Friday, July 7, 2017

Chronology of the 15th Century

23 September 1386–1418 – the two reigns of Mircea I the Old as Voivode of Wallachia:
c. 1383–1386 – Dan I (Dănești)
23 September 1386–1395 – Mircea I the Old (first reign; Basarab)
1394–1397 – Vlad I the Usurper (Dănești)
1397–31 January 1418 – Mircea I the Old (second reign; Basarab)
1408–1420 – Mihail I (Basarab)
1420s
before 12 February 1419 – Voyk (father of John Hunyadi) died before this date

1425–31 October 1448 – rule of John VIII Palaiologos, Byzantine emperor
Byzantine Emperors
1390–1391 – John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus
1391–1425 – Manuel II Palaiologos
1425–1448 – John VIII Palaiologos
1449–29 May 1453 – reign of Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos / Palaeologus (son of Manuel II)
1430s
5 September 1434–1 August 1464 – Cosimo di Giovanni de’ Medici (the Elder) is Lord of Florence

1436–1442 – reign of Vlad II Dracul as Voivode of Wallachia

9 December 1437 – death of Sigismund, king of Hungary:
Kings of Hungary
House of Luxembourg
1387–1437 – Sigismund
House of Habsburg
1437–1439 – Albert the Magnanimous
1440–1457 – Ladislaus V the Posthumous
House of Jagiellon
1440–1444 – Vladislaus I
6 June 1446 – January 1453 – Regent John Hunyadi
House of Hunyadi
1458–1490 – Matthias I
8 January 1438 – the first session of the Council of Ferrara in the church of St George under the presidency of Cardinal Nicolo Albergati

1439–1445 – John Hunyadi is Ban of Severin

1440s
1441 – John Hunyadi appointed Voivode of Transylvania

22 March 1442 – Ottoman forces were annihilated at Gyulafehérvár in Transylvania

September 1442 – Ottoman forces defeated at the Ialomița River

November 1443 – Battle of Nish; Skanderbeg deserted the Ottoman army

28 November 1443 – Skanderbeg takes Krujë by the use of a forged letter from Sultan Murad; Wars of Skanderbeg:
December 1443–January 1444 – Skanderbeg seizes Petrela, Prezë, Guri i Bardhë, Svetigrad, Modrič?
2 March 1444 – Skanderbeg summoned the Albanian princes in the Venetian-controlled town of Lezhë and they formed the League of Lezhë
29 June 1444 – in the Plain of Torvioll Albanian armies under Skanderbeg faced the Ottomans who were under direct command of the Ottoman general Ali Pasha
10 October 1445 – Ottoman defeat at Ohrid
27 September 1446 – Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Otonetë
1447–1448 – Albanian–Venetian War
14 May 1448 – an Ottoman army led by Sultan Murad II and his son Mehmed laid siege to the castle of Svetigrad.
June 1450 – two years after the Ottomans had captured Svetigrad, they laid siege to Krujë
2 September 1457 – Skanderbeg attacked the Ottoman forces at Ujebardha and defeated them
August 1461 – Skanderbeg landed in Apulia with an expeditionary force of 1,000 cavalry and 2,000 infantry
1466 – Sultan Mehmed II personally led an army of 30,000 into Albania and laid the Second Siege of Krujë
23 April 1467 – Skanderbeg attacked the Ottoman forces laying siege to Krujë. The Second Siege of Krujë was eventually broken
17 January 1468 – Skanderbeg fell ill with malaria and died
10 November 1444 – battle of Varna

6 June 1446 – John Hunyadi becomes regent of Hungary

27 September 1446 – Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Otonetë in Albania

1447–1448 – Albanian–Venetian War

4 October 1448 – peace treaty signed between Skanderbeg and Venice

17 October 1448 – second battle of Kosovo

31 October 1448 – death of John VIII Palaiologos, the Byzantine emperor

1449–29 May 1453 – reign of Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos (son of Manuel II)

