Friday, August 11, 2017

The BBC, Mary Beard and Diversity in Roman Britain

The BBC produced a cartoon as part of their “The Story of Britain” series called “Roman Britain”.

In the original description (which the BBC has since changed), the family depicted was described as a “typical family:

The video presents a black person as a high-status Roman officer and, according to the description above, as the head of a “typical family”:

But why on earth is a person who appears to be a sub-Saharan African (or possibly an indigenous North African) being depicted as a head of a “typical family” in Roman Britain?

To be “typical,” this entails that this is what the average family looked like, whether of Roman personnel in Britain or of all people in Roman Britain generally, and that in turn entails that the majority of Roman personnel or the majority of all people in Roman Britain were sub-Saharan Africans or indigenous North Africans.

Such an idea is, of course, outrageously nonsensical.

And citing evidence of some few sub-Saharan Africans or indigenous North Africans in Britain cannot possibly prove that the majority of Roman personnel or the majority of all people in Roman Britain were of that ethnic identity.

The British Classicist Mary Beard defended the BBC in various Tweets on Twitter and in this TLS article here.

Her Tweet here produced a great deal of criticism:

So what was the meaning of this Tweet? Was Mary Beard suggesting that a family headed by a sub-Saharan African or indigenous North African was a “typical family” in Roman Britain and the majority of people were like this?

A review of her Twitter feed and the TLS article here (see also here) shows that Beard quickly tried to oppose the criticisms of her Tweet by saying her defence only meant that the idea that a Roman family headed by a black man in Britain was “possible,” or that there is some evidence of low-level ethnic diversity in Roman Britain (neither of which reasonable people dispute).

Mary Beard also suggested that the black man was “loosely based …on Quintus Lollius Urbicus, a man from what is now Algeria, who became governor of Britain,” even though Quintus Lollius Urbicus was a North African Berber, and the idea that Berber families were “typical” of Roman Britain is also laughable.

The main issue that critics of the cartoon were pointing to is this: how can a family headed by a sub-Saharan African (or possibly an indigenous North African) possibly have been a “typical family” in Roman Britain?

Instead of honestly answering this question, the social media debate quickly got side-tracked into secondary issues, such as whether there was ethnic diversity and foreigners in Roman Britain at all (and clearly there was some kind of low-level ethnic diversity on Roman Britain).

Is there even one high-profile Classicist or ancient historian in Britain today who has the courage and intellectual honesty to state that the BBC’s video was an outrageous travesty of history? Is there any such Classicist or ancient historian capable of saying publicly that “of course it is ridiculous and politically correct nonsense to state, as the BBC did, that a family headed by a sub-Saharan African (or indigenous North African) was a “typical family” in Roman Britain in the sense of being average.”

Well, maybe there are such people, but I’ve yet to see one.

Most damning for all the apologists for the BBC is that they quietly went and changed the description in the original video to this:

Well, well, well. It’s almost like the BBC realise their original description was absurd. But can modern classicists admit this too? Can Mary Beard admit this?

And note well: this was the major issue that critics of the BBC had, and all other points are secondary or minor. But – be that as it may – let us now turn to some minor issues.

Minor Issues
1. The Historia Augusta, the Ethiopian, and Black Skin as a Bad Omen
In the various Twitter debates, there was discussion of a passage in an ancient Latin source called the Historia Augusta, a series of imperial biographies probably written in the late 4th or early 5th century BC.

In this work, there is a biography of the emperor Septimius Severus, who ruled from 14 April 193 to 4 February 211, and he died in Eboracum (York) in Britain. This biography describes the last years of Severus’ life when he was on campaign in Britain, and troubled by omens of his own death.

A passage from Severus’ biography was used by Beard in her TLS article here to prove that there were blacks in Roman Britain.

The passage runs as follows, with the Latin first and a translation from the online Loeb Classical Library edition of 1921, but with a revised translation of the important part at the end:
post m[a]urum apud vallum vis[s]um in Brittannia cum ad proximam mansionem rediret non solum victor sed etiam in aeternum pace fundata volvens animo, quid [h]ominis sibi occurreret, Aethiops quidam e numero militari, clarae inter scurras famae et celebratorum semper iocorum, cum corona e cupressu facta eidem occurrit. 22.5 quem cum ille iratus removeri ab oculis praecepisset et coloris eius tactus omine et coronae, dixisse ille dicitur ioci causa: ‘totum fudisti, totum vicisti, 22.6 iam deus esto victor.’

“4. On another occasion, when he [sc. Severus] was returning to his nearest quarters from an inspection of the wall at Luguvallum in Britain, at a time when he had not only proved victorious but had concluded a perpetual peace, just as he was wondering what omen would present itself, an Ethiopian soldier, who was famous among buffoons and always a notable jester, met him with a garland of cypress-boughs. 5. And when Severus in a rage ordered that the man be removed from his sight, troubled as he was by the omen both of the man’s colour and of the garland, the Ethiopian by way of jest cried, it is said, ‘You have been all things, you have conquered all things, now, O conqueror, be a god.’”*.html
Apart from minor textual issues easily resolved, the Latin of the crucial highlighted part, with its correlative conjunction “et ... et” construction, is clear enough: et coloris eius tactus omine et coronae.

Assuming that the story is even real (and the major modern biographer of Severus raises doubts: see Birley 1988: 184), what does this story prove?

It certainly does not prove that the majority of Roman personnel in Britain were sub-Saharan Africans. And the context of the passage suggests that seeing a black man in the British army was an unusual sight, because if sub-Saharan Africans were common and in large numbers in Britain, then why would Severus have been surprised or startled to met one?

The passage also shows that the Romans had a superstitious fear of black skin, because black was regarded as an ill-omened colour (Snowden 2001: 260).

Recent work by Starks (2011) presents evidence that this was by no means an unusual attitude amongst the Romans at all, and that colour prejudice was also a prevalent social phenomenon:

Even worse, we have evidence of another episode like this that occurred in 42 BC before the second battle of Philippi in the army of Marcus Junius Brutus.

The translation below from Plutarch’s Life of Brutus follows the Loeb Classical Library edition of 1918, but with an emended translation of the crucial passage (and the Greek text following):
“48.1. On that night, they say, the phantom visited Brutus again, manifesting the same appearance as before, but went away without a word. 2. Publius Volumnius, however, a philosopher, and a companion of Brutus in all his campaigns, makes no mention of this omen, but says that the foremost standard was covered with bees; …. 4. He says also that just before the battle itself two eagles fought a pitched battle with one another in the space between the camps, and as all were gazing at them, while an incredible silence reigned over the plain, the eagle towards Brutus gave up the fight and fled. 5. And the story of the Ethiopian is well known, who, as the gate of the camp was thrown open, met the standard-bearer, and was cut to pieces by the soldiers, because they thought [him] an omen.” (ὁ δ᾽ Αἰθίοψ περιβόητος γέγονεν, ὁ τῆς πύλης ἀνοιχθείσης ἀπαντήσας τῷ φέροντι τὸν ἀετὸν καὶ κατακοπεὶς ταῖς μαχαίραις ὑπὸ τῶν στρατιωτῶν οἰωνισαμένων).
Plutarch, Brutus, 48.1–5*.html
Both these passages suggest that your average Roman solider was so superstitious that the sight of a black man before some crucial moment (like a battle) was considered a terribly bad omen. In fact, in the case of the soldiers of Brutus, the soldiers slaughtered the poor man on the spot in a murderous assault.

So why, then, would Romans import large numbers of sub-Saharan Africans into their armies if they were so superstitious? Such evidence suggests that blacks in general were likely to have been a tiny minority in the Roman army, and not common at all.

2. The Ethnicity of the Emperor Septimius Severus
Mary Beard in her TLS article here stated that “Even in the case of Septimius Severus, the first Roman emperor from Africa (Libya), we don’t actually know the colour of his skin, how far he was ‘native’, how far the descendent of Italian settler.”

And yet Anthony Birley – the major scholarly biographer of the emperor Septimius Severus – established that Septimius Severus was descended from Roman Italian colonists in north Africa on his mother’s side and wealthy Punic (or Punic-Libyan) magnates in Leptis Magna on his father’s side (see Birley 1988: 8, 212–226; see here). This means that, at most, Septimius Severus would have had swarthy skin like the southern Italians or the native people of North Africa. It is absurd to claim that Septimius Severus would have had black skin like sub-Saharan Africans. We also have portrait statues of Septimius Severus, and he does not look like a sub-Saharan African.

Thus Mary Beard – if she bothered to read Anthony Birley’s Septimius Severus: The African Emperor (1998; rev. edn. 1999) – was being straightforwardly disingenuous when she asserted that “Even in the case of Septimius Severus, the first Roman emperor from Africa (Libya), we don’t actually know the colour of his skin, how far he was ‘native’, how far the descendent of Italian settler.” The genealogy established by modern research, however, does allow us to talk about Severus’ ancestry with reasonable confidence, and his skin colour.

Birley, Anthony. 1988. The African Emperor: Septimius Severus (rev. edn.). B. T. Batsford, London.

Snowden, Frank M. 2001. “Attitudes towards Blacks in the Greek and Roman World: Misinterpretations of the Evidence,” in Edwin M. Yamauchi (ed.), Africa and Africans in Antiquity. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing. 246–275.

Starks, John H., Jr. 2011. “Was Black Beautiful in Vandal Africa?,” in Daniel Orrells, Gurminder K. Bhambra, and Tessa Roynton (eds,), African Athena: New Agendas. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 239–257.

Friday, July 7, 2017

Chronology of the 15th Century

23 September 1386–1418 – the two reigns of Mircea I the Old as Voivode of Wallachia:
c. 1383–1386 – Dan I (Dănești)
23 September 1386–1395 – Mircea I the Old (first reign; Basarab)
1394–1397 – Vlad I the Usurper (Dănești)
1397–31 January 1418 – Mircea I the Old (second reign; Basarab)
1408–1420 – Mihail I (Basarab)
before 12 February 1419 – Voyk (father of John Hunyadi) died before this date

1425–31 October 1448 – rule of John VIII Palaiologos, Byzantine emperor
Byzantine Emperors
1390–1391 – John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus
1391–1425 – Manuel II Palaiologos
1425–1448 – John VIII Palaiologos
1449–29 May 1453 – reign of Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos / Palaeologus (son of Manuel II)
5 September 1434–1 August 1464 – Cosimo di Giovanni de’ Medici (the Elder) is Lord of Florence

1436–1442 – reign of Vlad II Dracul as Voivode of Wallachia

9 December 1437 – death of Sigismund, king of Hungary:
Kings of Hungary
House of Luxembourg
1387–1437 – Sigismund
House of Habsburg
1437–1439 – Albert the Magnanimous
1440–1457 – Ladislaus V the Posthumous
House of Jagiellon
1440–1444 – Vladislaus I
6 June 1446 – January 1453 – Regent John Hunyadi
House of Hunyadi
1458–1490 – Matthias I
8 January 1438 – the first session of the Council of Ferrara in the church of St George under the presidency of Cardinal Nicolo Albergati

1439–1445 – John Hunyadi is Ban of Severin

1441 – John Hunyadi appointed Voivode of Transylvania

22 March 1442 – Ottoman forces were annihilated at Gyulafehérvár in Transylvania

September 1442 – Ottoman forces defeated at the Ialomița River

November 1443 – Battle of Nish; Skanderbeg deserted the Ottoman army

28 November 1443 – Skanderbeg takes Krujë by the use of a forged letter from Sultan Murad; Wars of Skanderbeg:
December 1443–January 1444 – Skanderbeg seizes Petrela, Prezë, Guri i Bardhë, Svetigrad, Modrič?
2 March 1444 – Skanderbeg summoned the Albanian princes in the Venetian-controlled town of Lezhë and they formed the League of Lezhë
29 June 1444 – in the Plain of Torvioll Albanian armies under Skanderbeg faced the Ottomans who were under direct command of the Ottoman general Ali Pasha
10 October 1445 – Ottoman defeat at Ohrid
27 September 1446 – Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Otonetë
1447–1448 – Albanian–Venetian War
14 May 1448 – an Ottoman army led by Sultan Murad II and his son Mehmed laid siege to the castle of Svetigrad.
June 1450 – two years after the Ottomans had captured Svetigrad, they laid siege to Krujë
2 September 1457 – Skanderbeg attacked the Ottoman forces at Ujebardha and defeated them
August 1461 – Skanderbeg landed in Apulia with an expeditionary force of 1,000 cavalry and 2,000 infantry
1466 – Sultan Mehmed II personally led an army of 30,000 into Albania and laid the Second Siege of Krujë
23 April 1467 – Skanderbeg attacked the Ottoman forces laying siege to Krujë. The Second Siege of Krujë was eventually broken
17 January 1468 – Skanderbeg fell ill with malaria and died
10 November 1444 – battle of Varna

6 June 1446 – John Hunyadi becomes regent of Hungary

27 September 1446 – Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Otonetë in Albania

1447–1448 – Albanian–Venetian War

4 October 1448 – peace treaty signed between Skanderbeg and Venice

17 October 1448 – second battle of Kosovo

31 October 1448 – death of John VIII Palaiologos, the Byzantine emperor

1449–29 May 1453 – reign of Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos (son of Manuel II)

3 February 1451–3 May 1481 – Mehmed II (second reign):
25 June 1421–1444 – Murad II
1444–1446 – Mehmed II (first rule; son of Murad II)
1446–3 February 1451 – Murad II
3 February 1451–3 May 1481 – Mehmed II (second reign)
19 May 1481–25 April 1512 – Bayezid II (son of Mehmed II)
25 April 1512–21 September 1520 – Selim I (son of Bayezid II)
30 September 1520–6/7 September 1566 – Suleiman I (son of Selim I)
3 February 1451–3 May 1481 – second reign of Mehmed II:
28 November 1443–17 January 1468 – Skanderbeg’s war against the Ottomans
1447–1448 – Albanian–Venetian War
29 May 1453 – fall of Constantinople to Mehmed II
May 1460 – conquest of Byzantine despotate of the Morea
November 1461–August 1462 – Vlad III’s war with the Ottomans
1463–1479 – Ottoman–Venetian War
10 July–5 August 1470 – the siege of Negroponte
June–August 1476 – Mehmed II invades Moldavia
1478–1479 – Mehmed II leads the siege of Shkodra
25 January 1479 – signing of the Treaty of Constantinople between Venice and Ottomans
23 May–17 August 1480 – Ottoman siege of Rhodes (under Knights Hospitaller)
11 August 1480–August 1481 – Ottoman occupation of Otranto in Italy
3 May 1481 – death of Sultan Mehmed II
1452 – John Hunyadi is Perpetual Count of Beszterce

