Tuesday, August 6, 2019

Chronology from 1970–1990

5 November 1968 – the United States presidential election of 1968. Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew (Republican) defeat Vice President Hubert Humphrey (Democratic). The results:
Candidate | Electoral Votes
Richard Nixon | 301
Hubert Humphrey | 191
George Wallace | 46.
1969
1969–1971 – Ernst Badian is State professor of classics at University of New York, Buffalo

20 January 1969 – Richard Nixon inaugurated as US president. Nixon’s cabinet appointments:
Vice President
20 January 1969–10 October 1973 – Spiro Agnew
6 December 1973–9 August 1974 – Gerald Ford
White House Chief of Staff
20 January 1969–30 April 1973 – Harry R. Haldeman
4 May 1973–21 September 1974 – Alexander Haig
21 September 1974–20 November 1975 – Donald Rumsfeld
20 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Dick Cheney
White House Domestic Affairs Advisor
4 November 1969–30 April 1973 – John Ehrlichman
1 May 1973–8 January 1974 – Melvin Laird
White House Adviser and Speechwriter
Patrick Buchanan
White House Counsel
20 January 1969–4 November 1969 – John Ehrlichman
6 November 1969–9 July 1970 – Charles Colson
9 July 1970–30 April 1973 – John Dean
30 April 1973–9 August 1974 – Leonard Garment
National Security Advisor
20 January 20 1969–3 November 1975 – Henry Kissinger
3 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Brent Scowcroft
US Secretary of State
22 January 1969–3 September 1973 – William P. Rogers
22 September 1973–20 January 1977 – Henry Kissinger
US Secretary of the Treasury
22 January 1969–11 February 1971 – David M. Kennedy
11 February 1971–12 June 1972 – John Connally
12 June 1972–8 May 1974 – George P. Shultz
9 May 1974–20 January 1977 – William E. Simon
Secretary of Defense
22 January 1969–29 January 1973 – Melvin Laird
30 January 1973–24 May 1973 – Elliot Richardson
2 July 1973–19 November 1975 – James R. Schlesinger
20 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Donald Rumsfeld
US Attorney General
21 January 1969–1 March 1972 – John N. Mitchell
12 June 1972–30 April 1973 – Richard Kleindienst
25 May 1973–20 October 1973 – Elliot Richardson (resigned)
4 January 1974–2 February 1975 – William B. Saxbe
2 February 1975–20 January 1977 – Edward H. Levi
Chair of the Federal Reserve
2 April 1951–1 February 1970 – William M. Martin
1 February 1970–31 January 1978 – Arthur F. Burns
Director of Central Intelligence
30 June 1966–2 February 1973 – Richard Helms
2 February 1973–2 July 1973 – James R. Schlesinger
2 July 1973–4 September 1973 – Vernon A. Walters (acting)
4 September 1973–30 January 1976 – William Colby
30 January 1976–20 January 1977 – George H. W. Bush
Director of FBI
1 July 1935–2 May 1972 – J. Edgar Hoover
3 May 1972–27 April 1973 – L. Patrick Gray
30 April 1973–9 July 1973 – William Ruckelshaus
9 July 1973–15 February 1978 – Clarence M. Kelley
20 January 1969–9 August 1974 – Richard Nixon is US president

23 February–2 March 1969 – Richard Nixon’s state visit to Europe:
23–24 February 1969 – Brussels, Belgium to the 23rd meeting of North Atlantic Council
24–26 February 1969 – informal visit to London, United Kingdom
26–27 February 1969 – West Berlin and Bonn, West Germany; address to the Bundestag
27–28 February 1969 – Rome, Italy
28 February–2 March 1969 – Paris, France; meeting with President Charles de Gaulle
2 March 1969 – Vatican City; audience with Pope Paul VI
2–15 March 1969 – the Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969: Chinese and Soviet troops fight on Zhenbao (Damansky) Island on the Ussuri (Wusuli) River

5 March 1969 – Arthur Kinsella (New Zealand Minister of Education) formally opens the Burns Building (Arts Building), University of Otago

19 April 1969–21 June 1969 – UK broadcast date of “The War Games,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Patrick Troughton

28 April 1969 – President Charles de Gaulle resigns the presidency at noon

20 July 1969 – 20:18 UTC, Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin land the lunar module Eagle on the moon at the Sea of Tranquility, as part of the United States Apollo 11 first manned mission to land on the Moon

26 July–3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon’s state visits to Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, South Vietnam, India, Pakistan, Romania, and the UK:
26–27 July 1969 – visit to Manila, Philippines to meet with President Ferdinand Marcos
27–28 July 1969 – visit to Jakarta, Indonesia, to meet with President Suharto
28–30 July 1969 – visit to Bangkok, Thailand
30 July 1969 – visit to Saigon, South Vietnam to meet with President Nguyen Van Thieu
31 July–1 August 1969 – visit to New Delhi, India
1–2 August 1969 – visit to Lahore, Pakistan
2–3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon visits Bucharest, Romania, to meet with President Nicolae Ceaușescu
3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon meets Prime Minister Harold Wilson in Britain
August 1969 – the Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 along the western section of the Sino-Soviet border in Xinjiang; the Tasiti incident; the Bacha Dao incident; the Tielieketi Incident

8 September 1969 – Richard Nixon visits Mexico for the dedication of Amistad Dam with President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz

October 1969 – Karl Popper retires as professor of logic and scientific method at the University of London

December 1969–1977 – Friedrich Hayek is professor at the University of Salzburg, Austria

1970
1970–4 September 1989 – Ronald Syme is Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford

3 January 1970–8 June 1974 – period of Doctor Who with Jon Pertwee as the Third Doctor

3 January 1970–20 June 1970 – broadcast dates of Season 7 of Doctor Who, starring Jon Pertwee:
3, 10, 17, 24 January 1970 – “Spearhead from Space”
31 January 1970; 7, 14, 21, 28 February 1970; 7, 14 March 1970 – “Doctor Who and the Silurians”
21, 28 March 1970; 4, 11, 18, 25 April 1970; 2 May 1970 – “The Ambassadors of Death”
9, 16, 23, 30 May 1970; 6, 13, 20 June 1970 – “Inferno”

Fictional Dates
1971 – “The Invasion”
1972–October 1973? – the Third Doctor’s exile on Earth
1972 – “Spearhead from Space”
1972 – “Doctor Who and the Silurians”
1972 – “The Ambassadors of Death”
c. 23 July 1972 – “Inferno”
summer 1972 – “Terror of the Autons”
winter 1972 – “The Claws of Axos”
2 February 1970 – death of Bertrand Russell in Penrhyndeudraeth, Wales

15 March 1970 – the first operational Soviet SAM site in Egypt completed

9 May 1970–20 June 1970 – UK broadcast date of “Inferno,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

c. 15 March 1970 – Don Whillans while at the base camp of Machapuchare (near the south base camp of Annapurna I) on Chris Bonington’s Annapurna South Face expedition claims to see a yeti

18 June 1970 – the United Kingdom general election of 1970. The Conservatives under Edward Heath won:
Party | Candidate | Seats
Conservative | Edward Heath | 330
Labour | Harold Wilson | 288
Liberal | Jeremy Thorpe | 6
SNP | William Wolfe | 1.
19 June 1970–4 March 1974 – Edward Heath is British Prime Minister. Prime Ministers:
Labour
16 October 1964–19 June 1970 – Harold Wilson
Conservative
19 June 1970–4 March 1974 – Edward Heath
Labour
4 March 1974 – 5 April 1976 – Harold Wilson
5 April 1976 – 4 May 1979 – James Callaghan
Conservative
4 May 1979–28 November 1990 – Margaret Thatcher.
August 1970 – Senator Ted Kennedy introduces a bipartisan bill for universal national health insurance

7 August 1970 – a cease-fire agreement between Israel and Egypt; Egypt begins to move SAM batteries into the zone

1971
1971 – Gore Vidal buys the “La Rondinaia” (“Swallow’s Nest”), a villa in Ravello on the Amalfi coast, Italy, built by Lord Grimthorpe

2 January 1971–19 June 1971 – broadcast dates of Season 8 of Doctor Who, starring Jon Pertwee:
2, 9, 16, 23 January 1971 – “Terror of the Autons”
30 January 1971; 6, 13, 20, 27 February 1971; 6 March 1971 – “The Mind of Evil”
13, 20, 27 March 1971; 3 April 1971 – “The Claws of Axos”
10, 17, 24 April 1971; 1, 8, 15 May 1971 – “Colony in Space”
22, 29 May 1971; 5, 12, 19 June 1971 – “The Dæmons”