1450s
3 February 1451–3 May 1481 – Mehmed II (second reign):
25 June 1421–1444 – Murad II
1444–1446 – Mehmed II (first rule; son of Murad II)
1446–3 February 1451 – Murad II
3 February 1451–3 May 1481 – Mehmed II (second reign)
19 May 1481–25 April 1512 – Bayezid II (son of Mehmed II)
25 April 1512–21 September 1520 – Selim I (son of Bayezid II)
30 September 1520–6/7 September 1566 – Suleiman I (son of Selim I)
3 February 1451–3 May 1481 – second reign of Mehmed II:
28 November 1443–17 January 1468 – Skanderbeg’s war against the Ottomans
1447–1448 – Albanian–Venetian War
29 May 1453 – fall of Constantinople to Mehmed II
May 1460 – conquest of Byzantine despotate of the Morea
November 1461–August 1462 – Vlad III’s war with the Ottomans
1463–1479 – Ottoman–Venetian War
10 July–5 August 1470 – the siege of Negroponte
June–August 1476 – Mehmed II invades Moldavia
1478–1479 – Mehmed II leads the siege of Shkodra
25 January 1479 – signing of the Treaty of Constantinople between Venice and Ottomans
23 May–17 August 1480 – Ottoman siege of Rhodes (under Knights Hospitaller)
11 August 1480–August 1481 – Ottoman occupation of Otranto in Italy
3 May 1481 – death of Sultan Mehmed II
1452 – John Hunyadi is Perpetual Count of Beszterce

16–19 March 1452 – Frederick III is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Nicholas V in Rome, the last Emperor to be crowned in Rome

19 March 1452–19 August 1493 – Frederick III is Holy Roman Emperor:
House of Habsburg
1433–1437 – Sigismund is Holy Roman Emperor
2 February 1440–19 August 1493 – Frederick III is King of the Romans
19 March 1452–19 August 1493 – Frederick III is Holy Roman Emperor
16 February 1486–12 January 1519 – Maximilian I is King of the Romans
4 February 1508–12 January 1519 – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor
30 January 1453 – John Hunyadi appointed captain general of the kingdom

6 April–29 May 1453 – the last siege of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, sultan of the Ottoman Empire

29 May 1453 – fall of Constantinople to Mehmed the Conqueror; death of the last Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos

29 May 1453 – death of Constantine XI Dragases Palaeologus (son of Manuel II)

29 September 1454 – Ottoman force defeated at Kruševac

1455–1485 – the Wars of the Roses in England, a civil war between two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, (1) the House of Lancaster (associated with a red rose), and (2) the House of York (whose symbol was a white rose):
House of Lancaster
30 September 1399–20 March 1413 – Henry IV
20 March 1413–31 August 1422 – Henry V
31 August 1422–4 March 1461 – Henry VI

1455–1485 – the Wars of the Roses

House of York
4 March 1461–3 October 1470 – Edward IV

House of Lancaster
3 October 1470–11 April 1471 – Henry VI

House of York
11 April 1471–9 April 1483 – Edward IV (second reign)
9 April 1483–25 June 1483 – Edward V
26 June 1483–22 August 1485 – Richard III

House of Tudor
22 August 1485–21 April 1509 – Henry VII
21 April 1509–28 January 1547 – Henry VIII
22 July 1456 – John Hunyadi’s victory at Belgrade

11 August 1456 – death of John Hunyadi at Belgrade

c. August 1456–c. August 1462 – second reign of Vlad III Drăculea

1457–1504 – Stephen III of Moldavia (Ștefan cel Mare) rules Moldavia:
1504–1517 – Bogdan III The One-Eyed
1514 – Moldavia submitted to Ottoman rule
1458–1464 – Pope Pius II is pope

1458–1490 – Matthias I is king of Hungary

1460s
May 1460 – Mehmed II conquers the Byzantine despotate of the Morea

July 1461 – fall of Salmeniko Castle, Morea, and its defender Graitzas Palaiologos to the Ottomans

August 1461 – Skanderbeg landed in Apulia with an expeditionary force of 1,000 cavalry and 2,000 infantry

November 1461–August 1462 – Vlad III’s war with the Ottomans:
4 June 1462 – Ottoman army under Mehmed II crosses the Danube at Nicoplis
17 June 1462 – the night attack at Târgoviște between Vlad III and Mehmed II
5 April 1462–6 November 1505 – Ivan III is Grand Princes of Moscow:
Grand Princes of Moscow
19 May 1389–27 February 1425 – Vasily I
27 February 1425–30 March 1434 – Vasily II
31 March 1434–5 June 1434 – Yury of Zvenigorod
5 June 1434–1435 – Vasily Kosoy
1435–1446 – Vasily II
1446–26 March 1447 – Dmitry Shemyaka
27 February 1447–27 March 1462 – Vasily II
5 April 1462–6 November 1505 – Ivan III
6 November 1505–13 December 1533 – Vasily III
1463–1479 – Ottoman–Venetian War

