tideway of the River Thames at London in certain winters

1610
14 May 1610–14 May 1643 – Louis XIII is king of France (House of Bourbon)

30 December 1610 – arrest of Elizabeth Báthory at Čachtice Castle by György Thurzó, the Palatine of Hungary

1611
7 January 1611 – second trial of Elizabeth Báthory

c. January 1611–21 August 1614 – imprisonment of Elizabeth Báthory in Čachtice Castle

March 1611 – Matthias enters Prague

April 1611 – Matthias declared king of Bohemia

1612
20 January 1612 – death of Rudolf II

13 June 1612–20 March 1619 – Matthias is Holy Roman Emperor

1613
21 February 1613–12 July 1645 – Michael I (House of Romanov) is Tsar of All Rus’:
House of Romanov
12 July 1645–29 January 1676 – Aleksey Mikhailovich
1676–7 May 1682 – Feodor III
7 May 1682–8 February 1696 – Ivan V Alekseyevich (physical and mental disabilities)
7 May 1682–2 November 1721 – Peter the Great
October 1613–15 November 1629 – Gabriel Bethlen is Prince of Transylvania

23 April 1616 – death of William Shakespeare in New Place, Stratford-upon-Avon

21 March 1617 – funeral of Pocahontas (born Matoaka, known as Amonute, c. 1596–March 1617) at Gravesend on the river Thames

23 May 1618–15 May 1648 – Thirty Years’ War

1619
28 August 1619–15 February 1637 – Ferdinand II is Holy Roman Emperor

1630s
1 December 1630–11 October 1648 – George I Rákóczi is prince of Transylvania:
15 November 1629–21 September 1630 – Catherine of Brandenburg
1 December 1630–11 October 1648 – George I Rákóczi
19 February 1642–May 1660 – George II Rákóczi (deposed, 3 November 1657)
1 January 1661–23 January 1662 – John Kemény
14 September 1661–15 April 1690 – Michael I Apafi
1632–9 April 1654 – Matei Basarab is voivode of Wallachia (Brâncovenești):
1623–1627 – Alexandru V Coconul
1632 – Radu XI Iliaș
1632–9 April 1654 – Matei Basarab
1627–1629 – Alexandru IV Iliaș
October 1629–July 1632 – Leon Tomșa
1632 – Radu XI Iliaș
1632–9 April 1654 – Matei Basarab
1654–1658 – Constantin I Șerban
1658–1659 – Mihnea III
1659–1660 – Gheorghe I Ghica
1660–1664 – Grigore I Ghica
1664–1669 – Radu XII Leon
1669–1672 – Antonie Vodă din Popeşti
1672–1673 – Grigore I Ghica
1673–1678 – Gheorghe II Ducas
1678–1688 – Șerban Cantacuzino
1688–15 August 1714 – Constantin II Brâncoveanu
25 November 1632 – Baruch Spinoza born in Amsterdam of a Marrano immigrant family

1635–1686 – life of Toderașcu Cantacuzino

1637 – Riegersburg castle by marriage passed to Seyfried Freiherr von Wechsler from Radkersburg:
1638 – Riegersburg castle passed to Sigmund Wechsler
1648 – Sigismund Wechsler died, and Katharina Elisabeth Freifrau von Galler inherits Riegersburg castle in Styria
1672 – Hans Ernst Graf Purgstall (son-in-law of Katharina Elisabeth Freifrau von Galler) inherits Riegersburg castle
18 November 1637–2 April 1657 – Ferdinand III is Holy Roman Emperor

1640s
1640–1667 – French gem merchant Jean-Baptiste Tavernier obtains Tavernier Blue diamond in India and brings the uncut stone to Paris (as precursor to the Hope Diamond)

14 May 1643–1 September 1715 – Louis XIV is king of France

12 July 1645–29 January 1676 – Aleksey Mikhailovich is Tsar of All Rus’

28 November 1648 – Kemény Castle at Brâncovenești with five villages donated to John Kemény and his descendants

1650s
7 September 1651 – Louis XIV declared to have reached the age of majority

16 December 1653–3 September 1658 – Oliver Cromwell is Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland

1654 – the Sâmbăta de Sus village and vicinity come into possession of the Brâncoveanu family

c. 1654–1678 – construction of castle at Sâmbăta de Sus by Constantin Brâncoveanu

27 July 1656 – edict of excommunication by Amsterdam synagogue on Baruch Spinoza

18 July 1658–5 May 1705 – Leopold I is Holy Roman Emperor

3 September 1658 – death of Oliver Cromwell at age 59 at Whitehall on Friday

3 September 1658–25 May 1659 – Richard Cromwell is Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland

1660s
29 May 1660–6 February 1685 – Charles II is king of England, Scotland and Ireland