Fictional Dates
mid-1972 – “Inferno”
late 1972–1973/1974 – Jo Grant is Doctor’s companion
late 1972 – “Terror of the Autons”
late 1972 – “The Mind of Evil”
winter 1972–1973 – “The Claws of Axos”
c. March 1973 – “Colony in Space”
2 March 2,472 AD – “Colony in Space,” set on Uxarieus
April/May 1973 – “The Dæmons”
14 January 1971 – death of Helen Cushing

18 February 1971 – opening of the play Captain Brassbound’s Conversion at the Cambridge Theatre, London, starring Ingrid Bergman, Joss Ackland, Kenneth Williams

10 April–15 May 1971 – UK broadcast date of “Colony in Space,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

22 May–19 June 1971 – UK broadcast date of “The Daemons,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

13 August 1971 – Richard Nixon ends Bretton Woods by suspending the convertibility of the dollar into gold; he freezes wages and prices for 90 days to combat inflation and imposes an import surcharge of 10 percent

autumn 1971 – Gore Vidal first visits “La Rondinaia” (“Swallow’s Nest”), a villa in Ravello on the Amalfi coast, Italy, built by Lord Grimthorpe

30 September 1971 – foundation of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) by the Protestant fundamentalist leader Ian Paisley at the height of the Troubles

28 October 1971 – royal assent given to the Immigration Act 1971

November 1971–2 September 1973 – J. R. R. Tolkien lives near High Street, Oxford

1972
1 January 1972–24 June 1972 – broadcast dates of Season 9 of Doctor Who, starring Jon Pertwee:
1, 8, 15, 22 January 1972 – “Day of the Daleks”
29 January 1972; 5, 12, 19 February 1972 – “The Curse of Peladon”
26 February 1972; 4, 11, 18, 25 March 1972; 1 April 1972 – “The Sea Devils”
8, 15, 22, 29 April 1972; 6, 13 May 1972 – “The Mutants”
20, 27 May 1972; 3, 10, 17, 24 June 1972 – “The Time Monster”

Fictional Dates
12–14 September 1973 – “Day of the Daleks” at Auderly House
c. 2173 / 22nd century – “Day of the Daleks” in an alternative earth
3150–4000 – Galactic Federation
3885 AD – “The Curse of Peladon” set on Peladon
September 1973 – “The Sea Devils” set in Fortress Island and HMS Seaspite, south coast of England
2,973 AD – “The Mutants,” set on Solos Earth Empire
c. 29 September 1973 – “The Time Monster” set in Wootton
c. 1500 BC – “The Time Monster” in Atlantis
21–28 February 1972 – US President Richard Nixon’s 1972 visit to China

15 May 1972 – George Wallace is shot five times by Arthur Bremer while campaigning at the Laurel Shopping Center in Laurel, Maryland

June 1972 – Gore Vidal moves into “La Rondinaia” (“Swallow’s Nest”), a villa in Ravello on the Amalfi coast, Italy, built by Lord Grimthorpe

June 1972–August 2004 – Gore Vidal lives in “La Rondinaia” (“Swallow’s Nest”), a villa in Ravello on the Amalfi coast, Italy

June 1972–December 1974 – spike in US inflation from (1) an explosion in commodity prices from 1972; (2) wage–price spirals, and (3) the first oil shock

17 June 1972 – Virgilio González, Bernard Barker, James McCord, Eugenio Martínez, and Frank Sturgis arrested at the Watergate Complex in the DNC office

June 1972–January 1973 – secret meetings between Bob Woodward and “Deep Throat” (W. Mark Felt, deputy director of the FBI) take place at an underground parking garage in Rosslyn

23 June 1972 – Nixon orders that administration officials should make Richard Helms (Director of the CIA) and Vernon A. Walters (Deputy Director) request that L. Patrick Gray (Acting Director of the FBI) end the FBI’s investigation into the Watergate break-in on the grounds of national security; the tape of this is latter known as the “smoking gun” tape

4 August 1972 – Idi Amin (President of Uganda) orders the expulsion of Asian minorities

21–23 August 1972 – the 1972 US Republican National Convention, held at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida

1 November 1972 – death of Ezra Pound in Civil Hospital of Venice

6 November 1972 – premiere of the play My Fat Friend at the Theatre Royal, Brighton, written by Charles Laurence, starring Jennie Linden, Kenneth Williams, John Inman; transferred to the Rex Theatre in Wilmslow, and 6 December opened in West End at the Globe Theatre in London

7 November 1972 – the United States presidential election of 1972, between Republican incumbent President Richard Nixon and Senator George McGovern of South Dakota (Democrat). The results:
Candidate | Electoral Votes
Richard Nixon | 520
George McGovern | 17.
30 December 1972–23 June 1973 – broadcast dates of Season 10 of Doctor Who, starring Jon Pertwee:
30 December 1972, 6, 13, 20 January 1973 – “The Three Doctors”
27 January 1973; 3, 10, 17 February 1973 – “Carnival of Monsters”
24 February 1973; 3, 10, 17, 24, 31 March 1973 – “Frontier in Space”
7, 14, 21, 28 April 1973; 5, 12 May 1973 – “Planet of the Daleks”
19, 26 May 1973; 2, 9, 16, 23 June 1973 – “The Green Death”

Fictional Dates
October 1973? – “The Three Doctors”
4 June 1926 – SS Bernice disappears in the Indian Ocean
late 1973 – “Carnival of Monsters”
3073 AD? – “Carnival of Monsters” set on Inter Minor in the Acteon Galaxy, or Acteon Group
2,540 AD – “Frontier in Space,” set on Earth, the Moon, Draconia, and Ogron planet
c. 2,540 AD – “Planet of the Daleks,” set on Spiridon
1973/1974 – “The Green Death” in London and Llanfairfach, Wales
1973
1 January 1973 – the UK enters the European Communities (EC) (or “Common Market”)

7 April–12 May 1973 – broadcast date of “Planet of the Daleks,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

9 April 1973 – death of Warren Lewis in the Kilns, Oxford

30 April 1973 – Nixon fires John Ehrlichman and John Dean; H. R. Haldeman resigns

2 September 1973 – death of J. R. R. Tolkien

October 1973–March 1974 – first oil shock: Middle Eastern producers of oil institute an embargo on oil exports

6–25 October 1973 – the Yom Kippur War, between a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel; fighting mostly takes place in the Sinai and the Golan Heights (territories occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War of 1967)

10 October 1973 – Vice President Agnew resigns amid allegations of bribery, tax evasion and money laundering from his time as governor of Maryland

10 October 1973 – death of Ludwig von Mises at the age of 92 in New York

20 October 1973 – the Saturday Night Massacre: Richard Nixon fires independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox and resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus

15 December 1973–8 June 1974 – broadcast dates of Season 11 of Doctor Who, starring Jon Pertwee:
15, 22, 29 December 1973, 5 January 1974 – “The Time Warrior”
12, 19, 26 January 1974, 2, 9, 16 February 1974 – “Invasion of the Dinosaurs”
23 February 1974; 2, 9, 16 March 1974 – “Death to the Daleks”
23, 30 March 1974; 6, 13, 20, 27 April 1974 – “The Monster of Peladon”
4, 11, 18, 25 May 1974; 1, 8 June 1974 – “Planet of the Spiders”

Fictional Dates
1189–1192 – “Time Warrior”?
13th century – “Time Warrior”?
c. March 1974 / 1975 – “Invasion of the Dinosaurs” in London
2500–2600? AD – “Death to the Daleks” set on Exxilon
3935 AD – “The Monster of Peladon” set on Peladon, 50 years after Doctor’s last visit
c. March 1974 / 1976 – “Planet of the Spiders” in London
6433 AD? – “Planet of the Spiders” on Metebelis III
3 April 1974? – regeneration of Third Doctor
4–5 April 1974? – “Robot”
20 December 1973 – UK release date of the film The Golden Voyage of Sinbad, directed by Gordon Hessler, starring John Phillip Law, Tom Baker, Takis Emmanuel

1974
1974–1987 – Ludwig Lachmann travels to New York City each year and collaborates on research with Israel Kirzner