1466 – Sultan Mehmed II personally led an army of 30,000 into Albania and laid the Second Siege of Krujë

23 April 1467 – Skanderbeg attacked the Ottoman forces laying siege to Krujë. The Second Siege of Krujë was eventually broken

15 December 1467 – the battle of Baia between Stephen the Great and Matthias Corvinus; Corvinus was defeated

17 January 1468 – Skanderbeg fell ill with malaria and died

19 October 1469 – Ferdinand II and Isabella I married in the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid

2 December 1469–8 April 1492 – Lorenzo de’ Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) rules Florence:
Lord of Florence
5 September 1434–1 August 1464 – Cosimo di Giovanni de’ Medici (the Elder)
1 August 1464–2 December 1469 – Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici (the Gouty)
2 December 1469–8 April 1492 – Lorenzo de’ Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent)
9 April 1492–9 November 1494 – Piero di Lorenzo de’ Medici (Piero the Unfortunate)
November 1494–23 May 1498 – Girolamo Savonarola
Gonfaloniere for life
1502–1512 – Piero Soderini
1470s
10 July–5 August 1470 – the siege of Negroponte between the forces of Sultan Mehmed II and the garrison of the Venetian colony of Negroponte (Chalcis), the capital of the Venetian possession of Euboea; the Ottomans conquer Negroponte and Euboea

9 August 1471–12 August 1484 – Pope Sixtus IV:
8 April 1455–6 August 1458 – Callixtus III
19 August 1458–15 August 1464 – Pius II
30 August 1464–26 July 1471 – Paul II
9 August 1471–12 August 1484 – Sixtus IV
29 August 1484–25 July 1492 – Innocent VIII
11 August 1492–18 August 1503 – Alexander VI
10 January 1475 – the battle of Vaslui between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman governor of Rumelia, Hadım Suleiman Pasha, at Podul Înalt near Vaslui; the Ottomans were defeated

15 January 1475 – Ferdinand II of Aragon becomes jure uxoris King of Castile:
1468–23 January 1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon (king of Sicily)
19 October 1469 – Ferdinand II and Isabella I married in the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid
11 December 1474–26 November 1504 – Isabella I of Castile
15 January 1475–26 November 1504 – Ferdinand II of Aragon jure uxoris King of Castile
20 January 1479–23 January 1516 – Ferdinand II, King of Aragon
1504–1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon is King of Naples
26 November 1504 – death of Isabella I of Castile in in Medina del Campo
26 November 1504–12 April 1555 – Joanna of Castile the Mad (queen of Castile)
12 July–25 September 1506 – Philip I of Castile (King of Castile)
23 January 1516–16 January 1556 – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (King of Spain)
1476
March 1476 – Vlad III returns to Transylvania

June–August 1476 – Sultan Mehmed II invades Moldavia

26 July 1476 – the battle of Valea Albă (battle of Războieni) at Războieni between Ştefan cel Mare and an Ottoman army under Sultan Mehmed II; Ştefan was defeated and fled north

August 1476 – Sultan Mehmed II is defeated at the battle of Siret River by a coalition force under the command of Vlad III and Stephen Báthory

November 1476 – Vlad III the Impaler invades Wallachia from southern Transylvania

8 November 1476 – Vlad III captures the capital of Târgovişte; he meets with Ştefan cel Mare

22 December 1476 – Beatrice of Naples (daughter of Ferdinand I of Naples and Isabella of Clermont) marries Matthias Corvinus

12 December 1476 – Beatrice of Naples is crowned queen of Hungary at Székesfehérvár

December 1476/January 1477 – death of Vlad the Impaler:
Princes of Wallachia
1456–1462 – Vlad III Drăculea
1462–1473 – Radu III the Fair
1473 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
1473–1474 – Radu III the Fair
1474 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
1474 – Radu III the Fair
1474 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
1474–1475 – Radu III the Fair
January 1475–before 8 November 1476 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
c. 8 November–December 1476 – Vlad III the Impaler
December 1476–November 1477 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
November 1477–September 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger (Little Impaler)
spring 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger attacks Moldavia
August 1481 – Mircea III
c. August 1481–before c. 16 November 1481 – Vlad IV the Monk
c. November 1481–c. 23 March 1482 – Basarab IV the Younger (Little Impaler)
13 July 1482 – Basarab IV the Younger is killed by boyars in Glogova
summer 1482–November 1495 – Vlad IV the Monk
1495–1508 – Radu IV the Great
1508–1509 – Mihnea I the Bad
1477
5 January 1477 – the battle of Nancy, the final battle of the Burgundian Wars, at Nancy between Charles the Bold (Duke of Burgundy) and René II (Duke of Lorraine) and the Swiss Confederacy; Charles is defeated