1661
1 January 1661–1662 – János (John) Kemény is prince of Transylvania

14 September 1661–15 April 1690 – Michael I Apafi is Prince of Transylvania:
1 January 1661–23 January 1662 – John Kemény
14 September 1661–15 April 1690 – Michael I Apafi
10 June 1690–1699 – Michael II Apafi
1695 – Transylvania occupied by 8,000 men
4 November 1661 – the battle of Kushliki between Poland-Lithuania and Russia

1665
September/October 1665 – Sabbatai Zevi publicly declares himself Messiah in a synagogue in Smyrna

1666
August–September 1666 – fictional date of Doctor Who serial “The Visitation” set in area near Heathrow Airport and London

2–6 September 1666 – Great Fire of London: fire destroys medieval City of London inside the old Roman city wall; it did not reach Westminster, but consumed 13,200 houses, 87 parish churches, St Paul’s Cathedral, and most of the buildings of the City authorities

16 September 1666 – Sabbatai Zevi appears before the sultan and converts to Islam

1669
c. 1669 – Jean-Baptiste Tavernier sells Tavernier Blue diamond to King Louis XIV

1670s
1670
1670 – death of Mindszenti Krisztina, owner of Teleki Castle in Gorneşti

1 March 1670 – proclamation of expulsion from Vienna and Upper and Lower Austria before Corpus Christi Day

1672
12 February 1672 – death of Katharina Elisabeth Freifrau von Galler

1672 – Hans Ernst Graf Purgstall (son-in-law of Katharina Elisabeth Freifrau von Galler) inherits Riegersburg castle

7 April 1672–17 September 1678 – Franco-Dutch War (Dutch War), between France, Sweden, Münster, Cologne and England against the Dutch Republic, Austrian Habsburg lands, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain

1674
19 May 1674–17 June 1696 – John III Sobieski is king of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

c. 17 December 1674 – execution of Bánffy Dénes

c. 1674 – Teleki Castle in Gorneşti came into the possession of Teleki Mihály

1675

1676
1676–3 January 1681– Russo–Turkish War of 1676–1681

c. 1676 – construction of Cnejilor Palace, Ceahlău village, Neamţ County, built by boyars of Toderașcu Cantacuzino and the Cantacuzino family

1676–7 May 1682 – Feodor III is Tsar of All Rus’

c. 17 September 1676 – death of Sabbatai Zevi in Ulcinj, Montenegro

1677
21 February 1677 – death of Baruch Spinoza

1678
August 1678–December 1679 – Treaties of Nijmegen, a series of treaties signed in Nijmegen between France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire

1680s
1680
c. 1680 – Jacques de Ségur plants the majority of the vineyard on the Château Lafite estate

1681
3 January 1681 – signing of the Treaty of Bakhchisarai ends the Russo-Turkish War (1676–1681) between Russia, the Ottoman Empire, and the Crimean Khanate

30 September 1681 – France annexes Strasbourg, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire

1682
7 May 1682–2 November 1721 – Peter the Great is Tsar of All Rus’:
2 November 1721–8 February 1725 – Peter the Great is Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias
1683
24 May 1683–1845 – period of the Ashmolean Museum in the Old Ashmolean building in Broad Street, Oxford

14 July 1683–26 January 1699 – Great Turkish War (War of the Holy League), between Ottomans and the Holy League (Habsburg Empire, Poland-Lithuania, Venice and Russia), ended with the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699:
14 July–12 September 1683 – the siege of Vienna
12 September 1683 – the battle of Vienna
1683–1699 – Polish–Ottoman War
18 June–9 September 1686 – siege of Buda and its capture
April 1686–1700 – Russo-Turkish War
12 August 1687 – second battle of Mohács (battle of Harsány Mountain), between Ottoman forces led by the Grand-Vizier Sari Süleyman Paşa and Holy League forces led by Charles of Lorraine
11 September 1697 – battle of Zenta (battle of Senta), just south of Zenta in Serbia
26 January 1699 – signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz
14 July–12 September 1683 – the siege of Vienna by the Ottoman army under the command of Kara Mustafa

12 September 1683 – the battle of Vienna, at Kahlenberg Mountain near Vienna between the Habsburg Monarchy, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Holy Roman Empire, under the command of King John III Sobieski against the Ottomans

20 December 1683–6 February 1684 – Great Frost of 1683–1684 across England

1684
5 March 1684–1699 – Holy League is formed at Linz, an alliance organized by Pope Innocent XI with the Papal States, the Holy Roman Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth of John III Sobieski, and the Venetian Republic, Russia (1686)

25 April 1684–1699 – Morean War (Sixth Ottoman–Venetian War), between the Republic of Venice and the Ottomans

1685
6 February 1685–11 December 1688 – James II is king of England, Scotland and Ireland