15 February 1974 – Tom Baker announced as the Fourth Doctor

23 February 1974 – the MP Enoch Powell announces his resignation from the Conservative Party

4 May 1974–8 June 1974 – broadcast date of “Planet of the Spiders,” the final serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who with Jon Pertwee

9 May 1974 – the US House Judiciary Committee opens impeachment hearings against the President Nixon, televised on the major networks

1 July 1974 – death of Juan Perón

24 July 1974 – the US Supreme Court rules unanimously that the full White House tapes must be released

5 August 1974 – Nixon’s “smoking gun” White House tape is made public

9 August 1974 – the resignation of Richard Nixon as US president, after an address to the nation on television the previous evening

8 September 1974 – Gerald Ford’s presidential pardon of Richard Nixon

9 October 1974 – announcement of the award of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics to Friedrich Hayek and the Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal

10 October 1974 – the UK general election of October 1974 to elect 635 members of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom:
Party | Leader | MPs
Labour | Harold Wilson | 319
Conservative | Edward Heath | 277
Liberal | Jeremy Thorpe | 13
SNP | William Wolfe | 11
UUP | Harry West | 6
Plaid Cymru | Gwynfor Evans | 3
DUP | Ian Paisley | 1
National Front | John Kingsley Read | 0.
10 October 1974 – Harold Wilson re-elected as Labour PM:
UK Prime Ministers
16 October 1964–19 June 1970 – Harold Wilson (Labour)
19 June 1970–4 March 1974 – Edward Heath (Conservative)
4 March 1974–5 April 1976 – Harold Wilson (Labour)
5 April 1976–4 May 1979 – James Callaghan (Labour)
10 October 1974–11 June 1987 – Enoch Powell returns to Parliament as Ulster Unionist MP for South Down, Northern Ireland

10 October 1974–11 June 1987 – Enoch Powell is MP for South Down, Northern Ireland

28 December 1974–10 May 1975 – broadcast dates of Season 12 of Doctor Who, starring Tom Baker:
28 December 1974; 4, 11, 18 January 1975 – “Robot”
25 January 1975; 1, 8, 15 February 1975 – “The Ark in Space”
22 February 1975; 1 March 1975 – “The Sontaran Experiment”
8, 15, 22, 29 March 1975; 5, 12 April 1975 – “Genesis of the Daleks”
19, 26 April 1975; 3, 10 May 1975 – “Revenge of the Cybermen”

Fictional Dates
3 April 1976 (1974/1980)? – regeneration of Third Doctor
4–5 April 1976 (1974) – “Robot”
16087 AD – “The Ark in Space” on Nerva Beacon
16087 AD – “The Sontaran Experiment” set on Earth
c. 4000 BC (or 400 AD) – “Genesis of the Daleks” set on Skaro
c. 2900–3000 AD (or 2875/ 2890 AD) – “Revenge of the Cybermen” on Nerva Beacon
and Voga
1975
1975–1987 – Ludwig Lachmann (as visiting professor) organises the Austrian Economics Seminar at New York University each winter semester

13 April 1975–13 October 1990 – the Lebanese Civil War

1 May 1975 – relocation of the University of Canterbury to the Christchurch suburb of Ilam completed

5 June 1975 – United Kingdom European Communities referendum of 1975, a referendum held on support for UK membership of the European Communities (EC) (or “Common Market”); it had entered on 1 January 1973 under Edward Heath

30 August 1975–6 March 1976 – broadcast dates of Season 13 of Doctor Who, starring Tom Baker:
30 August 1975; 6, 13, 20 September 1975 – “Terror of the Zygons”
27 September 1975; 4, 11, 18 October 1975 – “Planet of Evil”
25 October 1975; 1, 8, 15 November 1975 – “Pyramids of Mars”
22, 29 November 1975; 6, 13 December 1975 – “The Android Invasion”
3, 10, 17, 24 January 1976 – “The Brain of Morbius”
31 January 1976; 7, 14, 21, 28 February 1976; 6 March 1976 – “The Seeds of Doom”

Fictional Dates
spring/summer 1976? (or January 1976) – “Terror of the Zygons” set in Tulloch Moor and Westminster
37166 AD – “Planet of Evil” on Zeta Minor
5089 BC – Sutekh cornered by fellow Osirans on Earth in Egypt
spring/summer 1911 – “Pyramids of Mars” set in England and Mars
8911 AD – Sutekh the Osiran dies of old age in a time corridor
June 1976 – “The Android Invasion” on Oseidon and Devesham
4723 AD? – “The Brain of Morbius” set on Karn
autumn 1976 – “The Seeds of Doom” in Antarctica and England
1976
21 March–4 April 1976 – filming of Star Wars in Tunisia

7 April–13–18 May 1976 – filming of Star Wars in Elstree Studios, England

13–18 May–16 July 1976 – filming of Star Wars in Shepperton Studios, England

September 1976 – Luigi Pasinetti returns to the Università Cattolica Milano

4 September 1976–2 April 1977 – broadcast dates of Season 14 of Doctor Who, starring Tom Baker:
4, 11, 18, 25 September 1976 – “The Masque of Mandragora”
2, 9, 16, 23 October 1976 – “The Hand of Fear”
30 October 1976; 6, 13, 20 November 1976 – “The Deadly Assassin”
1, 8, 15, 22 January 1977 – “The Face of Evil”
29 January 1977; 5, 12, 19 February 1977 – “The Robots of Death”
26 February 1977; 5, 12, 19, 26 March 1977; 2 April 1977 – “The Talons of Weng-Chiang”

Fictional Dates
1492 – “The Masque of Mandragora” set in San Martino, Italy and Mandragora Helix
late 1976 – “The Hand of Fear” in England and Kastria
late 1976 – Brigadier Lethbridge-Stewart retires
? – “The Deadly Assassin”
20,000 AD? – “The Face of Evil” on unnamed planet and inside Xoanon
2865 AD? – “The Robots of Death” set in Storm Mine 4
1889 – “The Talons of Weng-Chiang” set in London
2 November 1976 – the United States presidential election of 1976 between Jimmy Carter with Walter Mondale and President Gerald Ford with Bob Dole (the U.S. Senator from Kansas). The results:
Candidate | Electoral vote
Jimmy Carter | 297
Gerald Ford | 240.
1977
March 1977 – filming of Star Wars at the Mayan Tikal city in Guatemala

17 April 1977–1 March 1982 – broadcast dates of In Search of..., narrated by Rod Serling and Leonard Nimoy, and created by Alan Landsburg

25 May 1977 – US release date of Star Wars: Episode IV: A New Hope directed by George Lucas

3 September 1977–11 March 1978 – broadcast dates of Season 15 of Doctor Who, starring Tom Baker:
3, 10, 17, 24 September 1977 – “Horror of Fang Rock”
1, 8, 15, 22 October 1977 – “The Invisible Enemy”
29 October 1977; 5, 12, 19 November 1977 – “Image of the Fendahl”
26 November 1977; 3, 10, 17 December 1977 – “The Sun Makers”
7, 14, 21, 28 January 1978 – “Underworld”
4, 11, 18, 25 February 1978; 4, 11 March 1978 – “The Invasion of Time”

Fictional Dates
1902 – “Horror of Fang Rock,” set near Worthing
3150–4000 – Galactic Federation
c. 4100–4200 – Second Great and Bountiful Human Empire
5,000 AD – “The Invisible Enemy” set on Titan Base, Bi-Al Foundation
1977 – “Image of the Fendahl” set in Fetch Priory, Fetchborough
3,000,000 AD? – “The Sun Makers” set on Megropolis One, Pluto
? – “Underworld” set at edge of the cosmos on the R1C
? – “The Invasion of Time” set on Gallifrey
26 September 1977 – live action filming of the BBC series Blake’s 7 begins at Ealing film studios (continues until 15 March 1978)

5 November 1977 – death of René Goscinny

1978
1978 – release date of the documentary Manbeast! Myth or Monster?, directed by Nicholas Webster, with Peter Byrne