March 1477 – Matthias Corvinus makes an alliance with the Teutonic Knights and the Bishopric of Ermland against Poland

c. March 1477–1488 – the Austrian–Hungarian war between Mathias Corvinus (the king of Hungary) and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III, the Habsburg Archduch of Austria

November 1477–September 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger (Little Impaler) is prince of Wallachia

1478
24 June 1478 – Juan Rejón conquers the Grand Canary island for Isabel and Fernando

1478–1479 – Mehmed II leads the siege of Shkodra

1478–1485 – Giovanni Mocenigo is Doge of Venice:
Doges of Venice
1413–1423 – Tommaso Mocenigo
1423–1457 – Francesco Foscari
1457–1462 – Pasquale Malipiero
1462–1471 – Cristoforo Moro
1471–1473 – Nicolò Tron
1473–1474 – Nicolò Marcello
1474–1476 – Pietro Mocenigo
1476–1478 – Andrea Vendramin
1478–1485 – Giovanni Mocenigo
1485–1486 – Marco Barbarigo
1486–1501 – Agostino Barbarigo
1479
1479–1493 – Stephen V Báthory of Ecsed is Voivode of Transylvania:
Voivodes of Transylvania
1468–1474 – Nicholas Csupor of Monoszló
1468–1472 – John Pongrác of Dengeleg
1472–1475 – Blaise Magyar
1475–1476 – John Pongrác of Dengeleg
1478–1479 – Peter Geréb of Vingárt
1479–1493 – Stephen V Báthory of Ecsed
1493–1498 – Bartholomew Drágfi of Béltek
1493–1495 – Ladislaus Losonci, Jr.
1498–1510 – Count Peter Szentgyörgyi
1510–1526 – John Zápolya
25 January 1479 – signing of the Treaty of Constantinople between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire; Venice cedes Shkodra, territories on the Dalmatian coastline, Negroponte (Euboea) and Lemnos; end of the First Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479)

13 October 1479 – the battle of Breadfield on the Breadfield Zsibód (Şibot) near the Mureş River, in which the Hungarian army was led by Pál Kinizsi, István Báthory, Vuk Branković, and Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân defeat the Turks

1480s
1480
23 May–17 August 1480 – the Ottoman siege of Rhodes, under the rule of the Knights Hospitaller:
23 May 1480 – an Ottoman fleet of 160 ships arrives at Rhodes, at the gulf of Trianda, with 70,000 men
27 July 1480 – the Turks launch an offensive
17 August 1480 – the Ottoman fleet ends the attempt to capture Rhodes
28 July 1480 – the Ottoman invasion of Italy; a Turkish fleet of 128 ships arrives near Otranto

11 August 1480 – Ottoman army takes Otranto in Italy

11 August 1480–August 1481 – Ottoman occupation of Otranto in Italy:
1 May 1481 – the forces of king Ferdinand I of Naples led by his son Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, lay siege to Otranto in Italy
August 1481 – Ottoman surrender of Otranto in Italy
September 1481 – Ottomans evacuate Otranto in Italy
1481
spring 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger attacks Moldavia

3 May 1481 – death of Sultan Mehmed II

19 May 1481–25 April 1512 – reign of the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II

8 July 1481 – the battle of Râmnic in which Stephen the Great defeats Basarab IV the Younger

August 1481 – Ottoman surrender of Otranto in Italy

summer 1482–1495 – Vlad IV Călugărul is Voivode of Wallachia:
1481–1482 – Basarab IV The Younger (Little Impaler)
1482–1495 – Vlad IV the Monk
1495–1508 – Radu IV the Great
1508–1509 – Mihnea I the Bad
February 1482–2 January 1492 – the Granada War, military campaigns during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty’s Emirate of Granada

July 1482 – the first siege of Hainburg by Matthias I Corvinus

August–September 1482 – the second siege of Hainburg by Matthias I Corvinus

30 August 1483–7 April 1498 – Charles VIII is king of France
House of Valois (1328–1589)
16 September 1380–21 October 1422 – Charles VI the Beloved
21 October 1422–22 July 1461 – Charles VII
22 July 1461–30 August 1483 – Louis XI
30 August 1483–7 April 1498 – Charles VIII
7 April 1498–1 January 1515 – Louis XII
1 January 1515–31 March 1547 – Francis I
29 January–1 June 1485 – the siege of Vienna during the Austrian–Hungarian War between Frederick III and Matthias Corvinus