16–19 March 1452 – Frederick III is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Nicholas V in Rome, the last Emperor to be crowned in Rome

19 March 1452–19 August 1493 – Frederick III is Holy Roman Emperor:
House of Habsburg
1433–1437 – Sigismund is Holy Roman Emperor
2 February 1440–19 August 1493 – Frederick III is King of the Romans
19 March 1452–19 August 1493 – Frederick III is Holy Roman Emperor
16 February 1486–12 January 1519 – Maximilian I is King of the Romans
4 February 1508–12 January 1519 – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor
30 January 1453 – John Hunyadi appointed captain general of the kingdom

6 April–29 May 1453 – the last siege of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, sultan of the Ottoman Empire

29 May 1453 – fall of Constantinople to Mehmed the Conqueror; death of the last Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos

29 May 1453 – death of Constantine XI Dragases Palaeologus (son of Manuel II)

29 September 1454 – Ottoman force defeated at Kruševac

1455–1485 – the Wars of the Roses in England, a civil war between two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, (1) the House of Lancaster (associated with a red rose), and (2) the House of York (whose symbol was a white rose):
House of Lancaster
30 September 1399–20 March 1413 – Henry IV
20 March 1413–31 August 1422 – Henry V
31 August 1422–4 March 1461 – Henry VI

1455–1485 – the Wars of the Roses

House of York
4 March 1461–3 October 1470 – Edward IV

House of Lancaster
3 October 1470–11 April 1471 – Henry VI

House of York
11 April 1471–9 April 1483 – Edward IV (second reign)
9 April 1483–25 June 1483 – Edward V
26 June 1483–22 August 1485 – Richard III

House of Tudor
22 August 1485–21 April 1509 – Henry VII
21 April 1509–28 January 1547 – Henry VIII
22 July 1456 – John Hunyadi’s victory at Belgrade

11 August 1456 – death of John Hunyadi at Belgrade

c. August 1456–c. August 1462 – second reign of Vlad III Drăculea

1457–1504 – Stephen III of Moldavia (Ștefan cel Mare) rules Moldavia:
1504–1517 – Bogdan III The One-Eyed
1514 – Moldavia submitted to Ottoman rule
1458–1464 – Pope Pius II is pope

1458–1490 – Matthias I is king of Hungary

May 1460 – Mehmed II conquers the Byzantine despotate of the Morea

July 1461 – fall of Salmeniko Castle, Morea, and its defender Graitzas Palaiologos to the Ottomans

August 1461 – Skanderbeg landed in Apulia with an expeditionary force of 1,000 cavalry and 2,000 infantry

November 1461–August 1462 – Vlad III’s war with the Ottomans:
4 June 1462 – Ottoman army under Mehmed II crosses the Danube at Nicoplis
17 June 1462 – the night attack at Târgoviște between Vlad III and Mehmed II
5 April 1462–6 November 1505 – Ivan III is Grand Princes of Moscow:
Grand Princes of Moscow
19 May 1389–27 February 1425 – Vasily I
27 February 1425–30 March 1434 – Vasily II
31 March 1434–5 June 1434 – Yury of Zvenigorod
5 June 1434–1435 – Vasily Kosoy
1435–1446 – Vasily II
1446–26 March 1447 – Dmitry Shemyaka
27 February 1447–27 March 1462 – Vasily II
5 April 1462–6 November 1505 – Ivan III
6 November 1505–13 December 1533 – Vasily III
1463–1479 – Ottoman–Venetian War

1466 – Sultan Mehmed II personally led an army of 30,000 into Albania and laid the Second Siege of Krujë

23 April 1467 – Skanderbeg attacked the Ottoman forces laying siege to Krujë. The Second Siege of Krujë was eventually broken

15 December 1467 – the battle of Baia between Stephen the Great and Matthias Corvinus; Corvinus was defeated

17 January 1468 – Skanderbeg fell ill with malaria and died

19 October 1469 – Ferdinand II and Isabella I married in the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid

2 December 1469–8 April 1492 – Lorenzo de’ Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) rules Florence:
Lord of Florence
5 September 1434–1 August 1464 – Cosimo di Giovanni de’ Medici (the Elder)
1 August 1464–2 December 1469 – Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici (the Gouty)
2 December 1469–8 April 1492 – Lorenzo de’ Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent)
9 April 1492–9 November 1494 – Piero di Lorenzo de’ Medici (Piero the Unfortunate)
November 1494–23 May 1498 – Girolamo Savonarola
Gonfaloniere for life
1502–1512 – Piero Soderini
10 July–5 August 1470 – the siege of Negroponte between the forces of Sultan Mehmed II and the garrison of the Venetian colony of Negroponte (Chalcis), the capital of the Venetian possession of Euboea; the Ottomans conquer Negroponte and Euboea

9 August 1471–12 August 1484 – Pope Sixtus IV:
8 April 1455–6 August 1458 – Callixtus III
19 August 1458–15 August 1464 – Pius II
30 August 1464–26 July 1471 – Paul II
9 August 1471–12 August 1484 – Sixtus IV
29 August 1484–25 July 1492 – Innocent VIII
11 August 1492–18 August 1503 – Alexander VI
10 January 1475 – the battle of Vaslui between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman governor of Rumelia, Hadım Suleiman Pasha, at Podul Înalt near Vaslui; the Ottomans were defeated

15 January 1475 – Ferdinand II of Aragon becomes jure uxoris King of Castile:
1468–23 January 1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon (king of Sicily)
19 October 1469 – Ferdinand II and Isabella I married in the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid
11 December 1474–26 November 1504 – Isabella I of Castile
15 January 1475–26 November 1504 – Ferdinand II of Aragon jure uxoris King of Castile
20 January 1479–23 January 1516 – Ferdinand II, King of Aragon
1504–1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon is King of Naples
26 November 1504 – death of Isabella I of Castile in in Medina del Campo
26 November 1504–12 April 1555 – Joanna of Castile the Mad (queen of Castile)
12 July–25 September 1506 – Philip I of Castile (King of Castile)
23 January 1516–16 January 1556 – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (King of Spain)
March 1476 – Vlad III returns to Transylvania

June–August 1476 – Sultan Mehmed II invades Moldavia

26 July 1476 – the battle of Valea Albă (battle of Războieni) at Războieni between Ştefan cel Mare and an Ottoman army under Sultan Mehmed II; Ştefan was defeated and fled north

August 1476 – Sultan Mehmed II is defeated at the battle of Siret River by a coalition force under the command of Vlad III and Stephen Báthory

November 1476 – Vlad III the Impaler invades Wallachia from southern Transylvania

8 November 1476 – Vlad III captures the capital of Târgovişte; he meets with Ştefan cel Mare

22 December 1476 – Beatrice of Naples (daughter of Ferdinand I of Naples and Isabella of Clermont) marries Matthias Corvinus

12 December 1476 – Beatrice of Naples is crowned queen of Hungary at Székesfehérvár

December 1476/January 1477 – death of Vlad the Impaler:
Princes of Wallachia
1456–1462 – Vlad III Drăculea
1462–1473 – Radu III the Fair
1473 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
1473–1474 – Radu III the Fair
1474 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
1474 – Radu III the Fair
1474 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
1474–1475 – Radu III the Fair
January 1475–before 8 November 1476 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
c. 8 November–December 1476 – Vlad III the Impaler
December 1476–November 1477 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
November 1477–September 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger (Little Impaler)
spring 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger attacks Moldavia
August 1481 – Mircea III
c. August 1481–before c. 16 November 1481 – Vlad IV the Monk
c. November 1481–c. 23 March 1482 – Basarab IV the Younger (Little Impaler)
13 July 1482 – Basarab IV the Younger is killed by boyars in Glogova
summer 1482–November 1495 – Vlad IV the Monk
1495–1508 – Radu IV the Great
1508–1509 – Mihnea I the Bad
5 January 1477 – the battle of Nancy, the final battle of the Burgundian Wars, at Nancy between Charles the Bold (Duke of Burgundy) and René II (Duke of Lorraine) and the Swiss Confederacy; Charles is defeated

March 1477 – Matthias Corvinus makes an alliance with the Teutonic Knights and the Bishopric of Ermland against Poland

c. March 1477–1488 – the Austrian–Hungarian war between Mathias Corvinus (the king of Hungary) and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III, the Habsburg Archduch of Austria

November 1477–September 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger (Little Impaler) is prince of Wallachia

24 June 1478 – Juan Rejón conquers the Grand Canary island for Isabel and Fernando

1478–1479 – Mehmed II leads the siege of Shkodra

1478–1485 – Giovanni Mocenigo is Doge of Venice:
Doges of Venice
1413–1423 – Tommaso Mocenigo
1423–1457 – Francesco Foscari
1457–1462 – Pasquale Malipiero
1462–1471 – Cristoforo Moro
1471–1473 – Nicolò Tron
1473–1474 – Nicolò Marcello
1474–1476 – Pietro Mocenigo
1476–1478 – Andrea Vendramin
1478–1485 – Giovanni Mocenigo
1485–1486 – Marco Barbarigo
1486–1501 – Agostino Barbarigo
1479–1493 – Stephen V Báthory of Ecsed is Voivode of Transylvania:
Voivodes of Transylvania
1468–1474 – Nicholas Csupor of Monoszló
1468–1472 – John Pongrác of Dengeleg
1472–1475 – Blaise Magyar
1475–1476 – John Pongrác of Dengeleg
1478–1479 – Peter Geréb of Vingárt
1479–1493 – Stephen V Báthory of Ecsed
1493–1498 – Bartholomew Drágfi of Béltek
1493–1495 – Ladislaus Losonci, Jr.
1498–1510 – Count Peter Szentgyörgyi
1510–1526 – John Zápolya
25 January 1479 – signing of the Treaty of Constantinople between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire; Venice cedes Shkodra, territories on the Dalmatian coastline, Negroponte (Euboea) and Lemnos; end of the First Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479)

13 October 1479 – the battle of Breadfield on the Breadfield Zsibód (Şibot) near the Mureş River, in which the Hungarian army was led by Pál Kinizsi, István Báthory, Vuk Branković, and Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân defeat the Turks

23 May–17 August 1480 – the Ottoman siege of Rhodes, under the rule of the Knights Hospitaller:
23 May 1480 – an Ottoman fleet of 160 ships arrives at Rhodes, at the gulf of Trianda, with 70,000 men
27 July 1480 – the Turks launch an offensive
17 August 1480 – the Ottoman fleet ends the attempt to capture Rhodes
28 July 1480 – the Ottoman invasion of Italy; a Turkish fleet of 128 ships arrives near Otranto

11 August 1480 – Ottoman army takes Otranto in Italy

11 August 1480–August 1481 – Ottoman occupation of Otranto in Italy:
1 May 1481 – the forces of king Ferdinand I of Naples led by his son Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, lay siege to Otranto in Italy
August 1481 – Ottoman surrender of Otranto in Italy
September 1481 – Ottomans evacuate Otranto in Italy
spring 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger attacks Moldavia

3 May 1481 – death of Sultan Mehmed II

19 May 1481–25 April 1512 – reign of the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II

8 July 1481 – the battle of Râmnic in which Stephen the Great defeats Basarab IV the Younger

August 1481 – Ottoman surrender of Otranto in Italy

summer 1482–1495 – Vlad IV Călugărul is Voivode of Wallachia:
1481–1482 – Basarab IV The Younger (Little Impaler)
1482–1495 – Vlad IV the Monk
1495–1508 – Radu IV the Great
1508–1509 – Mihnea I the Bad
February 1482–2 January 1492 – the Granada War, military campaigns during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty’s Emirate of Granada

July 1482 – the first siege of Hainburg by Matthias I Corvinus

August–September 1482 – the second siege of Hainburg by Matthias I Corvinus

30 August 1483–7 April 1498 – Charles VIII is king of France
House of Valois (1328–1589)
16 September 1380–21 October 1422 – Charles VI the Beloved
21 October 1422–22 July 1461 – Charles VII
22 July 1461–30 August 1483 – Louis XI
30 August 1483–7 April 1498 – Charles VIII
7 April 1498–1 January 1515 – Louis XII
1 January 1515–31 March 1547 – Francis I
29 January–1 June 1485 – the siege of Vienna during the Austrian–Hungarian War between Frederick III and Matthias Corvinus

1 June 1485 – the fall of Vienna to Matthias Corvinus

1485–1490 – Vienna is the capital of the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus

22 August 1485–21 April 1509 – Henry VII is king of England:
House of York
11 April 1471–9 April 1483 – Edward IV (second reign)
9 April 1483–25 June 1483 – Edward V
26 June 1483–22 August 1485 – Richard III

House of Tudor
22 August 1485–21 April 1509 – Henry VII
21 April 1509–28 January 1547 – Henry VIII
6 April 1490 – death of Matthias Corvinus in Vienna

April 1491 – the eight-month siege of Granada begins

April 1491–2 January 1492 – the siege of Granada

7 November 1491 – signing of the Peace of Pressburg between the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary

2 January 1492 – the fall of Granada to the Spanish

31 March 1492 – the Alhambra Decree (the Edict of Expulsion) issued by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories by 31 July 1492

3 August 1492 – Columbus departs from Castilian Palos de la Frontera at 8 am on a voyage to find a shorter route to India and the Orient with three ships, the Niña (real name Santa Clara), the Pinta, and the Santa Maria