2 January 1978–21 December 1981 – broadcast dates of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

2 January–27 March 1978 – broadcast dates of Series 1 of the TV series Blake’s 7:
Series 1:
2 January 1978 – “The Way Back”
9 January 1978 – “Space Fall”
16 January 1978 – “Cygnus Alpha”
23 January 1978 – “Time Squad”
30 January 1978 – “The Web”
6 February 1978 – “Seek-Locate-Destroy”
13 February 1978 – “Mission to Destiny”
20 February 1978 – “Duel”
27 February 1978 – “Project Avalon”
6 March 1978 – “Breakdown”
13 March 1978 – “Bounty”
20 March 1978 – “Deliverance”
27 March 1978 – “Orac.”
2 September 1978–24 February 1979 – broadcast dates of Season 16 of Doctor Who, starring Tom Baker:
2, 9, 16, 23 September 1978 – “The Ribos Operation”
30 September 1978; 7, 14, 21 October 1978 – “The Pirate Planet”
28 October 1978; 4, 11, 18 November 1978 – “The Stones of Blood”
25 November 1978; 2, 9, 16 December 1978 – “The Androids of Tara”
23, 30 December 1978; 6, 13 January 1979 – “The Power of Kroll”
20, 27 January 1979; 3, 10, 17, 24 February 1979 – “The Armageddon Factor”

Fictional Dates
3773 AD? (or far future) – “The Ribos Operation”
1978 – “The Pirate Planet” on Zanak and Calufrax
late 1978 – “The Stones of Blood” in Boscombe Moor, Cornwall
2378 AD – “The Androids of Tara” on Tara
5000–5100 AD – “The Power of Kroll” on Delta III
1979? – “The Armageddon Factor” on Atrios, Zeos, the third planet
1979
9 January–3 April 1979 – broadcast dates of Series 2 of Blake’s 7:
9 January 1979 – “Redemption”
16 January 1979 – “Shadow”
23 January 1979 – “Weapon”
30 January 1979 – “Horizon”
6 February 1979 – “Pressure Point”
13 February 1979 – “Trial”
20 February 1979 – “Killer”
27 February 1979 – “Hostage”
6 March 1979 – “Countdown”
13 March 1979 – “Voice from the Past”
20 March 1979 – “Gambit”
27 March 1979 – “The Keeper”
3 April 1979 – “Star One.”
3 May 1979 – the UK general election of 1979:
Party | Leader | Seats
Conservative | Margaret Thatcher | 339
Labour | James Callaghan | 269
Liberal | David Steel | 11
SNP | William Wolfe | 2
UUP | Harry West | 5
National Front | John Tyndall | 0
Plaid Cymru | Gwynfor Evans | 2
DUP | Ian Paisley | 3.
1 September 1979–12 January 1980 – broadcast dates of Season 17 of Doctor Who, starring Tom Baker:
1, 8, 15, 22 September 1979 – “Destiny of the Daleks”
29 September 1979; 6, 13, 20 October 1979 – “City of Death”
27 October 1979; 3, 10, 17 November 1979 – “The Creature from the Pit”
24 November 1979; 1, 8, 15 December 1979 – “Nightmare of Eden”
22, 29 December 1979; 5, 12 January 1980 – “The Horns of Nimon”

Fictional Dates
c. 4949 (or 4500/5440 AD) – “Destiny of the Daleks” set on Skaro
c. 4949–c. 5039 AD – last years of the Dalek-Movellan War
May/June 1979 – “City of Death” in Paris
1505 – “City of Death” in Florence
1979? – “The Creature from the Pit” on Chloris
2116 AD – “Nightmare of Eden” set on the Empress
? – “The Horns of Nimon” on Skonnos
22 November 1979 – broadcast date of “In Search of... The Abominable Snowman,” narrated by Leonard Nimoy

1980
7 January–31 March 1980 – broadcast dates of Series 3 of the TV series Blake’s 7:
7 January 1980 – “Aftermath”
14 January 1980 – “Powerplay”
21 January 1980 – “Volcano”
28 January 1980 – “Dawn of the Gods”
4 February 1980 – “The Harvest of Kairos”
11 February 1980 – “City at the Edge of the World”
18 February 1980 – “Children of Auron”
25 February 1980 – “Rumours of Death”
3 March 1980 – “Sarcophagus”
10 March 1980 – “Ultraworld”
17 March 1980 – “Moloch”
24 March 1980 – “Death-Watch”
31 March 1980 – “Terminal.”
30 August 1980–21 March 1981 – broadcast dates of Season 18 of Doctor Who, starring Tom Baker:
30 August 1980; 6, 13, 20 September 1980 – “The Leisure Hive”
27 September 1980; 4, 11, 18 October 1980 – “Meglos”
25 October 1980; 1, 8, 15 November 1980 – “Full Circle”
22, 29 November 1980; 6, 13 December 1980 – “State of Decay”
3, 10, 17, 24 January 1981 – “Warriors’ Gate”
31 January 1981; 7, 14, 21 February 1981 – “The Keeper of Traken”
28 February 1981; 7, 14, 21 March 1981 – “Logopolis”

Fictional Dates
October 1980 – “The Five Doctors” with the 4th Doctor at Cambridge
late 1980 – “The Leisure Hive” on Brighton Beach
2290 AD – “The Leisure Hive” set on Argolis
late 1980 – “Meglos” set on Zolfa-Thura and Tigella
c. 2400–c. 3000 – period of the Earth Empire
3150–4000 – Galactic Federation
2127 AD (or 2180) AD – the Hydrax pulled through a CVE into E-Space with the Great Vampire
3127 AD – “State of Decay” set in E-Space
3127 AD? – “Full Circle”
1981 – “The Keeper of Traken” on Traken
28 February 1981 – “Logopolis” set in London, Pharos Project, Sussex
4 November 1980 – the United States presidential election of 1980 between the Democratic incumbent President Jimmy Carter (with Vice President Walter Mondale from Minnesota) and the Republican Ronald Reagan (former Governor from California) with George H. W. Bush. The results:
Candidate | Electoral vote
Ronald Reagan | 489
Jimmy Carter | 49.
1981
1981 – Stephen Jay Gould publishes The Mismeasure of Man

20 January 1981 – inauguration of Ronald Reagan as US president

20 January 1981–20 January 1989 – Ronald Reagan is US president

30 March 1981 – release date of the film Chariots of Fire, directed by Hugh Hudson

12 June 1981 – US release date of the film Raiders of the Lost Ark, directed by Steven Spielberg, and starring Harrison Ford, Karen Allen, John Rhys-Davies, and Denholm Elliott

19 June 1981 – release date of the film The Cannonball Run, directed by Hal Needham, and starring Burt Reynolds, Jackie Chan, and Roger Moore

24 June 1981 – release date of the film For Your Eyes Only, directed by John Glen

10 July 1981 – US release date of the film Escape from New York, directed by John Carpenter, starring Kurt Russell, Lee Van Cleef, Ernest Borgnine, Donald Pleasence

21 August 1981 – release date of the film An American Werewolf in London, directed by John Landis, and starring David Naughton, Jenny Agutter and Griffin Dunne

28 September–21 December 1981 – broadcast dates of Series 4 of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

6 November 1981 – US release date of the film Time Bandits, directed by Terry Gilliam and starring Sean Connery, John Cleese, Ian Holm, Michael Palin, and Peter Vaughn

1982
4 January 1982–30 March 1982 – broadcast dates of Season 19 of Doctor Who, starring Tom Baker:
4, 5, 11, 12 January 1982 – “Castrovalva”
18, 19, 25, 26 January 1982 – “Four to Doomsday”
1, 2, 8, 9 February 1982 – “Kinda”
15, 16, 22, 23 February 1982 – “The Visitation”
1, 2 March 1982 – “Black Orchid”
8, 9, 15, 16 March 1982 – “Earthshock”
22, 23, 29, 30 March 1982 – “Time-Flight”

Fictional Dates
1981 – “Logopolis” set in London, Pharos Project, Sussex
13.8 billion years ago – “Castrovalva” at the Big Bang
? – “Castrovalva” set on Castrovalva in Andromeda Galaxy in Phylox series
1981 – “Four to Doomsday” set on Monarch’s ship
3150–4000 – Galactic Federation
c. 3850 AD – “Kinda” set on planet Deva Loka
August–September 1666 – “The Visitation” set in area near Heathrow Airport and London
11 June 1925 – 3 pm: “Black Orchid” set at Cranleigh Hall
2526 AD – “Earthshock” set on Earth and in solar system on Briggs’ freighter
1982 – “Time-Flight” set in Heathrow Airport
201.3–145 million years ago – Jurassic period
140,000,000 BC (140 million years ago) – “Time-Flight” set in ancient Britain near Heathrow Airport
7 April 1982 – foundation of the far-right British National Party (BNP) at a press conference in Victoria by John Tyndall

4 June 1982 – US release date of the film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, directed by Nicholas Meyer

6 June 1982–June 1985 – the 1982 Lebanon War (First Lebanon War), a war between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in Lebanon

11 June 1982 – US release date of the film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg

14 June–21 August 1982 – Israeli forces lay siege to Beirut

25 June 1982 – US release date of the film Blade Runner, directed by Ridley Scott, and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, and Sean Young

July 1982 – Stephen Jay Gould diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma, a form of cancer

12 August 1982 – President Ronald Reagan calls Menachem Begin and insists that attacks on Beirut be halted

17 December 1982 – US release date of the film Tootsie, directed by Sydney Pollack, and starring Dustin Hoffman and Bill Murray

17 December 1982 – US release date of the film The Dark Crystal, directed by Jim Henson and Frank Oz

1983
18 April–26 August 1983 – principal filming of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom:
18 April–May 1983 – filming begins in Kandy, Sri Lanka
5 May 1983 – filming moves to Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, England
26 August – principal photography finishes
1984
5 January 1984–16 March 1984 – broadcast dates of Season 21 of Doctor Who, starring Peter Davison:
5, 6, 12, 13 January 1984 – “Warriors of the Deep”
19, 20 January 1984 – “The Awakening”
26, 27 January 1984; 2, 3 February 1984 – “Frontios”
8, 15 February 1984 – “Resurrection of the Daleks”
23, 24 February 1984; 1, 2 March 1984 – “Planet of Fire”
8, 9, 15, 16 March 1984 – “The Caves of Androzani”

Fictional Dates
2084 AD – “Warriors of the Deep” set on Sea Base 4
1984 – “The Awakening” set in Little Hodcombe
10,000,040 AD – “Frontios”
1984 – “Resurrection of the Daleks” set in London docklands
c. 5039 AD – “Resurrection of the Daleks” set in Prison Station
9 May 1984 – “Planet of Fire” set in Lanzarote and Sarn
5000–5100 AD – “The Caves of Androzani” set on Androzani Minor and Major
1984
22 March–30 March 1984 – broadcast dates of Season 21 of Doctor Who, starring Colin Baker:
22, 23, 29, 30 March 1984 – “The Twin Dilemma”

Fictional Dates
2310 AD – “The Twin Dilemma” set on Titan III and Jaconda
6 November 1984 – 1984 United States presidential election:
Candidate | Party | % | Electoral
vote
Ronald Wilson Reagan | Republican | 58.77% | 525
Walter Mondale | Democratic | 40.56% | 13
David Bergland | Libertarian | 0.25% | 0
1985
5 January–30 March 1985 – – broadcast dates of Season 22 of Doctor Who, starring Colin Baker:
5, 12 January 1985 – “Attack of the Cybermen”
19, 26 January 1985 – “Vengeance on Varos”
2, 9 February 1985 – “The Mark of the Rani”
16, 23 February 1985; 2 March 1985 – “The Two Doctors”
9, 16 March 1985 – “Timelash”
23, 30 March 1985 – “Revelation of the Daleks”

Fictional Dates
1985 – “Attack of the Cybermen” in London
2530 AD (or 2495) – “Attack of the Cybermen” on Telos
late 2200s – “Vengeance on Varos” on Varos
1822? – “The Mark of the Rani” in Killingworth
summer 1985? – “The Two Doctors” set in Space Station Camera and Seville
1885 – “Timelash” in Karfel and Scotland
c. 4100–4200 – Second Great and Bountiful Human Empire
4610 AD? (post 3700–3800 AD) – “Revelation of the Daleks” on Tranquil Repose, Necros
spring 1985 – David Horowitz publishes an article for The Washington Post Magazine entitled “Lefties for Reagan”

29 September 1985–21 May 1992 – broadcast dates of US TV series MacGyver

10 October 1985 – death of Orson Welles in his Hollywood house

15 November 1985 – signing of the Anglo-Irish Agreement at Hillsborough Castle by Margaret Thatcher and the Irish Taoiseach, Garret FitzGerald

1986
1986 – David Horowitz publishes “Why I Am No Longer a Leftist” in The Village Voice

6 September–6 December 1986 – broadcast dates of Season 23 of Doctor Who, starring Colin Baker:
6, 13, 20, 27 September 1986 – “The Mysterious Planet”
4, 11, 18, 25 October 1986 – “Mindwarp”
1, 8, 15, 22 November 1986 – “Terror of the Vervoids”
29 November 1986; 6 December 1986 – “The Ultimate Foe”

Fictional Dates
2,000,000 AD – “The Mysterious Planet” on Earth
2379 AD – “Mindwarp” on Thoros-Beta
c. 2400–c. 3000 – period of the Earth Empire
2986 AD – “Terror of the Vervoids” on The Hyperion III
? – “The Ultimate Foe”
9 October 1986 – launch date of Fox Broadcasting Company

1987
11 July 1987–21 August 1988 – broadcast date of the TV series Werewolf

17 July 1987 – release date of the film RoboCop, directed by Paul Verhoeven, starring Peter Weller, Nancy Allen, Daniel O’Herlihy, Ronny Cox

7 September–7 December 1987 – broadcast dates of Season 24 of Doctor Who, starring Sylvester McCoy:
7, 14, 21, 28 September 1987 – “Time and the Rani”
5, 12, 19, 26 October 1987 – “Paradise Towers”
2, 9, 16 November 1987 – “Delta and the Bannermen”
23, 30 November 1987; 7 December 1987 – “Dragonfire”

Fictional Dates
? – “Time and the Rani” on Lakertya
before 2158 – “Paradise Towers” in Paradise Towers
1959 – “Delta and the Bannermen” in South Wales
post-1959 – “Delta and the Bannermen” in Toll port G715
c. 2,000,000 AD – “Dragonfire” Iceworld, Svartos
1988
15 April 1988 – death of Kenneth Williams in his Osnaburgh Street flat, London

8 August 1988 – release date of Straight Outta Compton, debut studio album of N.W.A on Ruthless Records label

6 September 1988–16 February 1993 – broadcast date of Count Duckula, a British animated television series created by British studio Cosgrove Hall Films

5 October 1988–4 January 1989 – broadcast dates of Season 25 of Doctor Who, starring Sylvester McCoy:
5, 12, 19, 26 October 1988 – “Remembrance of the Daleks”
2, 9, 16 November 1988 – “The Happiness Patrol”
23, 30 November 1988; 7 December 1988 – “Silver Nemesis”
14, 21, 28 December 1988; 4 January 1989 – “The Greatest Show in the Galaxy”

Fictional Dates
29–30 November 1963 – “Remembrance of the Daleks” in Shoreditch
2300–2400 – “The Happiness Patrol” on Terra Alpha
November 1988 – “Silver Nemesis” in Windsor, England
5089 AD? – “The Greatest Show in the Galaxy”
1989
4 September 1989 – death of Ronald Syme from cancer after collapsing in his room in August in Wolfson College, Oxford

6 September 1989–6 December 1989 – broadcast dates of Season 26 of Doctor Who, starring Sylvester McCoy:
6, 13, 20, 27 September 1989 – “Battlefield”
4, 11, 18 October 1989 – “Ghost Light”
25 October 1989; 1, 8, 15 November 1989 – “The Curse of Fenric”
22, 29 November 1989; 6 December 1989 – “Survival”

Fictional Dates
1990s – “Battlefield” at Carbury
1883 – “Ghost Light” in Gabriel Chase, England
1943 – “The Curse of Fenric” at Maiden’s Point
c. 1989 – “Survival” in Perivale and Cheetah World
December 1989 – Ice Cube leaves hip hop group N.W.A.

16–27 December 1989 – the Romanian Revolution, the civil unrest in Romania beginning in Timișoara and spreading throughout the nation, which ends in a show trial and execution of Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu and the end of Communist rule

25 December 1989 – execution of Nicolae Ceaușescu and Elena Ceaușescu

1990s
1990
March 1990 – the UK far-right Official National Front disbanded

2 March 1990 – US release date of the film The Hunt for Red October, directed by John McTiernan

13 July 1990 – US release date of the film Ghost, directed by Jerry Zucker and starring Patrick Swayze, Demi Moore, Whoopi Goldberg

30 March 1990 – US release date of the film Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, directed by Steve Barron

25 May 1990 – US release date of the film Back to the Future Part III, directed by Robert Zemeckis

1 June 1990 – US release date of the film Total Recall, directed by Paul Verhoeven, and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger

29 June 1990 – US release date of the film Die Hard 2, directed by Renny Harlin

2–4 August 1990 – the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait

14 August 1990 – release date of 100 Miles and Runnin’ by N.W.A.

19 September 1990 – US release date of the film Goodfellas, directed by Martin Scorsese

9 November 1990 – US release date of the film Dances with Wolves, directed by and starring Kevin Costner

21 November 1990 – US release date of the film Predator 2, directed by Stephen Hopkins

28 November 1990 – resignation of Margaret Thatcher as British Prime Minister after a challenge for the leadership of the Conservative Party by Michael Heseltine

29 November 1990 – the Immigration Act of 1990 is signed into law by George H. W. Bush; this increased total immigration to 700,000 immigrants per year for the fiscal years 1992–1994, and 675,000 per year from 1995

1991
17 January – 28 February 1991 – the Gulf War (or Operation Desert Storm), a war waged by the coalition forces of 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi invasion and annexation:
2–4 August 1990 – the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait
2 August 1990–17 January 1991 – Operation Desert Shield
17 January – 28 February 1991 – Operation Desert Storm
7 February–29 September 1991 – Jean-Bertrand Aristide is President of Haiti

28 May 1991 – release date of Niggaz4Life, the second and final studio album by N.W.A.

10 July 1991–31 December 1999 – Boris Yeltsin is 1st President of Russia

31 March 1991–12 November 2001 – the Yugoslav Wars, a series of ethnic wars and insurgencies from 1991 to 2001 inside the former Yugoslavia:
25 June 1991 – Slovenian declaration of independence
27 June–6 July 1991 – Ten-Day War (or the Slovenian Independence War) between the Slovenian Territorial Defence and the Yugoslav People’s Army (YPA) ended with the Brioni Accords
31 March 1991–12 November 1995 – Croatian War of Independence between Croat forces and the Serb-controlled Yugoslav People’s Army (JNA) ends with Croatian victory
6 April 1992–14 December 1995 – the Bosnian War within Bosnia and Herzegovina between Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina forces and those of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat entities
5 March 1998–11 June 1999 – the Kosovo War within Kosovo between Federal Republic of Yugoslavia forces and Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) of Albanians, with air support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) from 24 March 1999
24 March–10 June 1999 – NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (Operation Allied Force)
12 June 1999–1 June 2001 – insurgency in the Preševo Valley, a conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the ethnic Albanian separatists of the Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (UÇPMB); this ends in Yugoslav victory
22 January–12 November 2001 – an insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia by the ethnic Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) against the Republic of Macedonia ending with the Ohrid Agreement
19–21 August 1991 – the 1991 Soviet coup d’état attempt (or August Coup), an attempt by members of the Soviet Union’s government to take control of the country from Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev

19–21 August 1991 – Crown Heights riot in Brooklyn, New York City by black residents

29 September 1991 – the 1991 Haitian coup d’état against President Jean-Bertrand Aristide, led by the Haitian army, and Raoul Cédras (Army General), and Phillipe Biamby (Army Chief of Staff) and Michel François (Chief of the National Police)

29 September 1991–12 October 1994 – military junta rule in Haiti under Raoul Cédras:
29 September 1991 – the 1991 Haitian coup d’état
30 September–8 October 1991 – Raoul Cédras is Leader of the Haitian Military Junta
2 July 1991–10 October 1994 – Raoul Cédras is Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of Haiti
8 October 1991–19 June 1992 – Joseph Nérette (Provisional President)
19 June 1992–15 June 1993 – Marc Bazin (Acting President)
12 May 1994–12 October 1994 – Émile Jonassaint (Provisional President)
25 December 1991 – Mikhail Gorbachev announces his resignation as President of the Soviet Union; the office was abolished and its functions handed over to Russian President Boris Yeltsin

26 December 1991 – the Soviet Union was dissolved by declaration number 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union; the declaration acknowledges the independence of the former Soviet republics and creates the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

1992
23 March 1992 – death of Friedrich Hayek

3 November 1992 – US presidential election of 1992, with George H. W. Bush (Republican) against Bill Clinton (Democratic, who was Arkansas Governor), and independent Texas businessman Ross Perot:
Candidate | Electoral Vote | Popular Vote
Bill Clinton | 370 | 44,909,806
George H. W. Bush | 168 | 39,104,550
Ross Perot | 0 | 19,743,821.
Ross Perot won 18.91% of the popular vote, and may have helped to elect Clinton

12 November 1992–7 November 1996 – broadcast dates of 3 original series of Absolutely Fabulous

1993
20 January 1993–20 January 2001 – Presidency of Bill Clinton
Vice President
20 January 1993–20 January 2001 – Al Gore

White House Staff Secretary
20 January 1993–30 June 1995 – John Podesta

White House Chief of Staff
20 January 1993–17 July 1994 – Mack McLarty
17 July 1994–20 January 1997 – Leon Panetta
20 January 1997–20 October 1998 – Erskine Bowles
20 October 1998–20 January 2001 – John Podesta

Senior Advisors to the President
20 January 1993–7 November 1998 – Rahm Emanuel (Political Affairs)
7 June 1993–10 December 1996 – George Stephanopoulos (Strategic Planning Policy)
19 August 1997–20 January 2001 – Sidney Blumenthal (Political Affairs Communications Policy)

White House Counsel
20 January 1993–8 March 1994 – Bernard Nussbaum
8 March 1994–1 October 1994 – Lloyd Cutler
1 October 1994–1 November 1995 – Abner Mikva
1 November 1995–February 1997 – Jack Quinn
February 1997–September 1999 – Chuck Ruff
September 1999–20 January 2001 – Beth Nolan

National Security Advisor
20 January 1993–14 March 1997 – Anthony Lake
14 March 1997–20 January 2001 – Sandy Berger

US Secretary of State
20 January 1993–17 January 1997 – Warren Christopher
23 January 1997–20 January 2001 – Madeleine Albright

Director of the National Economic Council
25 January 1993–11 January 1995 – Robert Rubin
21 February 1995–12 December 1996 – Laura Tyson
12 December 1996–20 January 2001 – Gene Sperling

US Secretary of the Treasury
20 January 1993–22 December 1994 – Lloyd Bentsen
11 January 1995–2 July 1999 – Robert Rubin
2 July 1999–20 January 2001 – Lawrence “Larry” Summers

Secretary of Defense
21 January 1993–3 February 1994 – Les Aspin
3 February 1994–23 January 1997 – William Perry
24 January 1997–20 January 2001 – William Cohen

Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency
November 1991–August 1995 – James R. Clapper
August 1995–February 1996 – Kenneth Minihan
February 1996–July 1999 – Patrick M. Hughes
July 1999–July 2002 – Thomas R. Wilson

United States Central Command (CENTCOM) Commander
9 August 1991–5 August 1994 – General Joseph P. Hoar
5 August 1994–13 August 1997 – General J. H. Binford Peay III
13 August 1997–6 July 2000 – General Anthony Zinni
6 July 2000–7 July 2003 – General Tommy Franks

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
1 October 1989–30 September 1993 – General Colin Powell
1 October 1993–24 October 1993 – Admiral David E. Jeremiah
25 October 1993–30 September 1997 – General John Shalikashvili
1 October 1997–30 September 2001 – General Henry Shelton

US Attorney General
11 March 1993–20 January 2001 – Janet Reno

Chair of the Federal Reserve
11 August 1987–31 January 2006 – Alan Greenspan

Director of Central Intelligence
5 February 1993–10 January 1995 – R. James Woolsey Jr.
10 May 1995–15 December 1996 – John M. Deutch
16 December 1996–11 July 1997 – George Tenet (acting)
11 July 1997–11 July 2004 – George Tenet
20 January 1993 – Bill Clinton inaugurated as the 42nd President of the United States (in office from 20 January 1993–20 January 2001)

5 February 1993 – Bill Clinton signed the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993

12 February 1993 – US release date of the film Groundhog Day, directed by Harold Ramis, starring Bill Murray, Andie MacDowell, and Chris Elliott

28 February–19 April 1993 – the Waco siege, a siege of a compound belonging to the group Branch Davidians by American federal and Texas state law enforcement

26 February 1993 – US release date of the film Falling Down, directed by Joel Schumacher, and starring Michael Douglas and Robert Duvall

19 April 1993 – the end of the Waco siege: the FBI launches an assault on the Branch Davidian Mount Carmel Center; in total, 76 people died, including David Koresh

25 April 1993 – referendum in Russia held on continued privatization and Yeltsin’s economic policy. Yeltsin narrowly wins with funding from George Soros

7 May 1993 – US release date of the film Dave, directed by Ivan Reitman, and starring Kevin Kline and Sigourney Weaver, and Frank Langella

11 June 1993 – US release date of the film Jurassic Park directed by Steven Spielberg

18 June 1993 – US release date of the film Last Action Hero, directed John McTiernan, and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Austin O’Brien, and Charles Dance

26 June 1993 – Bill Clinton orders cruise missile attack on the Iraqi Intelligence Service’s (IIS) principal command and control complex in Baghdad, publicly announced as retaliation for the assassination attempt by the IIS on former President George H. W. Bush while he was visiting Kuwait in April 1993

July 1993 – the foundation of New Zealand First, a New Zealand nationalist and populist party, by Winston Peters who resigned from the National Party

16 July 1993 – US release date of the film Free Willy directed by Simon Wincer

20 July 1993 – suicide of Vincent Walker “Vince” Foster

23 July 1993 – US release date of the film Coneheads, directed by Steve Barron, and starring Dan Aykroyd, Jane Curtin and Michelle Burke

6 August 1993 – US release date of the film The Fugitive, directed by Andrew Davis and starring Harrison Ford and Tommy Lee Jones

10 August 1993 – Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 (or the Deficit Reduction Act of 1993) signed into law by Bill Clinton

3 September 1993 – foundation of the UK Independence Party (UKIP) as the renamed version of the Anti-Federalist League

10 September 1993–19 May 2002 – the American science fiction drama X-Files airs on Fox, with 9 seasons and 202 episodes

10 September 1993 – US release date of the film True Romance, directed by Tony Scott, written by Quentin Tarantino, and starring Christian Slater, Patricia Arquette, Dennis Hopper, Val Kilmer, Gary Oldman, Brad Pitt, and Christopher Walken

22 September 1993 – Bill Clinton makes a speech to Congress about health care reform, and a plan for universal coverage

8 October 1993 – US release date of the film Demolition Man, directed by Marco Brambilla, and starring Sylvester Stallone and Wesley Snipes

24 November 1993 – US release date of the film Mrs. Doubtfire, directed by Chris Columbus and starring Robin Williams, Sally Field, Pierce Brosnan, and Harvey Fierstein

30 November 1993 – Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (Brady Act) signed into law by Bill Clinton; this introduced a 5 day waiting period on gun purchases

15 December 1993 – US release date of the film Schindler’s List directed by Steven Spielberg, starring Liam Neeson and Ralph Fiennes

Thursday, May 16, 2019

Chronology of the 12th Century

1100
5 December 1100–2 April 1118 – Baldwin I is King of Jerusalem:
Kings of Jerusalem
House of Boulogne (1099–1118)

22 July 1099–18 July 1100 – Godfrey of Bouillon is Defender of the Holy Sepulchre
5 December 1100–2 April 1118 – Baldwin I

House of Rethel (1118–1153)
14 April 1118–21 August 1131 – Baldwin II
1131–1153 – Melisende is Queen of Jerusalem

House of Anjou (1153–1205)
August 1131–13 November 1143 – Fulk
25 December 1143–10 February 1163 – Baldwin III
February 1163–11 July 1174 – Amalric
11 July 1174–16 March 1185 – Baldwin IV
16 March 1185–August 1186 – Baldwin V
1186–25 July 1190 – Sibylla is Queen of Jerusalem
August 1186–summer 1190/May 1192 – Guy of Lusignan
summer 1190/1192–5 April 1205 – Isabella I of Jerusalem
1101
May–August 1101 – crusade of 1101

June 1101–28 September 1105 – Simon is Count of Sicily

c. October 1101 – Almoravids begin siege of Valencia

1102
5 May 1102 – Valencia captured by the Almoravids

1105
c. 1 January 1105 – death of Barkiyaruq Sultan of the Seljuk Empire when travelling to Baghdad:
November 1092–c. 1 January 1105 – Barkiyaruq Sultan of the Seljuk Empire (proclaimed at Ray)

Baghdad
January 1105 – Malik-Shah II is Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad
1105–18 April 1118 – Muhammad I Tapar is Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad (theoretically the head of dynasty)
18 April 1118 – death of Muhammad I Tapar
April 1118–1131 – Mahmud II (Seljuq sultan of Baghdad)
1131–1134 – Toghrul II
1134–13 September 1152 – Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud
13 September 1152 – death of Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud at Hamadan
13 September 1152–1153 – Malik-Shah III
1153–December 1159/January 1160 – Muhammad II ibn Mahmud
December 1159/January 1160 – death of Muhammad II ibn Mahmud at Hamadan

Khorasan
1096 – Ahmad Sanjar given the province of Khorasan by Muhammad I
1097–1118 – Ahmad Sanjar is ruler of Khorasan
c. April 1118–8 May 1157 – Ahmad Sanjar is Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire (capital at Merv)
1119 – Ahmad Sanjar defeats Mahmud II at Sawa in northern Jibal

Hamadan
January 1159–October 1160 – Suleiman-Shah
1161–1176 – Arslan-Shah
1176–19 March 1194 – Toghrul III (last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire)
September 1105–26 February 1154 – Roger II is Count of Sicily:
July 1127 – Roger II inherits all Hauteville family possessions in the Italian peninsula and overlordship of the Principality of Capua after the death of William II of Apulia
25 December 1130 – the Kingdom of Sicily created by Roger II of Sicily
1106

1107
October 1107 – army of Bohemond of Tarente lands in Dyrrachium to conquer Byzantine Empire

November 1107–September 1108 – siege of Dyrrhachium by the Normans under Bohemond I of Antioch held by the doux Alexios Komnenos

1108
29 May 1108 – battle of Uclés between Christian forces of Castile and León under Alfonso VI and Muslim Almoravids under Tamim ibn-Yusuf, near Uclés just south of the river Tagus; Alfonso VI defeated

1109
21 April 1109 – death of Anselm of Canterbury, Archbishop of Canterbury

1110
May 1110 – crusaders conquer Beirut

1111
22 February 1111 – death of Roger Borsa (Duke of Apulia and Calabria)

22 February 1111–July 1127 – William II is Duke of Apulia

13–29 September 1111 – battle of Shaizar between Crusader army under King Baldwin I of Jerusalem and a Seljuk army led by Mawdud ibn Altuntash of Mosul, at Shaizar, Syria; the result is a tactical draw

1114
November 1114 – William II comes of age and invested with ducky of Apulia by Pope Pascal II at the Council of Ceprano

1127
July 1127 – Roger II inherits all Hauteville family possessions in the Italian peninsula and overlordship of the Principality of Capua after the death of William II of Apulia

1127
1127–14 September 1146 – Imad ad-Din Zengi is Atabeg of Mosul:
1128–14 September 1146 – Imad ad-Din Zengi rules Aleppo
1138
April 1138 – armies of the Byzantine emperor and the crusader princes besiege Shaizar

1144
24 December 1144 – Zengi captures the crusader County of Edessa

1146
14 September 1146 – Imad ad-Din Zengi killed by Frankish slave named Yarankash:
Zengid Rulers
Zengid Emir of Mosul and the Jezirah (northern Iraq)
14 September 1146–November 1149 – Saif ad-Din Ghazi I
November 1149–6 September 1170 – Qutb ad-Din Mawdud
6 September 1170–1180 – Ghazi II Saif ud-Din
22 January 1171 – Imad ad-Din Zengi II (from Aleppo) captures Mosul
1180–1193 – Izz ad-Din Mas'ud
1193–1211 – Nur ad-Din Arslan Shah I

Aleppo
14 September 1146–15 May 1174 – Nur ad-Din

Damascus
1156–15 May 1174 – Nur ad-Din
September 1146–15 May 1174 – Nur ad-Din is Emir of Damascus and Aleppo:
Aleppo
14 September 1146–15 May 1174 – Nur ad-Din

Damascus
1156–15 May 1174 – Nur ad-Din
4 March 1152–10 June 1190 – Frederick I Barbarossa is King of Germany:
6 April 1147–4 March 1152 – Frederick I Barbarossa is Duke of Swabia
1152–10 June 1190 – Frederick I Barbarossa is King of Burgundy
1155–10 June 1190 – Frederick I Barbarossa is King of Italy
2 January 1155–10 June 1190 – Frederick I Barbarossa is Holy Roman Emperor
13 September 1152 – death of Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud at Hamadan:
Breakup of Seljuk Empire
Baghdad
19 November 1092–c. 11 November 1094 – Mahmud I of Great Seljuq
c. 11 November 1094 – death of Mahmud I at Baghdad
1105 – Malik-Shah II is Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad
1105–1118 – Muhammad I Tapar is Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad (theoretically the head of dynasty)
1118–1131 – Mahmud II (Seljuq sultan of Baghdad)
1131–1134 – Toghrul II
1134–13 September 1152 – Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud
13 September 1152 – death of Ghiyath ad-Din Mas'ud at Hamadan
1152–1153 – Malik-Shah III
1153–1159 – Muhammad II ibn Mahmud

Ray
November 1092–1105 – Barkiyaruq Sultan of the Seljuk Empire (proclaimed at Ray)
February 1095? – Barkiyaruq recognised as sultan in Baghdad

Hamadan
January 1159–October 1160 – Suleiman-Shah
1161–1176 – Arslan-Shah
1176–19 March 1194 – Toghrul III (last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire)

Khorasan
1096 – Ahmad Sanjar given the province of Khorasan by Muhammad I
1097–1118 – Ahmad Sanjar is ruler of Khorasan
1118–8 May 1157 – Ahmad Sanjar is Sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire

Seljuq Sultan of Damascus
1078–1092 – Tutush I (Seljuq emir of Damascus)
c. November 1092–March/April 1094 – Tutush I
March/April 1094 – death of Tutush I after defeat by Sultan Barkiyaruq near Ray

Ruler of Damascus
1095–1104 – Duqaq is Emir of Damascus
1104–1128 – Toghtekin (atabeg of Damascus)

Ruler of Aleppo
1095–10 December 1113 – Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (Seljuq ruler of Aleppo)

Seljuq Sultans of Rum
c. November 1092–1107 – Kilij Arslan I
1110–1116 – Malik Shah

19 March 1194 – death of Toghrul III (last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire)
1153–1160 – Muhammad II ibn Mahmud is Seljuk Sultan of Hamadan:
Seljuk Sultans of Hamadan (1118–1194)
1118–1131 – Mahmud II
1131 – Da'ud (in Jibal and Iranian Azerbaijan)
1131–1134 – Tugrul II
1134–1152 – Mas'ud
1152–1153 – Malik Shah III
1153–1160 – Muhammad II
1160–1161 – Suleiman Shah
1161–1174 – Arslan Shah
1174–1194 – Tugrul III
1160
12 March 1160–18 December 1170 – Al-Mustanjid is 32nd Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad

23 July 1160–13 September 1171 – Al-Adid is last Caliph of the Fatimid Dynasty in Egypt

1161

1169
26 March 1169–11 September 1171 – Saladin is vizier of Fatimid Egypt; he receives the title of al-Malik al-Nasir (King Protector)

1170
28 November 1170–20 January 1191 – Frederick VI Hohenstaufen is Duke of Swabia

1171
13 September 1171 – death of Al-Adid, the last Caliph of the Fatimid Dynasty in Egypt

1171–1260 – Ayyubid Sultanate in Egypt and Syria

17 September 1171 – Abbasid khutba (Friday sermon) pronounced in Fustat and Cairo

1172
1172–1200 – Ala ad-Din Tekish is Shah of the Khwarazmian Empire:
Shah of the Khwarazmian Empire
1127–1156 – Atsiz
1156–1172 – Il-Arslan
1172–1200 – Ala ad-Din Tekish
1200–1220 – Terken Khatun (wife of Ala ad-Din Tekish) as regent
1200–1220 – Muhammad II of Khwarazm
1220–1231 – Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
1174
15 May 1174 – death of Nur ad-Din in the citadel of Damascus

1174 – As-Salih Ismail al-Malik is emir of Damascus (died 1181)

11 July 1174–16 March 1185 – Baldwin IV the Leper is King of Jerusalem

23 November 1174 – Saladin takes Damascus from the Zengids

1174? – Saladin assumes the title of sultan in Egypt

1174–4 March 1193 – Saladin is Sultan of Egypt and Syria

1182
11 May 1182 – Saladin leaves Cairo with half of the Egyptian Ayyubid army for Syria

21 May 1182 – Saladin camped near Aleppo

12 June 1182 – Aleppo taken by Saladin

10 November 1182 – Saladin lays siege to Mosul

30 December 1182 – Saladin takes Sinjar

1183

1184
1184–2 October 1187 – fictional date of film Kingdom of Heaven, directed and produced by Ridley Scott, starring Orlando Bloom, Eva Green, Ghassan Massoud, Jeremy Irons, David Thewlis, Brendan Gleeson, Iain Glen, Marton Csokas, Liam Neeson

1185
16 March 1185 – death of Baldwin IV the Leper, King of Jerusalem

16 March 1185–August 1186 – sole reign of Baldwin V as King of Jerusalem

1186
August 1186 – death of Baldwin V (King of Jerusalem) at Acre

1186–25 July 1190 – Sibylla is Queen of Jerusalem

August 1186–summer 1190/May 1192 – Guy of Lusignan is King of Jerusalem

1187
3–4 July 1187 – battle of Hattin between the Crusader states led by Guy of Lusignan and the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din (Saladin); Saladin captured or killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces

4 July 1187–May 1188 – Guy of Lusignan in captivity

20 September–2 October 1187 – siege of Jerusalem by Saladin; Balian of Ibelin surrenders the city to Saladin; capital of Kingdom of Jerusalem shifts first to Tyre and later to Acre after the Third Crusade

2 October 1187 – Balian of Ibelin surrenders Jerusalem to Saladin

1188
May 1188 – Guy of Lusignan released from imprisonment in Damascus

1189
1189–1192 – fictional date of the Doctor Who serial “Time Warrior”?

11 May 1189–2 September 1192 – Third Crusade led by King Richard I of England, King Philip II of France, and Frederick Barbarossa

3 September 1189–6 April 1199 – Richard I is King of England, Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, and overlord of Brittany

13 September 1189 – Richard I crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey

11 December 1189 – Richard I leaves England; government entrusted to William Longchamp (the Bishop of Ely) as chancellor

1190
10 June 1190 – Emperor Frederick Barbarossa drowns near Silifke Castle in the Saleph river

July/August 1190 – death of Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem in an epidemic

autumn 1190 – fictional date of the Doctor Who serial “Robot of Sherwood,” set in Sherwood Forest, Nottingham

September 1190–April 1191 – King Richard I of England and King Philip II of France occupy Sicily

1191
20 January 1191 – death of Frederick VI of Hohenstaufen (Duke of Swabia) dies of disease, aged 23, at Acre

8 June 1191 – King Richard I lands at Acre

October 1191 (or 1192) – fictional date of Doctor Who serial “The Crusade,” set in Jaffa, Palestine

1191 – fictional date of Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves

1192
May 1192 – Guy de Lusignan buys Cyprus from the Templars

9 October 1192 – King Richard I (ill with scurvy) leaves for England

1194
4 February 1194 – King Richard I released from imprisonment in Trifels Castle by Henry VI (Holy Roman Emperor)

March–May 1194 – Richard I returns to England

19 March 1194 – death of Toghrul III (last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire)

18 July 1194 – death of Guy of Lusignan in Cyprus

1199
6 April 1199 – death of Richard the Lionheart at Château de Chalus-Chabrol, Châlus, Haute-Vienne, France

27 May 1199–19 October 1216 – John is King of England

c. April 1199 – fictional date of Robin Hood (2010 film)

1202
October 1202–April 1204 – Fourth Crusade, called by Pope Innocent III, to reconquer Jerusalem by an invasion through Egypt; the Crusaders sacked Constantinople

12–13 April 1204 – capture of Constantinople

1207 – fictional date of early scene of the Doctor Who serial “The Bells of Saint John,” set in a monastery in Cumbria

3–5 March 1215 – fictional date of Doctor Who serial “The King’s Demons”