1 June 1485 – the fall of Vienna to Matthias Corvinus

1485–1490 – Vienna is the capital of the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus

22 August 1485–21 April 1509 – Henry VII is king of England:
House of York
11 April 1471–9 April 1483 – Edward IV (second reign)
9 April 1483–25 June 1483 – Edward V
26 June 1483–22 August 1485 – Richard III

House of Tudor
22 August 1485–21 April 1509 – Henry VII
21 April 1509–28 January 1547 – Henry VIII
1490s
6 April 1490 – death of Matthias Corvinus in Vienna

April 1491 – the eight-month siege of Granada begins

April 1491–2 January 1492 – the siege of Granada

7 November 1491 – signing of the Peace of Pressburg between the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary

2 January 1492 – the fall of Granada to the Spanish

31 March 1492 – the Alhambra Decree (the Edict of Expulsion) issued by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories by 31 July 1492

3 August 1492 – Columbus departs from Castilian Palos de la Frontera at 8 am on a voyage to find a shorter route to India and the Orient with three ships, the Niña (real name Santa Clara), the Pinta, and the Santa Maria

3 August 1492–4 March 1493 – Columbus’ first voyage of discovery, to the Bahamas or Turks and Caicos, Cuba, and Haiti

11 August 1492–18 August 1503 – Pope Alexander VI

23 September 1492–16 June 1501 – reign of John I Albert as Polish king:
Jagiellonian Kings of Poland
4 March 1386–1 June 1434 – Władysław II Jagiełło
25 July 1434– 10 November 1444 – Władysław III of Poland
25 June 1447–7 June 1492 – Casimir IV Jagiellon
23 September 1492–16 June 1501 – John I Albert
24 September 1493–August 1494 – Columbus’ second voyage of discovery

25 October 1495–13 December 1521 – Emmanuel I is king of Portugal:
Kings of Portugal (House of Aviz 1385–1580)
14 August 1433–9 September 1438 – Edward
13 September 1438–11 November 1477 – Alphonso V
11 November 1477–15 November 1477 – John II
15 November 1477–28 August 1481 – Alphonso V
28 August 1481–25 October 1495 – John II
25 October 1495–13 December 1521 – Emmanuel I
5 December 1496 – King Manuel I of Portugal signs the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims (to take effect by October 1497)

30 May 1498 – Columbus leaves the port of Sanlúcar with a fleet of six ships on his third voyage

1499–1503 – the Second Ottoman–Venetian War between the Ottomans and Venice for control of territories in the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea

12, 20, 22, 25 August 1499 – the battle of Zonchio (battle of Sapienza/First Battle of Lepanto) between the Venetians and Ottomans

1500
1504–1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon is King of Naples

18 April 1506–18 November 1626 – the construction of new St. Peter’s Basilica

20 May 1506 – death of Christopher Columbus in Valladolid, Spain

25 September 1506–25 October 1555 – Charles V is Lord of the Netherlands and Duke of Burgundy:
23 January 1516–16 January 1556 – Charles V is King of Spain
12 January 1519–28 April 1521 – Charles V is Archduke of Austria
28 June 1519–27 August 1556 – Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor
26 October 1520 – Charles V is crowned as King of the Germans in Germany
22 February 1530 – Charles V is crowned King of Italy
24 February 1530 – Charles V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Bologna
1516–22 January 1517 – the Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 between Mameluke Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire

24 January 1517 – the Battle of Ridaniya near Cairo between Selim I and Tuman Bay, in which the Mamelukes were defeated

April 1519 – Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) and 700 soldiers land near Tabasco on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

28 June 1519–27 August 1556 – Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor

22 May 1520 – massacre in the Great Temple of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan

1 July 1520 – the Aztec emperor Moctezuma was killed

13 August 1521 – the Aztec Empire was captured

1521–1524 – Cortés personally governed Mexico

26 June–22 December 1522 – the second siege of Rhodes of 1522, in which Knights of Rhodes are expelled by Ottomans

29 August 1526 – the battle of Mohács between king Louis II of Hungary and Suleiman the Magnificent, fought near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary

Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Chronology of Byzantine Empire 330–1453

25 July 306–22 May 337 – reign of Constantine the Great:
25 July 306–29 October 312 – Constantine is Caesar in the west
309 – Constantine self-proclaimed Augustus
29 October 312 – Constantine enters Rome
29 October 312–19 September 324 – Constantine undisputed Augustus
February 313 – Edict of Milan
3 July 324 – the Battle of Adrianople between Constantine I and Licinius
18 September 324 – the battle of Chrysopolis between Constantine and Licinius
19 September 324–22 May 337 – Constantine is emperor of whole empire
324 – foundation of Constantinople
11 May 330 – dedication of Constantinople
3 December 312 – death of Diocletian at his Palace

22 May 337 – death of Constantine at a suburban villa called Achyron

337–340 – Constantine II is joint emperor (over Gaul, Hispania, and Britannia) with Constantius II and Constans

337–361 – rule of Constantius II:
337–340 – Constantius II is co-Augustus (ruling Asian provinces and Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans
340 – killing of Constantine II in an ambush outside Aquileia in civil war with Constans
340–350 – Constantius II is co-Augustus with Constans
350 – assassination of Constans in Helena (now Elne) in the eastern Pyrenees of southwestern Gaul by supporters of the general Magnentius
350–361 – Constantius II is sole Augustus of the Roman Empire
350 – assassination of Constans in Helena (now Elne) in the eastern Pyrenees of southwestern Gaul by supporters of the general Magnentius

350–361 – Constantius II is sole Augustus of the Roman Empire

3 November 361–26 June 363 – Julian the Apostate is emperor of the entire empire

27 June 363–17 February 364 – reign of Jovian

28 March 364–9 August 378 – Valens is emperor in the East

26 February 364–17 November 375 – rule of Valentinian I:
26 February–28 March 364 – Valentinian I is Augustus of the whole empire
26 March 364–17 November 375 – Valentinian I is emperor of the west
22 November 375–15 May 392 – rule of Valentinian II

17 November 375–25 August 383 – rule of Gratian:
17 November 375–9 August 378 – Gratian is senior Augustus of the west
9 August 378–19 January 379 – Gratian is senior Augustus of the whole empire
19 January 379–25 August 383 – Gratian is senior Augustus in the west
summer 376 – large numbers of Goths arrive on the Danube River requesting asylum from the Huns, including the Thervings (led by Fritigern and Alavivus) and the Greuthungi (led by Alatheus and Saphrax)

9 August 378 – the Battle of Adrianople between the emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (Thervings, Greutungs, and non-Gothic Alans) led by Fritigern north of Adrianople

19 January 379–15 May 392 – Theodosius I is emperor in the East

15 May 392–17 January 395 – Theodosius I is emperor of the entire empire

23 January 393 – accession of Honorius:
23 January 393–15 August 423 – Honorius
20 November 423–May 425 – Joannes
23 October 425–16 March 455 – Valentinian III
17 March–31 May 455 – Petronius Maximus
9 July 455–17 October 456 – Avitus
1 April 457–2 August 461 – Majorian
19 November 461–15 August 465 – Libius Severus
12 April 467–11 July 472 – Anthemius
23 March/July 11–23 October/2 November 472 – Olybrius
c. 3 March 473–June 474 – Glycerius
June 474–28 August 475 – Julius Nepos
31 October 475–4 September 476 – Romulus Augustulus
17 January 395 – death of Theodosius in Milan

395–1 May 408 – Arcadius is emperor in the East:
1 May 408–28 July 450 – Theodosius II
450–457 – Marcian
457–474 – Leo I the Thracian
18 January 474–17 November 474 – Leo II
9 February 474–9 January 475 – Zeno
9 January 475–August 476 – Basiliscus
August 476–9 April 491 – Zeno
11 April 491–9 July 518 – Anastasius I Dicorus
400
late 408 – the first siege of Rome by the Goths under Alaric

December 408 – the Visigoths lift the siege of Rome and withdraw to Etruria

late 409 – the Visigoths under Alaric renew the siege of Rome

24 August 410 – the sack of Rome by the Visigoths led by King Alaric

late 410 – Alaric dies of illness at Consentia

c. 450–500 – the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain

2–16 June 455 – the second of sack of Rome by the Vandals under Geiseric

500
July 518 – accession of Justin I, first emperor of the Justinian Dynasty:
Justinian Dynasty (518–602)
July 518–1 August 527 – Justin I
1 August 527–13/14 November 565 – Justinian I the Great
14 November 565–5 October 578 – Justin II
5 October 578–14 August 582 – Tiberius II Constantine
14 August 582–22 November 602 – Maurice
525 – Justinian marries Theodora