3 August 1492–4 March 1493 – Columbus’ first voyage of discovery, to the Bahamas or Turks and Caicos, Cuba, and Haiti

11 August 1492–18 August 1503 – Pope Alexander VI

23 September 1492–16 June 1501 – reign of John I Albert as Polish king:
Jagiellonian Kings of Poland
4 March 1386–1 June 1434 – Władysław II Jagiełło
25 July 1434– 10 November 1444 – Władysław III of Poland
25 June 1447–7 June 1492 – Casimir IV Jagiellon
23 September 1492–16 June 1501 – John I Albert
24 September 1493–August 1494 – Columbus’ second voyage of discovery

25 October 1495–13 December 1521 – Emmanuel I is king of Portugal:
Kings of Portugal (House of Aviz 1385–1580)
14 August 1433–9 September 1438 – Edward
13 September 1438–11 November 1477 – Alphonso V
11 November 1477–15 November 1477 – John II
15 November 1477–28 August 1481 – Alphonso V
28 August 1481–25 October 1495 – John II
25 October 1495–13 December 1521 – Emmanuel I
5 December 1496 – King Manuel I of Portugal signs the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims (to take effect by October 1497)

30 May 1498 – Columbus leaves the port of Sanlúcar with a fleet of six ships on his third voyage

1499–1503 – the Second Ottoman–Venetian War between the Ottomans and Venice for control of territories in the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea

12, 20, 22, 25 August 1499 – the battle of Zonchio (battle of Sapienza/First Battle of Lepanto) between the Venetians and Ottomans

1504–1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon is King of Naples

18 April 1506–18 November 1626 – the construction of new St. Peter’s Basilica

20 May 1506 – death of Christopher Columbus in Valladolid, Spain

25 September 1506–25 October 1555 – Charles V is Lord of the Netherlands and Duke of Burgundy:
23 January 1516–16 January 1556 – Charles V is King of Spain
12 January 1519–28 April 1521 – Charles V is Archduke of Austria
28 June 1519–27 August 1556 – Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor
26 October 1520 – Charles V is crowned as King of the Germans in Germany
22 February 1530 – Charles V is crowned King of Italy
24 February 1530 – Charles V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Bologna
1516–22 January 1517 – the Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 between Mameluke Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire

24 January 1517 – the Battle of Ridaniya near Cairo between Selim I and Tuman Bay, in which the Mamelukes were defeated

April 1519 – Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) and 700 soldiers land near Tabasco on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

28 June 1519–27 August 1556 – Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor

22 May 1520 – massacre in the Great Temple of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan

1 July 1520 – the Aztec emperor Moctezuma was killed

13 August 1521 – the Aztec Empire was captured

1521–1524 – Cortés personally governed Mexico

26 June–22 December 1522 – the second siege of Rhodes of 1522, in which Knights of Rhodes are expelled by Ottomans

29 August 1526 – the battle of Mohács between king Louis II of Hungary and Suleiman the Magnificent, fought near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary

Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Chronology of Byzantine Empire 330–1453

25 July 306–22 May 337 – reign of Constantine the Great:
25 July 306–29 October 312 – Constantine is Caesar in the west
309 – Constantine self-proclaimed Augustus
29 October 312 – Constantine enters Rome
29 October 312–19 September 324 – Constantine undisputed Augustus
February 313 – Edict of Milan
3 July 324 – the Battle of Adrianople between Constantine I and Licinius
18 September 324 – the battle of Chrysopolis between Constantine and Licinius
19 September 324–22 May 337 – Constantine is emperor of whole empire
324 – foundation of Constantinople
11 May 330 – dedication of Constantinople
3 December 312 – death of Diocletian at his Palace

22 May 337 – death of Constantine at a suburban villa called Achyron

337–340 – Constantine II is joint emperor (over Gaul, Hispania, and Britannia) with Constantius II and Constans

337–361 – rule of Constantius II:
337–340 – Constantius II is co-Augustus (ruling Asian provinces and Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans
340 – killing of Constantine II in an ambush outside Aquileia in civil war with Constans
340–350 – Constantius II is co-Augustus with Constans
350 – assassination of Constans in Helena (now Elne) in the eastern Pyrenees of southwestern Gaul by supporters of the general Magnentius
350–361 – Constantius II is sole Augustus of the Roman Empire
350 – assassination of Constans in Helena (now Elne) in the eastern Pyrenees of southwestern Gaul by supporters of the general Magnentius

350–361 – Constantius II is sole Augustus of the Roman Empire

3 November 361–26 June 363 – Julian the Apostate is emperor of the entire empire

27 June 363–17 February 364 – reign of Jovian

28 March 364–9 August 378 – Valens is emperor in the East

26 February 364–17 November 375 – rule of Valentinian I:
26 February–28 March 364 – Valentinian I is Augustus of the whole empire
26 March 364–17 November 375 – Valentinian I is emperor of the west
22 November 375–15 May 392 – rule of Valentinian II

17 November 375–25 August 383 – rule of Gratian:
17 November 375–9 August 378 – Gratian is senior Augustus of the west
9 August 378–19 January 379 – Gratian is senior Augustus of the whole empire
19 January 379–25 August 383 – Gratian is senior Augustus in the west
summer 376 – large numbers of Goths arrive on the Danube River requesting asylum from the Huns, including the Thervings (led by Fritigern and Alavivus) and the Greuthungi (led by Alatheus and Saphrax)

9 August 378 – the Battle of Adrianople between the emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (Thervings, Greutungs, and non-Gothic Alans) led by Fritigern north of Adrianople

19 January 379–15 May 392 – Theodosius I is emperor in the East

15 May 392–17 January 395 – Theodosius I is emperor of the entire empire

23 January 393 – accession of Honorius:
23 January 393–15 August 423 – Honorius
20 November 423–May 425 – Joannes
23 October 425–16 March 455 – Valentinian III
17 March–31 May 455 – Petronius Maximus
9 July 455–17 October 456 – Avitus
1 April 457–2 August 461 – Majorian
19 November 461–15 August 465 – Libius Severus
12 April 467–11 July 472 – Anthemius
23 March/July 11–23 October/2 November 472 – Olybrius
c. 3 March 473–June 474 – Glycerius
June 474–28 August 475 – Julius Nepos
31 October 475–4 September 476 – Romulus Augustulus
17 January 395 – death of Theodosius in Milan

395–1 May 408 – Arcadius is emperor in the East:
1 May 408–28 July 450 – Theodosius II
450–457 – Marcian
457–474 – Leo I the Thracian
18 January 474–17 November 474 – Leo II
9 February 474–9 January 475 – Zeno
9 January 475–August 476 – Basiliscus
August 476–9 April 491 – Zeno
11 April 491–9 July 518 – Anastasius I Dicorus
late 408 – the first siege of Rome by the Goths under Alaric

December 408 – the Visigoths lift the siege of Rome and withdraw to Etruria

late 409 – the Visigoths under Alaric renew the siege of Rome

24 August 410 – the sack of Rome by the Visigoths led by King Alaric

late 410 – Alaric dies of illness at Consentia

c. 450–500 – the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain

2–16 June 455 – the second of sack of Rome by the Vandals under Geiseric

July 518 – accession of Justin I, first emperor of the Justinian Dynasty:
Justinian Dynasty (518–602)
July 518–1 August 527 – Justin I
1 August 527–13/14 November 565 – Justinian I the Great
14 November 565–5 October 578 – Justin II
5 October 578–14 August 582 – Tiberius II Constantine
14 August 582–22 November 602 – Maurice
525 – Justinian marries Theodora

526–532 – the Iberian War between the Byzantines and Sassanids over the eastern Georgian kingdom of Iberia

c. 527 (or c. 515) – Icel of Mercia:
Kings of Mercia
c. 584–c. 593 – Creoda
c. 593–c. 606 – Pybba
c. 606–c. 626 – Cearl
c. 626–655 – Penda
c. 635–642 – Eowa
c. 653–656 – Peada
655–658 – Oswiu of Northumbria
658–675 – Wulfhere
675–704 – Æthelred I
704–709 – Cœnred
709–716 – Ceolred
716 – Ceolwald
716–757 – Æthelbald
757 – Beornred
757–796 – Offa
787–796 – Ecgfrith
796–821 – Cœnwulf
1 August 527–13/14 November 565 – reign of Justinian I the Great
13–18 January 532 – Nika riots and revolt against Justinian
June 533–March 534 – the Vandalic War
535–554 – the Gothic War in Italy
540–562 – war with the Sassanid Empire
540 – Justinian I recalls Belisarius
541–542 – the plague of Justinian
544 – Belisarius returns to Italy
28 June 548 – death of Theodora
July 551 – the eastern Mediterranean hit by the 551 Beirut earthquake, with a tsunami
June 533–March 534 – the Vandalic War of Justinian, which ends in the conquest of the Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage

535–554 – the Gothic War between the Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy in Italy, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica:
535–540 – the first phase ending in the fall of the Ostrogothic capital (Ravenna)
540/541–553 – the second phase of Gothic resistance under Totila against the Byzantine general Narses
17 December 546 – sack of Rome by Totila
554 – Narses defeats an invasion by the Franks and Alamanni
541–542 – the plague of Justinian

17 December 546 – sack of Rome by the Gothic king Totila during the Gothic War of 535–554

28 June 548 – death of Theodora

550/558 – composition of the Secret History of Procopius (or in 562)

551 – last dated event in Procopius’ Wars of Justinian

spring 568 – Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy:
569 – fall of Forum Iulii (Cividale del Friuli) to the Lombards
summer 569 – the Lombards conquer Milan
570 – Lombards conquer Spoleto in Umbria
c. 571 – establishment of the Duchy of Benevento
572 – Pavia falls to the Lombards after a 3-year siege and the first capital city of the new Lombard kingdom of Italy
568 – Alboin takes the title King of Italy:
Lombard Kings in Italy
565–572 – Alboin
572–574 – Cleph
574–584 – Rule of the Dukes (Ten year interregnum)
584–590 – Authari
591–c. 616 – Agilulf
c. 616–c. 626 – Adaloald
c. 626–636 – Arioald
636–652 – Rothari
652–653 – Rodoald
653–661 – Aripert I
661–662 – Perctarit and Godepert
662–671 – Grimuald
671 – Garibald
671–688 – Perctarit
688–689 – Alahis
688–700 – Cunincpert
700–701 – Liutpert
701 – Raginpert
701–712 – Aripert II
712 – Ansprand
712–744 – Liutprand
744 – Hildeprand
744–749 – Ratchis
749–756 – Aistulf
756–774 – Desiderius
774–781 – Charlemagne
781–810 – Pepin
810–818 – Bernard
818–839 – Lothair I
839–875 – Louis II
23 November 602–4 October 610 – reign of the emperor Phocas

5 October 610 – accession of Heraclius:
Heraclian Dynasty (610–695)
5 October 610–11 February 641 – Heraclius
11 February–24/26 May 641 – Constantine III
11 February 641–September 641 – Heraklonas
September 641–15 September 668 – Constans II
15 September 668–September 685 – Constantine IV the Bearded
September 685–695 – Justinian II the Slit-nosed
June–July 626 – the siege of Constantinople of 626 by the Sassanid Persians and Avars, aided by allied Slavs with a victory for the Byzantines

672/673–26 May 735 – life of the Venerable Bede

674–678 – the First Arab Siege of Constantinople by the Umayyad Caliphate under Caliph Mu’awiya I against Emperor Constantine IV

695 – Justinian II the Slit-nosed is deposed:
Twenty Years’ Anarchy (695–717)
695–698 – Leontios
698–705 – Tiberius III Apsimar
August 705–December 711 – Justinian II the Slit-nosed
December 711–3 June 713 – Philippikos Bardanes
June 713–November 715 – Anastasios II
May 715–25 March 717 – Theodosios III
695–714 – reign of Grimoald II (Neustria)
Mayors of the Palace
695–714 – Grimoald II (Neustria)
708–714 – Grimoald II (Neustria, Burgundy)
714–716 – Theudoald (Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy)
715–741 – Charles Martel (Austrasia)
718–741 – Charles Martel (Neustria and Burgundy, Austrasia)
741–747 – Carloman (Austrasia)
741–751 – Pippin the Younger (Neustria and Burgundy)
747–751 – Pippin the Younger (Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy)
711 – Tariq ibn Ziyad (Berber client of Musa bin Nusair, the governor of Islamic Africa) invades Spain with 7,000 Berber men, while Roderic was in the north fighting the Basques:
July 711 – battle at the Guadalete River in Cádiz where king Roderic is killed
712 – Musa (governor of Ifriqiya) invades Spain with an army of 18,000
713 – Musa takes Mérida
714 – Saragossa and León conquered
716 – most of Spain conquered by Muslims
721–725 – Septimania conquered
summer 722 – battle of Covadonga and defeat of Muslims; an independent Christian state is created in the north which becomes the Kingdom of Asturias
25 March 717–18 June 741 – reign of Leo III the Isaurian
Isaurian Dynasty (717–802)
25 March 717–18 June 741 – Leo III the Isaurian
18 June 741–14 September 775 – Constantine V the Dung-named
June 741/742–2 November 743 – Artabasdos
14 September 775–8 September 780 – Leo IV the Khazar
8 September 780–August 797 – Constantine VI
August 797–31 October 802 – Irene of Athens
15 July/August 717–15 August 718 – the second Arab siege of Constantinople of 717–718 by the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik against the emperor Leo III the Isaurian

10 October 732 – the Battle of Tours between Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate

March 752 – Pippin III became the King of the Franks and the office of mayor abolished

752–768 – Pepin the Younger

768–771 – Carloman I (Burgundy, Alemannia, southern Austrasia)

9 October 768–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is King of the Franks:
772–804 – Charlemagne’s Saxon wars
773 – Charlemagne invades Italy and pushes the Lombards to Pavia, which they then besiege
773–774 – Charlemagne’s siege of Pavia
10 July 774– Charlemagne crowned King of the Lombards
10 July 774–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is King of the Lombards
787 – Charlemagne attacks the Duchy of Benevento and besieges Salerno
789 – Charlemagne deposes Tassilo and takes Bavaria
790 – Charlemagne’s campaign down the Danube to attack the Avars
25 December 800 – Charlemagne is crowned emperor by the Pope in Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome
25 December 800–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is Holy Roman Emperor
805 – Leo III consecrates Aachen Cathedral
28 January 814 – death of Charlemagne in Aachen
25 December 800 – coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome

25 December 800–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is Holy Roman Emperor

31 October 802 – accession of Nikephoros I the Logothete:
Nikephorian Dynasty (802–813)
31 October 802–26 July 811 – Nikephoros I the Logothete
26 July 811–2 October 811 – Staurakios
2 October 811–22 June 813 – Michael I Rangabe
11 July 813–25 December 820 – Leo V the Armenian

28 January 814 – death of Charlemagne

25 December 820 – accession of Michael II the Amorian:
Amorian dynasty (820–867)
25 December 820–2 October 829 – Michael II the Amorian
2 October 829–20 January 842 – Theophilos
20 January 842–23 September 867 – Michael III the Drunkard
c. 824 or 827/828 – a group of Andalusian exiles conquers Crete and establishes an independent state

June 827 – Muslim conquest of Sicily begins (June 827–902)

842–843 – the Byzantines launch a campaign to retake Crete under Theoktistos

23 September 867 – assassination of Michael III the Drunkard and accession of Basil I the Macedonian:
Macedonian Dynasty (867–1056)
867–2 August 886 – Basil I the Macedonian
886–11 May 912 – Leo VI the Wise
11 May 912–6 June 913 – Alexander
6 June 913–9 November 959 – Constantine VII the Purple-born
17 December 920–16 December 944 – Romanos I Lekapenos
9 November 959–15 March 963 – Romanos II the Purple-born
16 August 963–11 December 969 – Nikephoros II Phokas
11 December 969–10 January 976 – John I Tzimiskes
10 January 976–15 December 1025 – Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer


Saturday, April 22, 2017

Chronology from 1900–1940s

20 January 1900 – death of John Ruskin

February 1900 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Harwich

23 March 1900–1903 – Arthur Evans’ excavations on Knossus

April–12 June 1900 – Samuel Butler meets Henry Festing Jones in Genoa; Butler goes to Basel, Genoa, Casale, Pisa, Rome, Segni, Salerno, Paestum, Reggio, Messina, Taormina, Siracusa (2 May 1900), Malta, Siracusa, Palermo, Calatafimi, Albergo Centrale, Trapani, Palermo, Naples, Rome (20 May), Siena, Sammichele, Casale-Monferrato, Basel, London (12 June)

4–6 July 1900 – US Democratic National Convention of 1900, held at Convention Hall in Kansas City, Missouri; William Jennings Bryan gave a speech called “Imperialism”

29 July 1900 – Lenin left Russia for Western Europe

25 August 1900 – death of Friedrich Nietzsche

September 1900 – Samuel Butler in Wassen

October 1900 – Mark Twain returns to America

October 1900 – Samuel Butler’s translation of the Odyssey published

November 1900–April 1901 – Samuel Butler writes Erewhon Revisited

22 November 1900 – death of Arthur Sullivan

30 November 1900 – death of Oscar Wilde

22 January 1901 – death of Queen Victoria

22 January 1901–6 May 1910 – reign of Edward VII

March–September 1901 – Theodore Roosevelt is Vice President of the United States under William McKinley (president from 4 March 1897–14 September 1901)

April–24 June 1901 – Samuel Butler travels to Basel, Casale-Monferrato, Pisa (where he joins Henry Festing Jones in May), Rome, Naples, Palermo, Trapani, Palermo, Catania, Taormina, Aci Reale, Messina, Naples, Rome, Ancona, Pesaro, Rimini, Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Casale-Monferrato, London

summer 1901 – Bram Stoker attends the Wagner Cycle at Bayreuth?

22 July 1901 – première of Richard Wagner’s play Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman) at Bayreuth

August 1901–April 1902 – Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel The Hound of the Baskervilles serialised in The Strand Magazine

September 1901 – Samuel Butler in Basel and Wassen

14 September 1901–4 March 1909 – Theodore Roosevelt is 26th President of the United States

11 October 1901 – Samuel Butler publishes Erewhon Revisited

28 March–19 May 1902 – Samuel Butler travels to Paris, Casale-Monferrato, Rome, Naples, Palermo (12 April), Naples (11 May), Calis, London (19 May)

April 1902–April 1903 – Lenin moved to London

18 June 1902 – death of Samuel Butler at a nursing home in St John’s Wood Road, London

21 June 1902 – Samuel Butler’s funeral near Woking; his ashes buried at Woking

19 July 1902 – Henry Irving’s farewell performance at the Lyceum

2 September 1902 – Rudyard Kipling and his family move to a home called Bateman’s, in Burwash, East Sussex, England

December 1902–7 November 1913 – Alfred Russel Wallace moves to a small house called the Old Orchard at Parkstone in Dorset

January 1903 – Albert Einstein marries Mileva Marić

1903 – the posthumous publication of Samuel Butler’s The Way of All Flesh

April 1903 – Lenin and his wife left London for Switzerland

30 April 1903 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Dante at the Theatre Royal

October 1903–March 1904 – Henry Irving’s 8th American tour

17 December 1903 – the first airplane flight near at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina of the Wright Flyer, the first powered, heavier-than-air machine, by the Wright brothers

8–9 February 1904 – Japanese fleet under Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō attacks Russian fleet at Port Arthur, Korea

8 February 1904–5 September 1905 – Russo-Japanese War between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea; Russian defeat

8 November 1904 – United States presidential election of 1904; Theodore Roosevelt (who succeeded McKinley in September 1901) elected in his own right

winter 1904 – Henry Irving’s final provincial tour

22 January 1905 – unarmed demonstrators in St Petersburg, Russia led by Father Georgy Gapon fired on by soldiers as they marched to the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II

22 January 1905–16 June 1907 – Russian Revolution of 1905

11 August 1905 – the UK Aliens Act 1905 given royal assent, which introduced immigration controls and registration

13 October 1905 – death of Sir Henry Irving

20 October 1905 – public funeral of Sir Henry Irving

1906 – Bram Stoker suffers a stroke

1907–1910 – Thomas Edward Lawrence (Laurence of Arabia) studied History at Jesus College, Oxford

1907 – Bram Stoker moves to 4 Durham Place from 18 St Leonard’s Terrace

November 1906 – The Vicar of Wakefield opens at the Prince of Wales Theatre; Stoker is business manager

1908 – Albert Einstein appointed lecturer at the University of Bern

9 June 1908 – King Edward VII of England meets Tsar Nicholas II of Russia on the Russian Imperial Yacht Standart in the Bay of Reval

July 1908 – the Young Turk Revolution of the Ottoman Empire; this restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and created multi-party politics in the Ottoman parliament

5 October 1908 – de jure independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire proclaimed in Tarnovo by Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria (who then took the title of “Tsar”)

6 October 1908 – Austria-Hungaria publishes the annexation of Bosnia Herzegovina proclamation

1909 – Thomas Edward Lawrence sets out alone on a three-month walking tour of crusader castles in Ottoman Syria

1909 – Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić move to University of Zürich; Einstein is professor in theoretical physics

1909 – Arthur Conan Doyle moves to Windlesham Manor, Crowborough, East Sussex

7–19 April 1909 – the Great Powers sign amendments to the Treaty of Berlin (of 1878) to settle the Bosnia Herzegovina crisis

24 June 1909 – Bram Stoker signs the contract for The Lady of the Shroud with William Heinemann

July 1909 – Bram Stoker published The Lady of the Shroud

6 May 1910 – death of Edward VII

December 1910 – Thomas Edward Lawrence sails for Beirut to work in an archaeological expedition under D. G. Hogarth

1911 – Bram Stoker moves to No. 26 St George’s Square, Pimlico

3 March–12 June 1911 – Bram Stoker writes The Lair of the White Worm

April 1911 – Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić move to Prague, where Einstein holds a teaching position at the Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague

November 1911 – Bram Stoker published The Lair of the White Worm

25 November 1911 – Laura Marx and her husband Paul Lafargue commit suicide

1912–1913 – Thomas Edward Lawrence stays at Carchemish for four excavation seasons

1912–1914 – Albert Einstein professor of theoretical physics at the ETH Zurich

14–15 April 1912 – night of the sinking of the RMS Titanic; Titanic sank at 2.20 am on 15 April

20 April 1912 – death of Bram Stoker at No. 26 St George’s Square, Pimlico, London

July 1912 – Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić move back to Zurich

8 October 1912–30 May 1913 – First Balkan War between the Balkan League (Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) and the Ottoman Empire

5 November 1912 – United States presidential election of 1912; the candidates were President William Howard Taft (Republican Party); Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive Party / “Bull Moose Party”); Woodrow Wilson (Democrat Party)

29 June–10 August 1913 – Second Balkan War between Bulgaria and Serbia, Greece and Romania; it ends in defeat for Bulgaria

July 1913 – Max Planck and Walther Nernst invite Einstein to come to Berlin

10 August 1913 – Treaty of Bucharest

1913–1914 – Roosevelt–Rondon-Cheerie-Jodi O’Rodio Scientific Expedition, led by Theodore Roosevelt and Cândido Rondon, to the Rio Roosevelt in a remote area of the Brazilian Amazon basin

January 1914 – Woolley and Thomas Edward Lawrence co-opted by the British military as an archaeological smokescreen for a British military survey of the Negev Desert

March–May 1914 – Thomas Edward Lawrence works again at Carchemish

April 1914 – publication of the short story collection Dracula’s Guest; Florence moves to 4 Kinnerton Studios, Knightsbridge

April 1914 – Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić move to Berlin; Einstein is director at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (1914–1932) and professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin

1914–1932 – Albert Einstein is director at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics and professor at the Humboldt University of Berlin

late 1914 – Mileva Marić returns to Zürich with Albert Einstein’s sons and separates from Einstein

October 1916 – Thomas Edward Lawrence (Laurence of Arabia) sent to work with Hashemite forces in the Arabian Hejaz

8–16 March 1917 – February Revolution in Petrograd, mass demonstrations and armed clashes with police; on 12 March the Russian army sides with the revolutionaries. Tsar Nicholas II abdicated and the Russian Council of Ministers was replaced by a Russian Provisional Government under Prince Georgy Lvov

15 March 1917 – abdication of Tsar Nicholas II

6 July 1917 – fall of Aqaba

7 November 1917–25 October 1922 – the Russian Civil War

7 November 1917 – the October Revolution (Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution), the armed insurrection in Petrograd on 25 October 1917 (under the Old Julian calendar); the Winter Palace (the seat of the Provisional government in Petrograd, capital of Russia) captured

1918–1920 – Ronald Syme attends New Plymouth Boys’ High School, New Plymouth, Taranaki, New Zealand

3 March 1918 – the peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, signed by new Bolshevik government of Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire) to end Russia's participation in World War I

14 May 1918 – death of James Gordon Bennett Jr. (10 May 1841–14 May 1918)

July 1918 – Oswald Spengler publishes volume 1 of Decline of the West (Der Untergang des Abendlandes)

17 July 1918 – execution of Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) at Yekaterinburg

autumn 1918–summer 1921 – James Hilton attends Christ’s College, Cambridge, and graduates with a history degree

1 October 1918 – Laurence of Arabia enters Damascus around 9 am

29 October–9 November 1918 – the first stage of the November Revolution, a civil conflict in the Germany at the end of the First World War

3 November 1918–11 August 1919 – second stage of the November Revolution, a civil conflict in the Germany at the end of the First World War

9 November 1918 – Wilhelm II abdicates as emperor of Germany while at the Imperial Army headquarters in Spa, Belgium

9 November 1918 – proclamation of the German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann; Friedrich Ebert assumes the chancellery

11 November 1918 – First World War ended

14 December 1918 – the UK general election of 1918:
Party | Leader | Seats
Coalition Government
Coalition Conservative | Bonar Law | 332
Coalition Liberal | David Lloyd George | 127
Coalition National Democratic | George Nicoll Barnes | 9
Coalition Labour | 4

Labour | William Adamson | 57
Liberal | H. H. Asquith | 36
Conservative | Bonar Law | 47
Sinn Féin | Éamon de Valera | 73
Independent Labour | 2
4–15 January 1919 – the Spartacist uprising (January uprising), a power struggle between the moderate Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) led by Friedrich Ebert and the radical communists of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), led by Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg (founders of the Spartacist League)

10 January–7 June 1919 – John Maynard Keynes is principal Treasury representative at the Versailles Peace Conference

15 January 1919 – execution of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht

18 January 1919–21 January 1920 – Versailles Peace Conference (Paris Peace Conference) which ends with the inaugural General Assembly of the League of Nations on 21 January 1920; the treaties:
28 June 1919 – Treaty of Versailles with Germany
10 September 1919 – Treaty of Saint-Germain with Austria
27 November 1919 – Treaty of Neuilly with Bulgaria
4 June 1920 – Treaty of Trianon with Hungary
10 August 1920 – Treaty of Sèvres with Turkey (revised by the Treaty of Lausanne on 24 July 1923).
January–May 1919 – Laurence of Arabia attends Paris Peace Conference

14 February 1919 – Albert Einstein divorces his first wife Mileva Marić (19 December 1875–4 August 1948), after being separated for five years

18 June 1919 – Germany given ultimatum to sign Treaty of Versailles

21 June 1919 – the scuttling of the German fleet by order of Admiral Ludwig von Reuter at the Royal Navy’s base at Scapa Flow, Scotland; the German High Seas Fleet had been interned under the terms of the Armistice

22 June 1919 – the German Reichstag ratifies the Versailles Treaty

28 June 1919 – the Versailles Treaty is signed in the Hall of Mirrors in France

20 July 1919 – birth of Edmund Percival Hillary

11 August 1919 – the Weimar Constitution is announced

25 August 1919 – Ludwig Wittgenstein returns to his family in Vienna

October 1919 – Robert Graves goes up to Oxford University to read English Language and Literature

16 November 1919 – the army of right-wing former admiral Miklós Horthy marches into Budapest and takes control of Hungary

December 1919 – John Maynard Keynes publishes The Economic Consequences of the Peace

1920–1934 – Ludwig von Mises holds a private seminar (Privatseminar) in his office at the Kammer in Vienna, held fortnightly in university term, on Fridays from 7 to 10 p.m.

1920–1926 – Ludwig Wittgenstein works as a school teacher; Wittgenstein given his first job as a primary school teacher in Trattenbach

1920 – Frank P. Ramsey won a scholarship to study mathematics in Trinity College, Cambridge

January 1920–July 1921 – the US Recession of 1920–1921

1 March 1920–15 October 1944 – Miklós Horthy is regent of the Kingdom of Hungary

April 1920 – Ludwig von Mises publishes his essay “Die Wirtschaftsrechnung im sozialistischen Gemeinwesen” [Economic Calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth] in Archiv fur Sozialwissenschaften, a paper that starts the Socialist Economic Calculation Debate

August 1920 – Bertrand Russell travels to Russia as part of an official delegation sent by the British government

August 1920–August 1921 – Bertrand Russell in China

1921 – Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung is published in Annalen der Naturphilosophische

1921–1922 – Ronald Syme attends Victoria University College of Wellington, enrolled in a BA course with majors in Latin and French

4 March 1921–2 August 1923 – Warren G. Harding is 29th President of the United States

April 1921 – Frank P. Ramsey elected as a new member of the Apostles

April–25 October 1921 – the 1921 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition (consisting of Charles Howard-Bury, Harold Raeburn, Alexander Kellas, George Mallory, Guy Bullock, Sandy Wollaston, Alexander Heron, Henry Morshead and Edward Wheeler)

4 May 1921 – the Federal Reserve Bank of New York cuts the discount rate from 7% to 6.5%

May 1921–November 1921 – the severe depreciation in the exchange value of the mark as the German government begins paying large cash reparations payments

5 May 1921 – London Ultimatum

June 1921–January 1924 – hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic

31 July 1921 – the Treaty of Trianon effective, the peace agreement signed 4 June 1920 between the Allies and Hungary

2 August 1921 – John Maynard Keynes publishes A Treatise on Probability

23 August 1921 – accession of Faisal I bin Hussein as king of Iraq:
Kings of Iraq
23 August 1921–8 September 1933 – Faisal I bin Hussein
8 September 1933–4 April 1939 – Ghazi bin Faisal
4 April 1939–14 July 1958 – Faisal II of Iraq
14 July 1958 – the 14 July Revolution (the 1958 Iraqi coup d’état) overthrowing the Hashemite monarchy established by King Faisal I in 1921
26 August 1921 – Bertrand Russell arrives back in England

December 1921 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) leaves Eton

1922 – Moritz Schlick assumes the chair of Naturphilosophie at the University of Vienna (previously held by Ludwig Boltzmann and Ernst Mach)

28 February 1922 – Egypt recognised as sovereign state by the British

4 March 1922 – release date of the German Expressionist horror film Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens (Nosferatu: A Symphony of Horror), directed by F. W. Murnau

10 April–19 May 1922 – the Genoa Economic and Financial Conference, held in Genoa, Italy, to plan the restoration of Europe after World War I; this is attended by John Maynard Keynes

July 1922 – David Lloyd George moves into Bron-y-de house, in Churt, Surrey

12 July 1922 – Germany demands a moratorium on reparation payments

August 1922 – Laurence of Arabia enlisted in the Royal Air Force as an aircraftman

September 1922 – Ludwig Wittgenstein moves to teach in a secondary school in Hassbach; in November 1922, Wittgenstein moves to teach at a primary school at Puchberg in the Schneeberg mountains

October 1922 – Lydia Lopokova moves into a flat at 41 Gordon Square near 46 Gordon Square (Keynes’ London home)

19 October 1922 – the Carlton Club meeting, formal meeting of Conservative MPs vote to end the Coalition with the Liberal Party under David Lloyd George

19 October 1922 – David Lloyd George leaves office as British PM (PM from 6 December 1916–19 October 1922):
23 October 1922–22 May 1923 – Andrew Bonar Law (Conservative)
23 May 1923–16 January 1924 – Stanley Baldwin (Conservative)
22 January 1924–4 November 1924 – Ramsay MacDonald (Labour)
4 November 1924–5 June 1929 – Stanley Baldwin
November 1922 – Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung is published in an English translation as Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus

November 1922–July 1927 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) in Burma working in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma

November 1922 – the Swedish Academy of Sciences awards Albert Einstein the 1921 Nobel Prize for Physics

26 November 1922 – Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon open the tomb of Tutankhamun

27 December 1922 – France occupies the Ruhr to force payment of war reparations from Germany in kind

1923 – Frank P. Ramsey graduates from Cambridge

1923–1924 – Ronald Syme becomes assistant lecturer in Classics at the Auckland University College; in late 1924 he graduates with Double First Class Honours in Latin and French

11 January 1923 – the Occupation of the Ruhr by France and Belgium between 1923 and 1925 when Weimar Republic fails to continue its reparation payments in the aftermath of World War I

March 1923–May 1924 – Friedrich Hayek visits America

2 August 1923–4 March 1929 – Calvin Coolidge (Republican) is 30th President of the United States

September 1923 – Frank P. Ramsey visits Wittgenstein in Vienna

8 November 1923 – the Beer Hall Putsch, a failed coup attempt by the Adolf Hitler with Erich Ludendorff, to seize power in Munich, Bavaria

6 December 1923 – the United Kingdom general election of 1923. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 258
Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 191
Liberal | H. H. Asquith | 158
Nationalist | Joseph Devlin | 3.
After the 1923 election, the Conservatives had lost their majority. When they lost a vote of confidence in January 1924 King George V calls on MacDonald to form a minority Labour government, with the support of the Liberals

11 December 1923 – John Maynard Keynes publishes A Tract on Monetary Reform

1924–1933 – Karl Polanyi is senior editor of the Der Österreichische Volkswirt (The Austrian Economist) magazine in Vienna

January 1924 – end of the hyperinflation in the Weimar Republic

21 January 1924 – Stanley Baldwin (Conservative) defeated in a vote of confidence

21 January 1924 – death of Vladimir Lenin

22 January 1924–4 November 1924 – Ramsay MacDonald (Labour) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

12 February 1924 – Howard Carter opens the sarcophagus of king Tutankhamun

April–11 June 1924 – the 1924 British Mount Everest expedition (with Charles G. Bruce, George Mallory, Howard Somervell, Edward Norton, Geoffrey Bruce, George Ingle Finch and Andrew Irvine); the second expedition trying to ascend Mount Everest, with three failed attempts. On 8 June, George Mallory and Andrew Irvine disappeared on the third attempt

May 1924 – Friedrich Hayek admitted into Mises’ Privatseminar in Vienna

26 May 1924 – enactment of the US Immigration Act of 1924 (or Johnson–Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, and Asian Exclusion Act)

June 1924 – the premiere of Hamilton Deane’s play Dracula at the Grand Theatre, Derby

13 July 1924 – the death of Alfred Marshall (26 July 1842–13 July 1924)

July 1924 – Lytton Strachey and Dora Carrington move to Ham Spray House, near Marlborough, Wiltshire

29 August 1924 – the Dawes Plan agreed by Reichstag

September 1924 – John Maynard Keynes and Lydia Lopokova at Tilton house, South Downs near Lewes

23 October 1924 – the Chinese warlord Feng Yuxiang seizes Beijing in a coup

25 October 1924 – the Daily Mail reports a purported letter from Grigory Zinoviev (President of the Communist International) to the British representative on the Comintern Executive

29 October 1924 – United Kingdom general election held. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 412
Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 151
Liberal | H. H. Asquith | 40
Constitutionalist | - | 7
Communist | Albert Inkpin | 1.
Churchill stands as MP for Epping for the Constitutionalist party

29 October 1924–5 July 1945 – Winston Churchill is Member of Parliament for Epping

4 November 1924–5 June 1929 – Stanley Baldwin (Conservative) is British Prime Minister

5 November 1924 – the soldiers of the Chinese warlord Feng Yuxiang expel Puyi, the last Qing emperor of China, from the Forbidden City

6 November 1924–4 June 1929 – Winston Churchill is Chancellor of the Exchequer

6 November 1924 – John Maynard Keynes delivers the Sidney Ball lecture at Oxford university on “The End of Laissez-Faire

winter 1924–1936 – the Vienna Circle, a meeting of logical positivists, is held in weekly discussions. The phases were as follows:
1921–1924 – irregular private phase with Hans Hahn and Moritz Schlick
1924–1928 – the Schlick Circle (non-public phase of the Vienna Circle)
1928–1934 – Verein Ernst Mach
The circle broke up from 1934 to 1936

20 December 1924 – Adolf Hitler released from Landsberg Prison in Germany

1 January 1925 – Edwin Hubble announces his discovery that galaxies exist outside the Milky Way

3 January 1925 – Mussolini gives a speech in the Italian Chamber of Deputies; this marks the beginning of fascist dictatorship

12 March 1925 – death of Sun Yat-sen (Premier of the Kuomintang of China 10 October 1919–12 March 1925), which leaves a vacuum in the Kuomintang

3 May 1925 – Oswald Mosley gives a speech on the Birmingham Proposals at the Birmingham Town Hall

13 May 1925 – the UK Gold Standard Act 1925

20 May 1925 – C. S. Lewis elected to a fellowship in Magdalen College, Oxford

summer 1925 – Ludwig Wittgenstein visits England and stays with Keynes in Cambridge and Eccles in Manchester

July 1925 – French and Belgian troops evacuate the Ruhr

10 July 1925 – in Dayton, Tennessee, the “Monkey Trial” of John Thomas Scopes (a high school science teacher) accused of teaching evolution in violation of a Tennessee state law begins; on July 21, Scopes is found guilty of teaching evolution and fined $100; in 1927, Tennessee Supreme Court overturns the verdict

26 July 1925 – death of William Jennings Bryan in Dayton, Tennessee

4 August 1925 – John Maynard Keynes marries Lydia Lopokova at St Pancreas registry office; they take Oatlands house, near Iford for the summer

8 August 1925 – birth of the ancient historian Ernst Badian in Austria

August 1925 – John Maynard Keynes publishes The Economic Consequences of Mr Churchill

August 1925 – Oswald Mosley publishes Revolution by Reason

September 1925 – John Maynard Keynes and Lydia Lopokova visit Russia for two weeks; they visit Leningrad and Moscow; they return to England to live at 46 Gordon Square, Keynes’ London home

October 1925–1927 – Ronald Syme educated at Oriel College, Oxford

October 1925 – John Maynard Keynes decides to take Tilton house near Lewes

October 1925 – J. R. R. Tolkien appointed Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon, with a fellowship at Pembroke College, Oxford

3 October 1925 – birth of Gore Vidal in the cadet hospital of the U.S. Military Academy, at West Point, New York

November 1925 – Henry Watson Fowler moves to Hinton, St George, Somerset

December 1925 – John Maynard Keynes publishes A Short View of Russia

10 December 1925 – George Bernard Shaw awarded Nobel Prize

1926 – from 1926 Ludwig Wittgenstein takes part in discussions of the Vienna Circle

1926 – Frank Plumpton Ramsey becomes university lecturer in mathematics at King’s College, Cambridge; later he becomes Director of Studies in mathematics

17 January 1926 – Ayn Rand (Alisa Rosenbaum) leaves Russia for New York

19 February 1926 – Ayn Rand arrives in New York

3 March 1926 – John Maynard Keynes takes possession of Tilton house, South Downs near Lewes which he rents in a 21 year lease

20 March 1926 – the Canton Coup (or Zhongshan Incident), the purge of Communists in the Chinese Nationalist army in Guangzhou by Chiang Kai-shek

4–13 May 1926 – the 1926 general strike in the United Kingdom, called by the General Council of the Trades Union Congress (TUC) opposing the British government’s wage reduction for 1.2 million locked-out coal miners

summer 1926 – Ludwig Lachmann visits the University of Zurich and becomes interested in Austrian economics

5 June 1926 – Chiang Kai-shek named commander-in-chief of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army

July 1926 – Hogarth Press publishes The End of Laissez-Faire by John Maynard Keynes

25 September 1926 – John Maynard Keynes meets with David Lloyd George at Churt with 14 others to discuss a new Liberal radical program

October 1926 – Anthony Blunt arrives at Cambridge

8 November 1926 – arrest of Antonio Gramsci by Italian fascists

December 1926 – Piero Sraffa publishes “The Laws of Returns under Competitive Conditions” in the Economic Journal (vol. 36, 1926)

3–14 December 1926 – Agatha Christie disappears from her house in Styles, Sunningdale, Berkshire; she is found on 14 December 1926 at the Swan Hydropathic Hotel in Harrogate, Yorkshire

7 January 1927 – the first transatlantic telephone call from New York City to London

10 January 1927 – release date of the German expressionist science fiction film Metropolis, directed by Fritz Lang

14 February 1927 – Deane Hamilton’s play Dracula opens in London at the Little Theatre

April 1927 – Chiang Kai-shek makes Nanjing the new Kuomintang capital of China

April 1927 – Nicholas Kaldor arrived in London to study at the LSE; Kaldor enrols for a BSc. in economics from October 1927

4 May 1927 – filing of articles of incorporation of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)

20–21 May 1927 – Charles Lindbergh makes the first non-stop trans-Atlantic flight from New York to Paris in the monoplane Spirit of St. Louis

July 1927 – Piero Sraffa arrived in London; Sraffa accepts an offer by Keynes to take a lectureship at Cambridge university

1 August 1927–22 December 1936 – first phase of Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC)

September 1927 – Bertrand Russell and Dora Russell (Dora Black) rent Telegraph House at Harting near Petersfield in Hampshire; they set up an experimental school at Beacon Hill; Russell involved from 1927 to 1932

October 1927 – Anthony Blunt begins the study of modern languages

October 1927 – opening of the Broadway adaptation of Dracula at the Fulton Theatre (New York) starring Bela Lugosi; it runs until 19 May 1928

6 October 1927 – the release date of The Jazz Singer, the first feature-length motion picture with synchronized sound, directed by Alan Crosland and produced by Warner Bros

15 February 1928 – death of Herbert Henry Asquith

7 March – beginning of the Shakhty Trial in the Soviet Union; Soviet police arrest engineers in the town of Shakhty, who are accused of sabotaging the Soviet economy

April 1928 – John Maynard Keynes visits Russia

April 1928–December 1929 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) in Paris

3 May–11 May 1928 – the Jinan incident, armed conflict between the Japanese Army (with Northern Chinese warlords) and the Kuomintang’s southern army in Jinan, the capital of Shandong

May 1928 – Anthony Blunt elected to the Cambridge Apostles

July 1928 – Joan Robinson arrives in London from India

21 July 1928 – death of Ellen Terry

27 August 1928 – the Kellogg–Briand Pact (or Pact of Paris) is signed by Germany, France, and the United States, a treaty that outlaws aggressive warfare

1 October 1928 – Stalin announces the First Five Year Plan

10 October 1928 – Chiang Kai-shek becomes director of the Chinese State Council

6 November 1928 – the US presidential election of 1928, between the Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover (Republican) and New York Governor Al Smith (Democratic)

7 December 1928 – birth of Noam Chomsky

1929 – Ronald Syme elected tutor and fellow in ancient history at Trinity College, Oxford

1929–1931 – the Untouchables under Eliot Ness work to end crimes of Al Capone by enforcing Prohibition laws

January 1929 – Ludwig Wittgenstein returned to Cambridge

10 January 1929–8 May 1930 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (Hergé) story Tintin in the Land of the Soviets

February 1929 – Trotsky deported from the Soviet Union; he lives in Turkey from 1929 to 1933; in France from 1933 to 1935; in Norway from 1935 to 1936; in Mexico from 1936 to 1940

14 February 1929 – the Saint Valentine’s Day Massacre in Chicago

March 1929 – Douglas Cole’s The Next Ten Years in British Social and Economic Policy is published

March 1929 – Lloyd George published a Liberal program in the “Orange Book – We Can Conquer Unemployment” drawn up by Keynes

4 March 1929 – Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as 31st President of the United States (president from 4 March 1929–4 March 1933)

7–22 March 1929 – George Orwell admitted to the Hôpital Cochin, Paris from bronchitis

15 April 1929 – Ayn Rand marries Frank O’Connor

10 May 1929 – the UK Parliament dissolved

10 May 1929 – Hubert Henderson and John Maynard Keynes publish Can Lloyd George do it?, a pamphlet in support of the Liberal campaign under the leadership of David Lloyd George

16 May 1929 – the 1st Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) for the best films of 1927 and 1928, held at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles, California

30 May 1929 – 1929 United Kingdom general election was held; Winston Churchill stands as MP for Unionists. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 260
Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 287
Liberal | David Lloyd George | 59.
The UK Labour Party under Ramsay MacDonald wins 287 seats, but fails to secure a majority and forms a minority Labour government with Liberals

30 May 1929 – Cynthia (Cimmie) Mosley elected Labour MP for Stoke-on-Trent

5 June 1929–7 June 1935 – Ramsay MacDonald is British Prime Minister:
24 August–27 October 1931 – Ramsay MacDonald forms a National Government with Conservatives, Liberals and a new National Labour group
27 October 1931 – United Kingdom general election
5 November 1931–7 June 1935 – the Second National Ministry in office in the UK
7 June 1935–28 May 1937 – Stanley Baldwin is Prime Minister of Britain
7 June 1929 – a Committee headed by American industrialist Owen D. Young submits its first report with the Young Plan, a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I

August 1929–March 1933 – the contractionary phase of the US Great Depression

15–17 September 1929 – the First Conference on the Epistemology of the Exact Sciences of logical positivists, held in Prague; this marks the international establishment of the Vienna circle

October 1929 – publication of the official manifesto of the Vienna Circle called Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung. Der Wiener Kreis (The Scientific Conception of the World. The Vienna Circle)

October 1929 – Kim Philby goes to Trinity College, Cambridge to read History and Economics

October 1929 – Winston Churchill in New York

October 1929 – A. J. Ayer goes up to Christ Church College, Oxford

October 1929 – Joan Robinson and Austin Robinson return to Cambridge; from 1929–1930 Joan Robinson attends Piero Sraffa’s lectures

24 October 1929 – “Black Thursday” on the New York stock exchange, the beginning of the US Stock Market Crash of 1929

29 October 1929 – “Black Tuesday” on the New York stock exchange, the Wall Street Crash of 1929

5 November 1929 – appointment of the Macmillan Committee (the Committee on Finance and Industry) composed of Hugh Pattison Macmillan (chairman), Ernest Bevin, Lord Bradbury, R. H. Brand, Theodore Gregory, John Maynard Keynes, and Reginald McKenna

January 1930 – second Hague Conference in which the Young Plan is adopted

24 January 1930 – the UK Labour government announces the establishment of the Economic Advisory Council

19 January 1930 – death of Frank Plumpton Ramsey

30 March 1930–30 May 1932 – Heinrich Brüning is Chancellor of Germany

21 April 1930 – release of the US movie All Quiet on the Western Front, adapted from a novel by Erich Maria Remarque

May 1930 – Oswald Mosley resigns from his ministerial position within the government of Ramsay MacDonald

June 1930–August 1932 – the Sino-Tibetan War between Tibet (under the 13th Dalai Lama) and Chinese warlords Ma Bufang and Liu Wenhui and Chiang Kai-shek (leader of the Republic of China)

17 June 1930 – the US Tariff Act of 1930 (known as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff) signed into law

30 June 1930 – French troops leave the Rhineland ahead of schedule

7 July 1930 – death of Arthur Conan Doyle in his house in Crowborough, East Sussex

28 July 1930 – the Canadian federal election of 1930; Richard Bedford Bennett’s Conservative Party wins a majority government, and defeats the Liberal Party led by Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King

September 1930–April 1931 – Kurdish revolt in Iraq

October 1930 – Guy Burgess arrives at Trinity College, Cambridge

October 1930 – John Maynard Keynes published “Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren” in The Nation and Athenaeum

October 1930 – John Maynard Keynes’ A Treatise on Money published

December 1930–January 1931 – Albert Einstein visited America

1931 – Rudolf Carnap accepts a chair of natural philosophy at the German University in Prague, Czechoslovakia

January 1931 – the future Edward VIII first meets Wallis Simpson, an American divorcée

January 1931 – Friedrich Hayek arrives in London; he gives four lectures at the London School of Economics (LSE) that are later published as Prices and Production (1931)

30 January 1931 – Charlie Chaplin’s silent film City Lights is released

14 February 1931 – release date of the famous Universal picture Dracula (12 February 1931 in New York), starring Bela Lugosi

3 March 1931 – death of Frank Russell; Bertrand Russell becomes the third Earl Russell

4 May 1931 – Piero Sraffa appointed as Marshall Librarian at Cambridge

11 May 1931 – the Austrian bank Kreditanstalt collapses

30 May 1931–18 July 1931 – John Maynard Keynes in America

summer 1931 – John Kenneth Galbraith arrives in Berkeley, California, to pursue a Master of Science and PhD in agricultural economics

20 June 1931 – Herbert Hoover announced the Hoover Moratorium (1 year moratorium on German debt payments), approved by Congress and, after some initial resistance by France, by 15 other nations

13 July 1931 – report of the Macmillan Committee on Finance and Industry published (called the Macmillan Report), largely written by Keynes

24 August 1931 – Ramsay MacDonald forms a National Government with Conservatives, Liberals and a new National Labour group

September 1931 – Friedrich Hayek publishes Prices and Production (1931)

3 September 1931–20 October 1932 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story Tintin in America in the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle

18 September 1931 – the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, in which the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invades Manchuria after the Mukden Incident; the invasion occurs from 18 September 1931–27 February 1932

20 September 1931 – Britain abandoned the gold standard

October 1931 – Donald Maclean arrives at Trinity College, Cambridge

17 October 1931 – Al Capone convicted on five tax evasion charges and sentenced to 11 years in prison

27 October 1931 – United Kingdom general election held. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
National Government
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 470
Liberal | Herbert Samuel | 33
Liberal National | John Simon | 35
National Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 13
National | - | 4

Labour | Arthur Henderson | 46
Ind. Labour Party | Fenner Brockway | 3
Opposition Liberal | David Lloyd George | 4
Nationalist | Joseph Devlin | 2
New Party | Oswald Mosley | 0.
Churchill stands as MP for Epping for the Conservative party; the opposition Liberal party under David Lloyd George is reduced to 4 seats

5 November 1931–7 June 1935 – the Second National Ministry in office in the UK, which was coalition of National Labour, the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, and the Liberal National Party

21 November 1931 – US release date of the famous Universal Pictures movie Frankenstein, starring Boris Karloff

13 December 1931 – John Maynard Keynes addresses a socialist group on “The Dilemma of Modern Socialism”

1932–1933 – Paul M. Sweezy in London at the London School of Economics for the academic year; he travelled to Vienna during breaks

1932 – Nicholas Kaldor appointed to an Assistant Lectureship at the LSE

1932–1934 – John Cairncross spends two years at the Sorbonne in Paris

1932–1933 – the Soviet famine of major grain-producing areas in the Soviet Union; the Holodomor (or the Great Famine of the Ukraine) is part of this

21 January 1932 – death of Giles Lytton Strachey from stomach cancer

January 1932 – John Maynard Keynes visits Hamburg, Germany and Berlin; Keynes meets Heinrich Brüning

March 1932 – Piero Sraffa publishes his article “Dr. Hayek on Money and Capital” in the Economic Journal

1 March 1932 – Puyi, the last Qing emperor of China, installed by Japanese as the ruler of Manchukuo (the Japanese puppet state); he was officially crowned the emperor of Manchukuo in 1934

20 May 1932–25 July 1934 – Engelbert Dollfuss Chancellor of Austria

1 June 1932–17 November 1932 – Franz von Papen is Chancellor of Germany

16 June–9 July 1932 – Lausanne Conference; the Western nations agree to suspend German reparations payments. Even though it was rejected by US Congress, the pre-Nazi German government still had enough power to refuse to make any more debt repayments

June 1932 – final exams of A. J. Ayer before his graduation with a Bachelor of Arts from Christ Church College, Oxford; Ayer appointed to a lectureship in philosophy

June 1932 – A. J. Ayer meets Ludwig Wittgenstein in Whewell’s Court, Trinity College, Cambridge

6 June 1932 – the US Revenue Act of 1932 signed into law, which raises tax rates across the board

21 July 1932 – Emergency Relief and Construction Act enacted by Herbert Hoover

August 1932–1933 – Willard Van Orman Quine travels in Europe, meets the Polish logicians Stanislaw Lesniewski and Alfred Tarski, members of the Vienna Circle including Rudolf Carnap, and A. J. Ayer

September 1932 – Joseph Schumpeter moves to the United States and takes up a professorship at Harvard University

23 September 1932 – Ibn Saud united his dominions into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with himself as its king

October 1932 – Anthony Blunt elected a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge

October 1932–1 March 1933 – Willard Van Orman Quine visits Vienna

19 October 1932 – a letter signed by Friedrich Hayek, Lionel Robbins and others is printed in the Times rejecting government spending

November 1932 – Guy Burgess elected to the Apostles

8 November 1932 – the US presidential election of 1932

25 November 1932 – A. J. Ayer marries Renée Lees

December 1932 – the US Congress rejects the Allied war debt reduction plan agreed on at the Lausanne Conference

December 1932–March 1933 – Alfred Jules Ayer attended meetings of the Vienna Circle in Vienna, Austria

3 December 1932–28 January 1933 – Kurt von Schleicher is Chancellor of Germany

8 December 1932–8 February 1934 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story Cigars of the Pharaoh in the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle

22 December 1932 – release date of the Universal Studios film The Mummy, directed by Karl Freund and starring Boris Karloff

1933–1937 – Paul M. Sweezy at Harvard for a doctorate degree

1933 – Anthony Blunt visits the Soviet Union

9 January 1933 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Down and Out in Paris and London

30 January 1933 – Paul von Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as chancellor of Germany

February–March 1933 – Albert Einstein visits America

27 February 1933 – in Germany the Reichstag building was set on fire

28 February 1933 – Paul von Hindenburg passes the Reichstag Fire Decree

spring 1933 – Ludwig Lachmann comes to England to the LSE from Germany

1 March–April 1933 – Willard Van Orman Quine visits Prague to see Rudolf Carnap

March 1933 – end of the contractionary phase of the US Great Depression

March 1933 – the Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss dissolved Austria’s National Assembly and ruled by emergency decree

c. March 1933 – Joan Robinson publishes The Economics of Imperfect Competition

2 March–May 1933 – the failed British Mount Everest expedition (of Lawrence Wager, Percy Wyn-Harris, E. E. Shipton, Hugh Ruttledge, C. G. Crawford and F. S. Smythe) attempts to climb Everest

4 March 1933 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt became President of the United States (in office from 4 March 1933–12 April 1945)

5 March 1933 – Federal elections held in Germany; National Socialist German Workers Party 43.91% of the vote; Social Democratic Party of Germany 18.25%; Communist Party of Germany 12.32%; Centre Party 11.25%

6 March 1933 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt declares a four-day banking holiday in the United States

9 March 1933 – the US Emergency Banking Act (the Emergency Banking Relief Act) is passed by the United States Congress

13 March 1933 – the Institute for Social Research or Institut für Sozialforschung (IfS) is closed down by the German government, a research organisation and home of the Frankfurt School and critical theory, moves to Geneva and in 1934 moves to New York City, where it becomes affiliated with Columbia University

23 March 1933 – the Reichstag voted to pass the Enabling Act, which transforms Hitler’s government into a de facto legal dictatorship

28 March 1933 – Albert Einstein arrives in Antwerp and formally renounced his German citizenship

1 April 1933 – Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses in Germany

7 April 1933 – release date of the Radio Pictures film King Kong (release date in New York 7 March 1933), starring Fay Wray and Robert Armstrong

19 April 1933 – the United States abandoned the gold standard

2 May 1933 – Hitler outlawed German trade unions

June 1933 – Kim Philby graduates from Cambridge with upper second-class honours in economics

16 June 1933 – the US National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) signed into law by Franklin Delano Roosevelt

July–October 1933 – Albert Einstein flees from Belgium and lives in England

25 August 1933 – signing of the Haavara Agreement between Nazi Germany and German Jews

September 1933 – James Hilton publishes his novel Lost Horizon

October 1933 – Albert Einstein returns to the US to the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey

November 1933 – Karl Polanyi moves to London from Vienna (his wife follows him in 1936)

26 December 1933 – death of Henry Watson Fowler

1 January 1934 – UK publication of Murder on the Orient Express by Agatha Christie, featuring the fictional detective Hercule Poirot

30 January 1934 – the US Congress passed the Gold Reserve Act, which nationalised all gold and ordered the Federal Reserve banks to turn over gold supply to the US Treasury

12 February 1934–16 February 1934 – Austrian Civil War (or February Uprising), the battles between socialist and conservative-fascist forces in Austria, which in Vienna, Graz, Bruck an der Mur, Judenburg, Wiener Neustadt and Steyr

February 1934 – Kim Philby and Litzi Friedmann are married

March 1934 – Ludwig von Mises accepted an offer from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva to become a visiting professor

May 1934 – publication of I, Claudius by English writer Robert Graves

9 May–8 June 1934 – John Maynard Keynes in America

23 May 1934 – deaths of Bonnie Elizabeth Parker (1 October 1910–23 May 1934) and Clyde Chestnut Barrow aka Clyde Champion Barrow (24 March 1909–23 May 1934)

28 May 1934 – John Maynard Keynes meets Franklin Delano Roosevelt

June 1934 – Theodor W. Adorno registers at Merton College, Oxford and spends four years at Oxford under the direction of Gilbert Ryle

12 June 1934 – the German film director Fritz Lang arrives in New York after fleeing Germany

29 June 1934 – Night of the Long Knives in Germany

July 1934 – Columbia university invites the Institute for Social Research (Frankfurt School) to affiliate with the university and move to America

24 July 1934 – death of Hans Hahn, the Austrian mathematician and member of the Vienna circle

9 August 1934–17 October 1935 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story The Blue Lotus, set in China and mentioning the Japanese invasion of Manchuria

2 August 1934 – death of Paul von Hindenburg, President of Germany

9 September 1934 – death of Roger Eliot Fry (14 December 1866–9 September 1934), the English painter and critic

October 1934 – Donald Maclean graduated from Trinity Hall, Cambridge

October 1934 – James Hilton publishes his novel Goodbye, Mr. Chips in the UK (release date in the US June 1934)

25 October 1934 – Ludwig von Mises begins lecturing at the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva

December 1934 – Karl Popper publishes Logik der Forschung. Zur Erkenntnistheorie der modernen Naturwissenschaft (The Logic of Scientific Discovery)

December 1934 – Ludwig von Mises briefly returns to Vienna to work as consultant for the Vienna Kammer

December 1934 – Guy Burgess was recruited as a Soviet spy by Arnold Deutsch

1935 – Ronald Syme elected to lectureship at Oxford

January 1935 – George L. S. Shackle arrives at the LSE as a PhD student of Hayek

March 1935 – publication of Claudius the God by English writer Robert Graves

28 March 1935 – the release date of Triumph of the Will directed, produced, edited, and co-written by Leni Riefenstahl about the 1934 Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg

6 May 1935 – the Silver Jubilee of King George V and Queen Mary

8 May 1935–1940 – A. J. Ayer elected to a 5-year research studentship (fellowship) at Oxford

10 May 1935 – New York release date of the famous Universal picture Bride of Frankenstein, starring Boris Karloff

13 May 1935 – US release date of the famous Universal Pictures movie Werewolf of London, starring Henry Hull

19 May 1935 – death of T. E. Lawrence in a motorcycle accident in Dorset, near his cottage (Clouds Hill), near Wareham

7 June 1935–28 May 1937 – Stanley Baldwin is Prime Minister of the UK

18 June 1935 – the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935, a naval agreement between the UK and Germany; this regulated the size of the Kriegsmarine to 35% of the total tonnage of the Royal Navy; the agreement was renounced by Adolf Hitler on 28 April 1939

4 July–14 August 1935 – the 1935 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition, including Eric Shipton

July 1935 – Bertrand Russell and Dora Black divorce

autumn 1935 – Guy Burgess graduates from Cambridge

10 September 1935 – assassination of Huey Pierce Long, Jr.

15 September 1935 – Nuremberg Laws introduced in Germany

October 1935 – George L. S. Shackle visits Cambridge for a research students’ seminar and listens to a talk by Joan Robinson on Keynes’ work on the General Theory; Shackle becomes a Keynesian

October 1935 – Donald Maclean begins work in the British Foreign Office

3 October 1935–May 1936 – the Second Italo-Ethiopian War (Second Italo-Abyssinian War), a colonial between Italy and the Ethiopian Empire; Italy occupied Ethiopia

November 1935 – the election of the first Labour Government in New Zealand under Michael Joseph Savage (23 March 1872–27 March 1940; Prime Minister from 6 December 1935–27 March 1940)

14 November 1935 – United Kingdom general election 1935. The result:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Conservative | Stanley Baldwin | 387
Liberal National | John Simon | 33
National Labour | Ramsay MacDonald | 8

Labour | Clement Attlee | 154
Liberal | Herbert Samuel | 21.
The result was a reduced majority for the National Government led by Conservative Stanley Baldwin

December 1935 – Rudolf Carnap moves from Prague to the University of Chicago

5 December 1935–25 February 1937 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story The Broken Ear in the Belgian newspaper Le Petit Vingtième

winter 1935 – Karl Polanyi visits the United States

1936–1940 – the future Neoconservative Irving Kristol attends City College of New York

1936–1939 – Gore Vidal attends St. Albans School in Washington

1936–1938 – the Great Purge (or the Great Terror) in Russia

January 1936 – Bertrand Russell and Patricia Spence are married

January 1936 – Alfred Jules Ayer publishes his book Language, Truth and Logic

18 January 1936 – death of Rudyard Kipling

20 January 1936 – death of George V (reigned 6 May 1910–20 January 1936)

20 January 1936–11 December 1936 – reign of Edward VIII

22 January 1936 – fall of the government of Pierre Laval in France

5 February 1936 – Charlie Chaplin’s film Modern Times is released

February 1936 – John Maynard Keynes’ The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money is published

16 February 1936 – Spanish general legislative election, which was won by the Popular Front, a left-wing coalition of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE), Republican Left (Spain) (IR), Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC), Republican Union (UR), Communist Party (PCE), Acció Catalana (AC) and other parties

4 March 1936 – the first flight of airship Hindenburg in Germany

7 March 1936 – reoccupation of the Rhineland by Hitler

March 1936 – Michał Kalecki arrived in England from Sweden

25 April–17 June 1936 – 1936 British Mount Everest expedition

28 April 1936–26 July 1952 – reign of Farouk of Egypt

9 May 1936 – Italy annexes Ethiopia

11 May 1936 – release date of the film Dracula’s Daughter by Universal Studios directed by Lambert Hillyer

June 1936 – Peter Cushing begins to work at the Connaught Theatre in Worthing

22 June 1936 – murder of Moritz Schlick

17–18 July 1936 – Spanish coup of July 1936, a group of officers attempt to overthrow the left-wing Popular Front government

17 July 1936–1 April 1939 – Spanish Civil War

1–16 August 1936 – the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, Germany

August 1936 – King Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson on a private cruise of the Adriatic Sea on board the Nahlin

4 August 1936 – a military coup in Greece by General Ioannis Metaxas

19–23 August 1936 – the first Moscow show trial

24 August 1936 – the introduction of conscription law in Germany

26 August 1936 – the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 between the United Kingdom and Egypt signed in London; the UK was required to withdraw all troops from Egypt, except those protecting Suez Canal and its surroundings

29 August 1936 – the British–American Himalayan Expedition of 1936 (with Peter Lloyd and H. Adams Carter, Bill Tilman and Noel Odell) ascends Nanda Devi

September 1936 – King Edward VIII received in Turkey on an unofficial visit

4 September 1936 – Lloyd George visits Hitler at the Berghof

October 1936 – Eric Hobsbawm went up to King’s College, Cambridge to read History

October 1936 – Guy Burgess joined the BBC as talks producer

4 October 1936 – Battle of Cable Street, in Cable Street, East End of London, a clash between British Union of Fascists (led by Oswald Mosley) and anti-fascist demonstrators

5–31 October 1936 – Jarrow March (or the Jarrow Crusade) from Jarrow to London, organised protest march against the unemployment suffered in the Tyneside town of Jarrow

21 October 1936 – the siege of Madrid begins during the Spanish Civil War

25 October 1936 – Rome-Berlin Axis pact

November 1936 – John Cairncross joins the UK Foreign Office

November 1936 – Edward VIII visits the depressed region of South Wales

16 November 1936 – Edward VIII tells the British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin at Buckingham Palace of his intention to marry Wallis Simpson

December 1936 – Abdication crisis in the UK

11 December 1936 – abdication of the British king Edward VIII

11 December 1936 – accession of George VI (reigned 11 December 1936–6 February 1952)

23 December 1936 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) sets out for Spain to fight in the Spanish Civil War; he stays until June 1937

1937–1938 – John Kenneth Galbraith visits Cambridge University with a postdoctoral fellowship

1937 – James Hilton moves to California

1937 – George L. S. Shackle granted his PhD; he moves to New College, Oxford and took a D.Phil. in 1940

February 1937 – Bertrand Russell delivers his maiden speech in the House of Lords

4 February 1937 – Karl Popper sails for New Zealand from London

February 1937–July 1939 – Kim Philby in Spain as a journalist in the Spanish Civil War, from the side of the pro-Franco forces

March 1937 – Karl Popper arrives in New Zealand

2 March 1937 – release date of the Columbia Pictures movie Lost Horizon, directed by Frank Capra, and starring
Ronald Colman and Jane Wyatt

8 March 1937 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes The Road to Wigan Pier

27 April 1937 – death of Antonio Gramsci in Rome

15 April 1937–16 June 1938 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story The Black Island in Le Vingtième Siècle magazine

May 1937 – John Cairncross recruited to the Soviet cause by Arnold Deutsch

May 1937–June 1938 – the US Recession of 1937–1938

6 May 1937 – the Hindenburg disaster; the German airship LZ 129 Hindenburg catches fire and is destroyed during its attempt to dock at Naval Air Station Lakehurst in Manchester Township, New Jersey, United States

12 May 1937 – the coronation of George VI

25 May 1937 – death of Florence Stoker, wife of Bram Stoker

28 May 1937–10 May 1940 – Neville Chamberlain is British Prime Minister

June 1937 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) returns to England from Spain

c. June 1937 – Peter Cushing joins a company at the Grand Theatre in Southampton

3 June 1937 – ex-king Edward VIII marries Wallis Simpson in the Chateau de Candé near Tours in France

July 1937 – the Shaksgam Expedition explores and maps the northern approaches to K2 led by Eric Shipton

July 1937 – F. S. Smythe in an expedition to the Valley of Flowers, India

7 July 1937–9 September 1945 – the Second Sino-Japanese War, the war between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan

9 June 1937 – Theodor W. Adorno sails for New York and stayed there for two weeks

21 September 1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Hobbit, or There and Back Again

November 1937 – while ascending the Zemu glacier, Lord Hunt and H. W. Tilman found strange “yeti” tracks in the snow

1 November 1937 – Agatha Christie publishes the book Death on the Nile with the fictional detective Hercule Poirot

13 December 1937–January 1938 – the Nanking Massacre (or Rape of Nanking), the mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the people of Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War

10 February 1938 – king Carol II of Romania suspended the 1923 constitution and seized emergency powers

16 February 1938 – Theodor W. Adorno sails for New York and moves to America

8 March 1938–22 October 1940 – Joseph P. Kennedy is United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom

9 March 1938 – Schuschnigg scheduled an Austria plebiscite on the issue of unification with Germany on 13 March 1938

12 March 1938 – Austria was annexed by the Third Reich

April 1938 – A. J. Ayer visits America

25 April 1938 – Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair), a personal account of the Spanish Civil War, is published

May 1938–August 1939 – the German Expedition to Tibet of 1938–1939, a German scientific expedition led by the German zoologist Ernst Schäfer (14 March 1910–21 July 1992)

26 May 1938 – the House Committee on Un-American Activities established as a special investigating committee, to investigate disloyalty and subversion, either communist or fascist; it was chaired by Martin Dies, Jr. and Dies Committee (from 1938–1944)

4 June 1938 – Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha leave Vienna on the Orient Express for Britain

6 June 1938 – Sigmund Freud and his wife Martha arrive in London at Victoria Station

4 August 1938 – 10 August 1939 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story King Ottokar's Sceptre in the Belgian newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle

17 October 1938 – death of Karl Kautsky, the Czech-Austrian philosopher and Marxist theoretician, in Amsterdam

30 October 1938 – Orson Welles’ radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds, an episode of the American radio drama anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air

September 1938 – Bertrand Russell begins a year appointment at the University of Chicago

September 1938–30 March 1939 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) in French Morocco

15 September 1938 – Chamberlain travels to Berchtesgaden to meet with Hitler about the Sudeten crisis

23 September 1938 – the new military government in Czechoslovakia issues a decree for general mobilization

30 September 1938 – Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini and Édouard Daladier signed the Munich Agreement

30 September 1938 – the Czechoslovak government capitulates and agrees to the Munich Agreement

30 September 1938 – Neville Chamberlain returns to Britain and gives his “peace for our time” speech to a crowd at Heston Aerodrome

1–10 October 1938 – annexation of the Sudetenland by Germany

9 November 1938 – murder of the German diplomat Ernst vom Rath in Paris by Herschel Grynszpan

9–10 November 1938 – Kristallnacht, a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany; from 12–13 November a similar attack happened in the Free City of Danzig

December 1938 – Guy Burgess begins to work for MI6’s D Section

23 December 1938–10 February 1939 – the Catalonia Offensive in Spain by the Nationalist Army of Franco to take Republican-held Catalonia

1939 – Stefan Zweig’s novel Beware of Pity (in German called Ungeduld des Herzens / “The Heart's Impatience”) is published

5 January 1939 – Josef Beck (Poland’s Foreign Minister) meets with Hitler at Berchtesgaden, to discuss German claims on Danzig and issues with the Polish Corridor

26 January 1939 – fall of Barcelona to Franco’s forces. The Nationalist Army of Franco began the Catalonia Offensive on December 23, 1938

10 February 1939 – Peter Cushing arrives in New York to pursue an acting career in Hollywood

14 March 1939 – Slovakia seceded from Czechoslovakia and became a separate pro-Nazi state

15 March 1939 – German troops marched into Czechoslovakia

April 1939 – Ernst Badian and his family sail from Genoa for Christchurch, New Zealand

14 April 1939 – publication date of the novel The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck

May–June 1939 – George VI and Queen Elizabeth tour Canada and the United States

27 May 1939 – the German ocean liner MS St. Louis arrives in Havana harbour but the Cuban government refuses entry to Cuba to 908 refugees from Europe

6 June 1939 – St. Louis sails back to Europe

summer 1939 – Eric Hobsbawm in Paris carrying out research work on North Africa

June 1939 – Gore Vidal leaves New York for a trip to Europe

July 1939 – Ludwig Wittgenstein visits Vienna and Berlin

23 August 1939 – Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow

25 August 1939 – US release date of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer movie The Wizard of Oz, starring Judy Garland

1 September 1939 – Germany invaded Poland

1 September 1939–2 September 1945 – World War II

September 1939–April 1940 – Phony War

1 September 1939 – Operation Pied Piper began, which officially relocated more than 3.5 million people

3 September 1939 – UK and France declare war on Germany; Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty

3 September 1939 – the speech of George VI to the British Empire on the outbreak of World War Two

7 September 1939 – Ronald Syme publishes The Roman Revolution

17 September 1939 – Stalin ordered his own invasion of Poland

23 September 1939 – death of Sigmund Freud in London

27 September 1939 – Warsaw surrendered to German troops encircling its borders

September 1939 – Turing designing the bombe

17 October 1939 – release date of Frank Capra’s film Mr. Smith Goes to Washington

c. November 1939 – the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) moves to Peterhouse College in Cambridge

30 November 1939 – Soviet Union attacks Finland in what would become known as the Winter War

30 November 1939–13 March 1940 – the Winter War, the military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland

1940–1941 – Ronald Syme is Press Attache to the British Legation at Belgrade; at the fall of Belgrade he went to Ankara

1940–1943 – Karl Polanyi teaches at Bennington College in Vermont

24 January 1940 – release date of the film The Grapes of Wrath, directed by John Ford and based on John Steinbeck’s 1939 novel

February 1940 – John Maynard Keynes publishes his pamphlet How to Pay for the War

16 February 1940 – Eric Hobsbawm enrolled in 560th Field Company of the Royal Engineers in Cambridge

18 March 1940 – delivery and installation of Turing’s bombe to Bletchley Park; second bombe, named “Agnus dei,” later shortened to Agnes, or Aggie, was equipped with Welchman's diagonal board, and was installed on 8 August 1940; during 1940, 178 messages were broken on the two machines

9 April 1940 – Germans land in several Norwegian ports and take Oslo; the Norwegian Campaign lasts two months. The British begin their Norwegian Campaign. Denmark surrenders

10 May 1940 – Germany invades Belgium, France, Luxembourg and the Netherlands; Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of the United Kingdom upon the resignation of Neville Chamberlain

10 May 1940 – 26 July 1945 – Churchill as Prime Minister

10 May 1940 – Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister (PM until 26 July 1945)

13 May 1940 – Churchill's "blood, toil, tears, and sweat" speech in Commons.

14 May 1940 – Germany aircraft attacks on Dutch city of Rotterdam into the ground. 900 civilians died and 85,000 others homeless

15 May 1940 – from this day after the Luftwaffe destroyed the centre of Rotterdam – the RAF also carried out operations east of the Rhine, attacking industrial and transportation targets.

17 May 1940 – Germans enter Brussels and also take Antwerp

23 May 1940 – Oswald Mosley interned under Defence Regulation 18B

25 May 1940 – the Allied forces, British and French alike, retreat to Dunkirk

26 May–4 June 1940 – the Battle of Dunkirk: the defence and evacuation of British and allied forces in Europe

28 May 1940 – Belgium surrenders to the Germans; King Leopold III of Belgium surrenders and is interned

30 May 1940 – crucial British Cabinet meeting: Churchill wins a vote on continuing the war, in spite of vigorous arguments by Lord Halifax and Chamberlain

May 1940 – British start aerial war on German cities

June 1940 – Anthony Blunt recruited by MI5 as a military liaison officer

10 June 1940 – Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom. Norway surrenders

13 June 1940 – Paris occupied by German troops

16 June 1940 – Marshal Pétain becomes Premier

22 June 1940 – Franco-German armistice signed; 22 June, France signed an armistice at Compiègne with Germany that gave Germany control over the north and west of the country, including Paris and all of the Atlantic coastline

24 June 1940 – Franco-Italian armistice signed

by 25 June 1940 – almost 192,000 Allied personnel, 144,000 of them British, had been evacuated through various French ports

30 June 1940 – Germany invades the Channel Islands

3 July 1940 – the British attack and destroy the French navy at its Mers El Kébir base on the coast of French Algeria, fearing that it would fall into German hands

4 July–9 October 1940 – Piero Sraffa interned in the Isle of Man as an enemy alien

12 July 1940 – Luftwaffe attacks on Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland

25 July 1940 – Ludwig von Mises leaves Europe from Lisbon by ship for America

3 August 1940 – Ludwig von Mises arrives in New York

July–September 1940 – Luftwaffe attacked RAF Fighter Command to gain air superiority as a prelude to invasion

17 August 1940 – Hitler declares a blockade of the British Isles

24 August 1940 – German aircraft mistakenly bomb London including church in Cripplegate, accidentally dictating the future shape of the Battle of Britain.

25 August 1940 – Churchill orders the bombing of Berlin in retaliation for the previous night's bombing of London

30 August 1940 – the bombing of England continues; London is now bombed in retaliation for the bombing of Berlin

5 September 1940 – General Ion Antonescu becomes Prime Minister of Romania, and King Carol transfers most of his dictatorial powers to him. The political history of Romania:
5 September 1940–23 August 1944 – General Ion Antonescu is Prime Minister of Romania

6 September 1940 – abdication of Carol II of Romania (8 June 1930–6 September 1940)

6 September 1940–30 December 1947 – second reign of Michael I of Romania; Michael makes Ion Antonescu conducător (leader), or effective dictator of Romania

14 September 1940–14 February 1941 – the National Legionary State in Romania, a one-party totalitarian dictatorship dominated by the Iron Guard in conjunction with Prime Minister Ion Antonescu

23 November 1940 – Romania signs the Tripartite Pact, and formally joins the Axis Powers

21–23 January 1941 – the Legionnaires’ rebellion and the Bucharest pogrom in Bucharest, Romania; after the privileges of the Iron Guard were reduced by Ion Antonescu, the Iron Guard stages a failed rebellion; the Iron Guard movement was banned and 9,000 of its members were imprisoned

14 February 1941 – the National and Social State proclaimed in Romania

23 August 1944 – King Michael’s Coup, a coup d’état led by King Michael I of Romaniain 1944 to remove the government of Ion Antonescu

1 June 1946 – execution of Ion Antonescu by military firing squad near Jilava
7 September 1940 – in one of the major misjudgements of the war, the Luftwaffe shifts its focus to London, away from the RAF airfields

7 September 1940–21 May 1941 – The Blitz

7 September 1940 – first major raid in this regard took place on London

24 September 1940 – Berlin suffers a large bombing raid by the RAF

27 September 1940 – the Tripartite Pact is signed in Berlin by Germany, Italy, and Japan, promising mutual aid. Its informal name “Axis”

15 October 1940 – New York release date of Charlie Chaplin’s film The Great Dictator (release date in London 7 March 1941)

17 October 1940–18 October 1941 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story The Crab with the Golden Claws in the Belgian newspaper Le Soir Jeunesse

28 October 1940 – the Italian Royal Army launches attacks into Greece from Italian-held Albania and begins the Greco-Italian War

5 November 1940 – President Roosevelt wins a third term

6–9 December 1940 – British and Indian troops of the Western Desert Force launch Operation Compass, an offensive against Italian forces in Egypt

28 December 1940 – Greco-Italian War continues to go badly for the Italians and the Greeks hold roughly one-quarter of Albania: Italy requests military assistance from Germany against the Greeks

29 December 1940 – large German air-raids on London; St Paul’s Cathedral is damaged

1941–1942 – Ronald Syme works at the British Embassy at Ankara

1941–1945 – Ernst Badian enrolled in BA at Canterbury College, University of New Zealand; he graduates with an BA in 1945; an MA in 1946

11 March 1941 – United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs the Lend Lease Act (now passed by the full Congress) allowing Britain, China, and other allied nations to purchase military equipment and to defer payment until after the war

24 March 1941 – Rommel attacks and reoccupies El Agheila, Libya in his first offensive. The British retreat and within three weeks are driven back to Egypt

28 March 1941 – suicide of Virginia Woolf

6 April 1941 – Forces of Germany, Hungary, and Italy, moving through Romania and Hungary, initiate the invasions of Yugoslavia and Greece

8 May–28 July 1941 – John Maynard Keynes in America

20 May 1941 – German paratroopers land on Crete; the battle for Crete will continue for seven days.

22 June 1941 – Operation Barbarossa begins

1 June 1941 – Commonwealth forces complete the withdrawal from Crete

9 August 1941 – Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill meet at NS Argentia, Newfoundland. The Atlantic Charter is created, signed, and released to the world press

5 September 1941 – US release date of Orson Welles’ movie Citizen Kane; 1 May 1941 release date at the Palace Theatre

20 October 1941–21 May 1942 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story The Shooting Star in Le Soir magazine

7 December 1941 – Japanese planes attacked the United States Naval Base at Pearl Harbour

8 December 1941 – just after midnight, Japanese invasion of Malaya began

8 December 1941 – the US Congress declares war on the Empire of Japan an hour after the Infamy Speech of Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered to a Joint Session of Congress

11 December 1941 – the US Congress declares war on Germany; the vote was 88–0 in the Senate and 393–0 in the House

12 December 1941 – release date of the famous Universal Pictures movie the The Wolf Man, starring Lon Chaney, Jr.

1942–1945 – Ronald Syme is Professor of Classical Philology at University of Istanbul

11 June 1942–14 January 1943 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) Tintin story The Secret of the Unicorn in the Belgian newspaper Le Soir

winter 1942–1943 – John Cairncross moves to Bletchley Park to Hut 3

8 November 1942 – Operation Torch, the British-American invasion of French North Africa during the North African Campaign; three amphibious Allied task forces attack areas of Morocco (targeting Casablanca and Safi) and Algeria (Oran and Algiers)

21 December 1942 – death of Franz Boas

23 January 1943 – US release date of the movie Casablanca, starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman

15 April 1943 – Ayn Rand publishes The Fountainhead

19 April–16 May 1943 – Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the 1943 act of Jewish resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland

c. May 1943–May 1944 – the Bengal famine of 1943 in Bengal Province of pre-partition India; between 1.5 and 4 million people died of starvation, malnutrition and disease

May 1943 – de Gaulle moved his headquarters to Algiers

July 1943 – Gore Vidal enlists in the army after his graduation; he serves from December 1944 to March 1945

1944 – Karl Polanyi’s The Great Transformation is published

3 June 1944 – de Gaulle flies back to the UK

26 August, 1944 – de Gaulle liberates Paris

September 1944 – publication of Friedrich Hayek’s The Road to Serfdom by the University of Chicago Press

10 November 1944 – Churchill flew to Paris to a reception by de Gaulle and the two together were greeted by thousands of cheering Parisians on the next day

1945 – Karl Popper publishes The Open Society and Its Enemies

7 May 1945 – SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany’s surrender

8 May 1945 – Victory in Europe Day

5 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election of 1945; some polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks

17 July–2 August 1945 – Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany

26 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election results counted and declared on 26 July owing in part to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas

26 July 1945 – Churchill resigns as British Prime Minister

26 July 1945–26 October 1951 – Clement Attlee as British Prime Minister

15 August 1945 – Emperor Hirohito issues a radio broadcast announcing the Surrender of Japan

17 August 1945 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Animal Farm: A Fairy Story in Britain; on 26 August 1946 in the US

2 September 1945 – The Japanese Instrument of Surrender is signed on the deck of the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay

2 September 1945 – formal end of WWII

5 September 1945 – Singapore is officially liberated by British and Indian troops

9 September 1945 – The Japanese troops in China formally surrender, end of the Second Sino-Japanese War

24 October 1945 – the United Nations officially comes into existence on the ratification of the UN Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council (France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the UK and the US) and a majority of the other 46 signatories

22 December 1945 – death of Otto Neurath in Britain

January 1946 – Karl Popper arrives back in England from New Zealand

6 January 1946 – the first meeting of the UN General Assembly (with 51 nations present) and the Security Council takes place in London (the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the United Nations; the facility was completed in 1952)

20 January 1946 – de Gaulle abruptly resigned

5 March 1946 – Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri

21 April 1946 – John Maynard Keynes dies at his home Tilton in Firle, Sussex

22 July 1946 – release date of the film Beware of Pity, starring Lilli Palmer, Albert Lieven and Cedric Hardwicke

13 August 1946 – death of H. G. Wells

20 December 1946 – release date of Frank Capra’s film It’s a Wonderful Life