1686
18 June–9 September 1686 – the Holy League’s siege of Buda

27 October 1686 – Mihaly I Apafi signs the Treaty of Balazsfalva (Treaty of Blaj), which makes Transylvania a protectorate; he admits Imperial troops into Transylvania

1687
12 August 1687 – second battle of Mohács (battle of Harsány Mountain), between Ottoman forces led by the Grand-Vizier Sari Süleyman Paşa and Holy League forces led by Charles of Lorraine

9 December 1687 – Diet of Pressburg (Bratislava, Slovakia) in which Archduke Joseph crowned as first hereditary king of Hungary

9 December 1687–17 April 1711 – Joseph I (Holy Roman Emperor: 5 May 1705–17 April 1711) is king of Hungary

1688
27 September 1688–20 September 1697 – Nine Years’ War (War of the Grand Alliance/War of the League of Augsburg), between Louis XIV of France and a European coalition of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Austria, the Dutch Republic, Spain, England and Savoy

29 October 1688–15 August 1714 – Constantin II Brâncoveanu is Prince of Wallachia

5 November 1688 – William III (William of Orange) lands at Brixham in southwest England

1689
13 February 1689 – the UK Parliament passes the Declaration of Right, which deems that James had abdicated the government

13 February 1689–8 March 1702 – William III (William of Orange) is King of England, Scotland and Ireland

1690
18 April 1690 – death of Charles V (Duke of Lorraine) on the Rhine

10 June 1690–1699 – Michael II Apafi is Prince of Transylvania

11 August 1690 – the battle of Zernest near the city of Zernest, Transylvania, between a Transylvanian-Habsburg army and allied forces of the Ottoman Empire, Tatar allies, Wallachians and Hungarian Kurucs

22 September–25 October 1690 – Emeric Thököly is Prince of Transylvania

16 October 1690 – Leopold I sanctions the Diploma Leopoldinum determining the government of the Principality of Transylvania within the Habsburg Empire

1691
19 August 1691 – battle of Slankamen in which Louis William (Margrave of Baden-Baden) defeats an Ottoman army near Slankamen in the Ottoman Sanjak of Syrmia (modern-day Vojvodina region, Serbia), and kills Grand Vizier Köprülü Fazıl Mustafa Pasha

1692
1692 – Prince Michael II Apafi called to Vienna

1695
spring–1 October 1695 – the first Azov campaign

1696
1696–1701 – construction of Brâncoveanu monastery at Sâmbăta de Sus

23 April–19 July 1696 – second Azov campaign, in which Peter the Great conquers Azov

17 June 1696 – John III Sobieski dies in Wilanów, Poland from a sudden heart attack

1697
15 September 1697–October 1706 – Augustus II the Strong is King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania

1697 – Michael Apafi II forced to abdicate as Prince of Transylvania

9 March 1697–25 August 1698 – Peter the Great’s Grand Embassy:
August 1697 – Peter arrives in the Dutch Republic
11 September 1697 – Peter meets with William III in Utrecht
11 January 1698–21 April 1698 – Peter in England
5 April 1697–30 November 1718 – Charles XII is king of Sweden (House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken)

11 September 1697 – battle of Zenta (battle of Senta), just south of Zenta in Serbia

1698
1698–1702 – construction of Mogoșoaia Palace, 10 kilometres from Bucharest by Constantin Brâncoveanu

1698 – fictional date of the painting of Countess Mircalla Karnstein in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu’s novella Carmilla

c. 1698 – fictional date of the death of Carmilla after a ball in Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu’s novella Carmilla

12 September 1698 – foundation of Taganrog, the first military base of the Russian Navy

8–9 September 1698 – the battle of Podhajce in the Ruthenian Voivodship in which a 6000-strong Polish army under Field Crown Hetman Feliks Kazimierz Potocki defeats a 14,000 man Tatar expedition under Qaplan I Giray

1699
26 January 1699 – signing of the Treaty of Karlowitz in Sremski Karlovci, in Serbia

1700
c. 1700 – ancestor of Baron Vordenberg moves Carmilla’s tomb

22 February 1700–10 September 1721 – Great Northern War between Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway (defeated 1700), Augustus II the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania (defeated 1706) and Sweden under Charles XII

13 July 1700 – Treaty of Constantinople between Russia and the Ottomans in which the Sultan ceded Azov, the Taganrog fortress, Pavlovsk and Mius to Russia

1701
July 1701–August 1714 – War of the Spanish Succession (after the death of the childless Charles II of Spain) between Austrian Habsburgs and France

8 July 1709 – battle of Poltava between Peter the Great and the Swedish army under Field Marshal Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld