Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Chronology of Byzantine Empire 330–1453

25 July 306–22 May 337 – reign of Constantine the Great:
25 July 306–29 October 312 – Constantine is Caesar in the west
309 – Constantine self-proclaimed Augustus
29 October 312 – Constantine enters Rome
29 October 312–19 September 324 – Constantine undisputed Augustus
February 313 – Edict of Milan
3 July 324 – the Battle of Adrianople between Constantine I and Licinius
18 September 324 – the battle of Chrysopolis between Constantine and Licinius
19 September 324–22 May 337 – Constantine is emperor of whole empire
324 – foundation of Constantinople
11 May 330 – dedication of Constantinople
3 December 312 – death of Diocletian at his Palace

22 May 337 – death of Constantine at a suburban villa called Achyron

337–340 – Constantine II is joint emperor (over Gaul, Hispania, and Britannia) with Constantius II and Constans

337–361 – rule of Constantius II:
337–340 – Constantius II is co-Augustus (ruling Asian provinces and Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans
340 – killing of Constantine II in an ambush outside Aquileia in civil war with Constans
340–350 – Constantius II is co-Augustus with Constans
350 – assassination of Constans in Helena (now Elne) in the eastern Pyrenees of southwestern Gaul by supporters of the general Magnentius
350–361 – Constantius II is sole Augustus of the Roman Empire
350 – assassination of Constans in Helena (now Elne) in the eastern Pyrenees of southwestern Gaul by supporters of the general Magnentius

350–361 – Constantius II is sole Augustus of the Roman Empire

3 November 361–26 June 363 – Julian the Apostate is emperor of the entire empire

27 June 363–17 February 364 – reign of Jovian

28 March 364–9 August 378 – Valens is emperor in the East

26 February 364–17 November 375 – rule of Valentinian I:
26 February–28 March 364 – Valentinian I is Augustus of the whole empire
26 March 364–17 November 375 – Valentinian I is emperor of the west
22 November 375–15 May 392 – rule of Valentinian II

17 November 375–25 August 383 – rule of Gratian:
17 November 375–9 August 378 – Gratian is senior Augustus of the west
9 August 378–19 January 379 – Gratian is senior Augustus of the whole empire
19 January 379–25 August 383 – Gratian is senior Augustus in the west
summer 376 – large numbers of Goths arrive on the Danube River requesting asylum from the Huns, including the Thervings (led by Fritigern and Alavivus) and the Greuthungi (led by Alatheus and Saphrax)

9 August 378 – the Battle of Adrianople between the emperor Valens and Gothic rebels (Thervings, Greutungs, and non-Gothic Alans) led by Fritigern north of Adrianople

19 January 379–15 May 392 – Theodosius I is emperor in the East

15 May 392–17 January 395 – Theodosius I is emperor of the entire empire

23 January 393 – accession of Honorius:
23 January 393–15 August 423 – Honorius
20 November 423–May 425 – Joannes
23 October 425–16 March 455 – Valentinian III
17 March–31 May 455 – Petronius Maximus
9 July 455–17 October 456 – Avitus
1 April 457–2 August 461 – Majorian
19 November 461–15 August 465 – Libius Severus
12 April 467–11 July 472 – Anthemius
23 March/July 11–23 October/2 November 472 – Olybrius
c. 3 March 473–June 474 – Glycerius
June 474–28 August 475 – Julius Nepos
31 October 475–4 September 476 – Romulus Augustulus
17 January 395 – death of Theodosius in Milan

395–1 May 408 – Arcadius is emperor in the East:
1 May 408–28 July 450 – Theodosius II
450–457 – Marcian
457–474 – Leo I the Thracian
18 January 474–17 November 474 – Leo II
9 February 474–9 January 475 – Zeno
9 January 475–August 476 – Basiliscus
August 476–9 April 491 – Zeno
11 April 491–9 July 518 – Anastasius I Dicorus
400
late 408 – the first siege of Rome by the Goths under Alaric

December 408 – the Visigoths lift the siege of Rome and withdraw to Etruria

late 409 – the Visigoths under Alaric renew the siege of Rome

24 August 410 – the sack of Rome by the Visigoths led by King Alaric

late 410 – Alaric dies of illness at Consentia

c. 450–500 – the Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain

2–16 June 455 – the second of sack of Rome by the Vandals under Geiseric

500
July 518 – accession of Justin I, first emperor of the Justinian Dynasty:
Justinian Dynasty (518–602)
July 518–1 August 527 – Justin I
1 August 527–13/14 November 565 – Justinian I the Great
14 November 565–5 October 578 – Justin II
5 October 578–14 August 582 – Tiberius II Constantine
14 August 582–22 November 602 – Maurice
525 – Justinian marries Theodora

526–532 – the Iberian War between the Byzantines and Sassanids over the eastern Georgian kingdom of Iberia

c. 527 (or c. 515) – Icel of Mercia:
Kings of Mercia
Cnebba
Cynewald
c. 584–c. 593 – Creoda
c. 593–c. 606 – Pybba
c. 606–c. 626 – Cearl
c. 626–655 – Penda
c. 635–642 – Eowa
c. 653–656 – Peada
655–658 – Oswiu of Northumbria
658–675 – Wulfhere
675–704 – Æthelred I
704–709 – Cœnred
709–716 – Ceolred
716 – Ceolwald
716–757 – Æthelbald
757 – Beornred
757–796 – Offa
787–796 – Ecgfrith
796–821 – Cœnwulf
1 August 527–13/14 November 565 – reign of Justinian I the Great
13–18 January 532 – Nika riots and revolt against Justinian
June 533–March 534 – the Vandalic War
535–554 – the Gothic War in Italy
540–562 – war with the Sassanid Empire
540 – Justinian I recalls Belisarius
541–542 – the plague of Justinian
544 – Belisarius returns to Italy
28 June 548 – death of Theodora
July 551 – the eastern Mediterranean hit by the 551 Beirut earthquake, with a tsunami
June 533–March 534 – the Vandalic War of Justinian, which ends in the conquest of the Vandalic Kingdom of Carthage

535–554 – the Gothic War between the Justinian I and the Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy in Italy, Dalmatia, Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica:
535–540 – the first phase ending in the fall of the Ostrogothic capital (Ravenna)
540/541–553 – the second phase of Gothic resistance under Totila against the Byzantine general Narses
17 December 546 – sack of Rome by Totila
554 – Narses defeats an invasion by the Franks and Alamanni
541–542 – the plague of Justinian

17 December 546 – sack of Rome by the Gothic king Totila during the Gothic War of 535–554

28 June 548 – death of Theodora

550/558 – composition of the Secret History of Procopius (or in 562)

551 – last dated event in Procopius’ Wars of Justinian

spring 568 – Alboin leads the Lombards into Italy:
569 – fall of Forum Iulii (Cividale del Friuli) to the Lombards
summer 569 – the Lombards conquer Milan
570 – Lombards conquer Spoleto in Umbria
c. 571 – establishment of the Duchy of Benevento
572 – Pavia falls to the Lombards after a 3-year siege and the first capital city of the new Lombard kingdom of Italy
568 – Alboin takes the title King of Italy:
Lombard Kings in Italy
565–572 – Alboin
572–574 – Cleph
574–584 – Rule of the Dukes (Ten year interregnum)
584–590 – Authari
591–c. 616 – Agilulf
c. 616–c. 626 – Adaloald
c. 626–636 – Arioald
636–652 – Rothari
652–653 – Rodoald
653–661 – Aripert I
661–662 – Perctarit and Godepert
662–671 – Grimuald
671 – Garibald
671–688 – Perctarit
688–689 – Alahis
688–700 – Cunincpert
700–701 – Liutpert
701 – Raginpert
701–712 – Aripert II
712 – Ansprand
712–744 – Liutprand
744 – Hildeprand
744–749 – Ratchis
749–756 – Aistulf
756–774 – Desiderius
774–781 – Charlemagne
781–810 – Pepin
810–818 – Bernard
818–839 – Lothair I
839–875 – Louis II
600
23 November 602–4 October 610 – reign of the emperor Phocas

5 October 610 – accession of Heraclius:
Heraclian Dynasty (610–695)
5 October 610–11 February 641 – Heraclius
11 February–24/26 May 641 – Constantine III
11 February 641–September 641 – Heraklonas
September 641–15 September 668 – Constans II
15 September 668–September 685 – Constantine IV the Bearded
September 685–695 – Justinian II the Slit-nosed
June–July 626 – the siege of Constantinople of 626 by the Sassanid Persians and Avars, aided by allied Slavs with a victory for the Byzantines

672/673–26 May 735 – life of the Venerable Bede

674–678 – the First Arab Siege of Constantinople by the Umayyad Caliphate under Caliph Mu’awiya I against Emperor Constantine IV

695 – Justinian II the Slit-nosed is deposed:
Twenty Years’ Anarchy (695–717)
695–698 – Leontios
698–705 – Tiberius III Apsimar
August 705–December 711 – Justinian II the Slit-nosed
December 711–3 June 713 – Philippikos Bardanes
June 713–November 715 – Anastasios II
May 715–25 March 717 – Theodosios III
695–714 – reign of Grimoald II (Neustria)
Mayors of the Palace
695–714 – Grimoald II (Neustria)
708–714 – Grimoald II (Neustria, Burgundy)
714–716 – Theudoald (Austrasia, Neustria, and Burgundy)
715–741 – Charles Martel (Austrasia)
718–741 – Charles Martel (Neustria and Burgundy, Austrasia)
741–747 – Carloman (Austrasia)
741–751 – Pippin the Younger (Neustria and Burgundy)
747–751 – Pippin the Younger (Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy)
700
711 – Tariq ibn Ziyad (Berber client of Musa bin Nusair, the governor of Islamic Africa) invades Spain with 7,000 Berber men, while Roderic was in the north fighting the Basques:
July 711 – battle at the Guadalete River in Cádiz where king Roderic is killed
712 – Musa (governor of Ifriqiya) invades Spain with an army of 18,000
713 – Musa takes Mérida
714 – Saragossa and León conquered
716 – most of Spain conquered by Muslims
721–725 – Septimania conquered
summer 722 – battle of Covadonga and defeat of Muslims; an independent Christian state is created in the north which becomes the Kingdom of Asturias
25 March 717–18 June 741 – reign of Leo III the Isaurian
Isaurian Dynasty (717–802)
25 March 717–18 June 741 – Leo III the Isaurian
18 June 741–14 September 775 – Constantine V the Dung-named
June 741/742–2 November 743 – Artabasdos
14 September 775–8 September 780 – Leo IV the Khazar
8 September 780–August 797 – Constantine VI
August 797–31 October 802 – Irene of Athens
15 July/August 717–15 August 718 – the second Arab siege of Constantinople of 717–718 by the Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik against the emperor Leo III the Isaurian

10 October 732 – the Battle of Tours between Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate

March 752 – Pippin III became the King of the Franks and the office of mayor abolished

752–768 – Pepin the Younger

768–771 – Carloman I (Burgundy, Alemannia, southern Austrasia)

9 October 768–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is King of the Franks:
772–804 – Charlemagne’s Saxon wars
773 – Charlemagne invades Italy and pushes the Lombards to Pavia, which they then besiege
773–774 – Charlemagne’s siege of Pavia
10 July 774– Charlemagne crowned King of the Lombards
10 July 774–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is King of the Lombards
787 – Charlemagne attacks the Duchy of Benevento and besieges Salerno
789 – Charlemagne deposes Tassilo and takes Bavaria
790 – Charlemagne’s campaign down the Danube to attack the Avars
25 December 800 – Charlemagne is crowned emperor by the Pope in Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome
25 December 800–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is Holy Roman Emperor
805 – Leo III consecrates Aachen Cathedral
28 January 814 – death of Charlemagne in Aachen
800
25 December 800 – coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor in Old St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome

25 December 800–28 January 814 – Charlemagne is Holy Roman Emperor

31 October 802 – accession of Nikephoros I the Logothete:
Nikephorian Dynasty (802–813)
31 October 802–26 July 811 – Nikephoros I the Logothete
26 July 811–2 October 811 – Staurakios
2 October 811–22 June 813 – Michael I Rangabe
11 July 813–25 December 820 – Leo V the Armenian

28 January 814 – death of Charlemagne

25 December 820 – accession of Michael II the Amorian:
Amorian dynasty (820–867)
25 December 820–2 October 829 – Michael II the Amorian
2 October 829–20 January 842 – Theophilos
20 January 842–23 September 867 – Michael III the Drunkard
c. 824 or 827/828 – a group of Andalusian exiles conquers Crete and establishes an independent state

June 827 – Muslim conquest of Sicily begins (June 827–902)

842–843 – the Byzantines launch a campaign to retake Crete under Theoktistos

23 September 867 – assassination of Michael III the Drunkard and accession of Basil I the Macedonian:
Macedonian Dynasty (867–1056)
867–2 August 886 – Basil I the Macedonian
886–11 May 912 – Leo VI the Wise
11 May 912–6 June 913 – Alexander
6 June 913–9 November 959 – Constantine VII the Purple-born
17 December 920–16 December 944 – Romanos I Lekapenos
9 November 959–15 March 963 – Romanos II the Purple-born
16 August 963–11 December 969 – Nikephoros II Phokas
11 December 969–10 January 976 – John I Tzimiskes
10 January 976–15 December 1025 – Basil II the Bulgar-Slayer
900

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