526–532 – the Iberian War between the Byzantines and Sassanids over the eastern Georgian kingdom of Iberia

c. 527 (or c. 515) – Icel of Mercia:
Kings of Mercia
Cnebba
Cynewald
c. 584–c. 593 – Creoda
c. 593–c. 606 – Pybba
c. 606–c. 626 – Cearl
c. 626–655 – Penda
c. 635–642 – Eowa
c. 653–656 – Peada
655–658 – Oswiu of Northumbria
658–675 – Wulfhere
675–704 – Æthelred I
704–709 – Cœnred
709–716 – Ceolred
716 – Ceolwald
716–757 – Æthelbald
757 – Beornred
757–796 – Offa
787–796 – Ecgfrith
796–821 – Cœnwulf
1 August 527–13/14 November 565 – reign of Justinian I the Great
13–18 January 532 – Nika riots and revolt against Justinian
June 533–March 534 – the Vandalic War
535–554 – the Gothic War in Italy
540–562 – war with the Sassanid Empire
540 – Justinian I recalls Belisarius
541–542 – the plague of Justinian
544 – Belisarius returns to Italy
28 June 548 – death of Theodora
July 551 – the eastern Mediterranean hit by the 551 Beirut earthquake, with a tsunami
June 533–March 534 – the Vandalic War of Justinian, which ends in the conquest of the Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage

535–554 – the Gothic War between the Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy in Italy, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica:
535–540 – the first phase ending in the fall of the Ostrogothic capital (Ravenna)
540/541–553 – the second phase of Gothic resistance under Totila against the Byzantine general Narses
17 December 546 – sack of Rome by Totila
554 – Narses defeats an invasion by the Franks and Alamanni
541–542 – the plague of Justinian

17 December 546 – sack of Rome by the Gothic king Totila during the Gothic War of 535–554

28 June 548 – death of Theodora

550/558 – composition of the Secret History of Procopius (or in 562)

551 – last dated event in Procopius’ Wars of Justinian

spring 568 – Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy:
569 – fall of Forum Iulii (Cividale del Friuli) to the Lombards
summer 569 – the Lombards conquer Milan
570 – Lombards conquer Spoleto in Umbria
c. 571 – establishment of the Duchy of Benevento
572 – Pavia falls to the Lombards after a 3-year siege and the first capital city of the new Lombard kingdom of Italy
568 – Alboin takes the title King of Italy:
Lombard Kings in Italy
565–572 – Alboin
572–574 – Cleph
574–584 – Rule of the Dukes (Ten year interregnum)
584–590 – Authari
591–c. 616 – Agilulf
c. 616–c. 626 – Adaloald
c. 626–636 – Arioald
636–652 – Rothari
652–653 – Rodoald
653–661 – Aripert I
661–662 – Perctarit and Godepert
662–671 – Grimuald
671 – Garibald
671–688 – Perctarit
688–689 – Alahis
688–700 – Cunincpert
700–701 – Liutpert
701 – Raginpert
701–712 – Aripert II
712 – Ansprand
712–744 – Liutprand
744 – Hildeprand
744–749 – Ratchis
749–756 – Aistulf
756–774 – Desiderius
774–781 – Charlemagne
781–810 – Pepin
810–818 – Bernard
818–839 – Lothair I
839–875 – Louis II
600
23 November 602–4 October 610 – reign of the emperor Phocas

5 October 610 – accession of Heraclius:
Heraclian Dynasty (610–695)
5 October 610–11 February 641 – Heraclius
11 February–24/26 May 641 – Constantine III
11 February 641–September 641 – Heraklonas
September 641–15 September 668 – Constans II
15 September 668–September 685 – Constantine IV the Bearded
September 685–695 – Justinian II the Slit-nosed
June–July 626 – the siege of Constantinople of 626 by the Sassanid Persians and Avars, aided by allied Slavs with a victory for the Byzantines

672/673–26 May 735 – life of the Venerable Bede

674–678 – the First Arab Siege of Constantinople by the Umayyad Caliphate under Caliph Mu’awiya I against Emperor Constantine IV

695 – Justinian II the Slit-nosed is deposed:
Twenty Years’ Anarchy (695–717)
695–698 – Leontios
698–705 – Tiberius III Apsimar
August 705–December 711 – Justinian II the Slit-nosed
December 711–3 June 713 – Philippikos Bardanes
June 713–November 715 – Anastasios II
May 715–25 March 717 – Theodosios III
695–714 – reign of Grimoald II (Neustria)
Mayors of the Palace
695–714 – Grimoald II (Neustria)
708–714 – Grimoald II (Neustria, Burgundy)
714–716 – Theudoald (Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy)
715–741 – Charles Martel (Austrasia)
718–741 – Charles Martel (Neustria and Burgundy, Austrasia)
741–747 – Carloman (Austrasia)
741–751 – Pippin the Younger (Neustria and Burgundy)
747–751 – Pippin the Younger (Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy)
700
711 – Tariq ibn Ziyad (Berber client of Musa bin Nusair, the governor of Islamic Africa) invades Spain with 7,000 Berber men, while Roderic was in the north fighting the Basques:
July 711 – battle at the Guadalete River in Cádiz where king Roderic is killed
712 – Musa (governor of Ifriqiya) invades Spain with an army of 18,000
713 – Musa takes Mérida
714 – Saragossa and León conquered
716 – most of Spain conquered by Muslims
721–725 – Septimania conquered
summer 722 – battle of Covadonga and defeat of Muslims; an independent Christian state is created in the north which becomes the Kingdom of Asturias
25 March 717–18 June 741 – reign of Leo III the Isaurian
Isaurian Dynasty (717–802)
25 March 717–18 June 741 – Leo III the Isaurian
18 June 741–14 September 775 – Constantine V the Dung-named
June 741/742–2 November 743 – Artabasdos
14 September 775–8 September 780 – Leo IV the Khazar
8 September 780–August 797 – Constantine VI
August 797–31 October 802 – Irene of Athens
15 July/August 717–15 August 718 – the second Arab siege of Constantinople of 717–718 by the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik against the emperor Leo III the Isaurian

10 October 732 – the Battle of Tours between Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate

March 752 – Pippin III became the King of the Franks and the office of mayor abolished

752–768 – Pepin the Younger

768–771 – Carloman I (Burgundy, Alemannia, southern Austrasia)

9 October 768–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is King of the Franks:
772–804 – Charlemagne’s Saxon wars
773 – Charlemagne invades Italy and pushes the Lombards to Pavia, which they then besiege
773–774 – Charlemagne’s siege of Pavia
10 July 774– Charlemagne crowned King of the Lombards
10 July 774–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is King of the Lombards
787 – Charlemagne attacks the Duchy of Benevento and besieges Salerno
789 – Charlemagne deposes Tassilo and takes Bavaria
790 – Charlemagne’s campaign down the Danube to attack the Avars
25 December 800 – Charlemagne is crowned emperor by the Pope in Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome
25 December 800–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is Holy Roman Emperor
805 – Leo III consecrates Aachen Cathedral
28 January 814 – death of Charlemagne in Aachen
800
25 December 800 – coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome

25 December 800–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is Holy Roman Emperor

31 October 802 – accession of Nikephoros I the Logothete:
Nikephorian Dynasty (802–813)
31 October 802–26 July 811 – Nikephoros I the Logothete
26 July 811–2 October 811 – Staurakios
2 October 811–22 June 813 – Michael I Rangabe
11 July 813–25 December 820 – Leo V the Armenian

28 January 814 – death of Charlemagne

25 December 820 – accession of Michael II the Amorian:
Amorian dynasty (820–867)
25 December 820–2 October 829 – Michael II the Amorian
2 October 829–20 January 842 – Theophilos
20 January 842–23 September 867 – Michael III the Drunkard
c. 824 or 827/828 – a group of Andalusian exiles conquers Crete and establishes an independent state

June 827 – Muslim conquest of Sicily begins (June 827–902)

842–843 – the Byzantines launch a campaign to retake Crete under Theoktistos

23 September 867 – assassination of Michael III the Drunkard and accession of Basil I the Macedonian:
Macedonian Dynasty (867–1056)
867–2 August 886 – Basil I the Macedonian
886–11 May 912 – Leo VI the Wise
11 May 912–6 June 913 – Alexander
6 June 913–9 November 959 – Constantine VII the Purple-born
17 December 920–16 December 944 – Romanos I Lekapenos
9 November 959–15 March 963 – Romanos II the Purple-born
16 August 963–11 December 969 – Nikephoros II Phokas
11 December 969–10 January 976 – John I Tzimiskes
10 January 976–15 December 1025 – Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer
900

1000