Friday, July 7, 2017

Chronology of the 15th Century

1400s
1408–1420 – reign of Mihail I (Basarab):
c. 1383–1386 – Dan I (Dănești)
23 September 1386–1418 – the two reigns of Mircea I the Old as Voivode of Wallachia
23 September 1386–1395 – Mircea I the Old (first reign; Basarab)
1394–1397 – Vlad I the Usurper (Dănești)
1397–31 January 1418 – Mircea I the Old (second reign; Basarab)
1408–1420 – Mihail I (Basarab)
30 June 1409 – the battle of Sanluri in Sardinia between the Giudicato of Arborea and the Catalan-Sicilian army of King Martin I of Sicily

1410s
2 April 1416–27 June 1458 – Alfonso the Magnanimous is king of Aragon:
2 April 1416–27 June 1458 – king of Aragon
1442 – re-unification of Sicily with the Kingdom of Naples
2 June 1442–27 June 1458 – king of Naples and Sicily
1458 – Sicily split from Naples
before 12 February 1419 – Voyk (father of John Hunyadi) died before this date

1420s
1420 – the King of Aragon purchases most of Sardinia from the Arborea Judicatus

1425–31 October 1448 – rule of John VIII Palaiologos, Byzantine emperor
Byzantine Emperors
1390–1391 – John V Palaiologos or Palaeologus
1391–1425 – Manuel II Palaiologos
1425–1448 – John VIII Palaiologos
1449–29 May 1453 – reign of Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos / Palaeologus (son of Manuel II)
1430s
5 September 1434–1 August 1464 – Cosimo di Giovanni de’ Medici (the Elder) is Lord of Florence

1436–1442 – reign of Vlad II Dracul as Voivode of Wallachia

9 December 1437 – death of Sigismund, king of Hungary:
Kings of Hungary
House of Luxembourg
1387–1437 – Sigismund
House of Habsburg
1437–1439 – Albert the Magnanimous
1440–1457 – Ladislaus V the Posthumous
House of Jagiellon
1440–1444 – Vladislaus I
6 June 1446 – January 1453 – Regent John Hunyadi
House of Hunyadi
1458–1490 – Matthias I
8 January 1438 – the first session of the Council of Ferrara in the church of St George under the presidency of Cardinal Nicolo Albergati

1439–1445 – John Hunyadi is Ban of Severin

1440s
1441
1441 – John Hunyadi appointed Voivode of Transylvania

1441–1446 – John Hunyadi is voivode of Transylvania:
Voivodes of Transylvania
1441–1446 – John Hunyadi
1446–1448 – Emeric Bebek
1449–1458 – John Rozgonyi (first rule)
1459–1461 – Ladislaus Kanizsai
1459–1460 – John Rozgonyi
1459–1460 – Sebastian Rozgonyi
1461 – Nicholas Kanizsai
1462–1465 – Nicholas Újlaki, with John Pongrác of Dengeleg
1465–1467 – Bertold Ellerbach of Monyorókerék, Count Sigismund Szentgyörgyi
1468–1474 – Nicholas Csupor of Monoszló
1468–1472 – John Pongrác of Dengeleg
22 March 1442 – Ottoman forces were annihilated at Gyulafehérvár in Transylvania

September 1442 – Ottoman forces defeated at the Ialomița River

October 1443–November 1444 – the crusade of Varna (called by Pope Eugene IV on 1 January 1443) led by King Władysław III of Poland, John Hunyadi (Voivode of Transylvania), and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy

November 1443 – Battle of Nish; Skanderbeg deserted the Ottoman army

28 November 1443 – Skanderbeg takes Krujë with a forged letter from Sultan Murad; wars of Skanderbeg:
December 1443–January 1444 – Skanderbeg seizes Petrela, Prezë, Guri i Bardhë, Svetigrad, Modrič?
2 March 1444 – Skanderbeg summons Albanian princes in Lezhë (controlled by Venice) and they forms League of Lezhë
29 June 1444 – in the Plain of Torvioll Albanian armies under Skanderbeg face Ottoman army under Ali Pasha
10 October 1445 – Ottoman defeat at Ohrid
27 September 1446 – Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Otonetë
1447–1448 – Albanian–Venetian War
14 May 1448 – Ottoman army led by Sultan Murad II and his son Mehmed lays siege to the castle of Svetigrad
June 1450 – two years after Ottoman capture of Svetigrad, Turks lays siege to Krujë
2 September 1457 – Skanderbeg attacks Ottoman forces at Ujebardha and defeated them
August 1461 – Skanderbeg lands in Apulia with 1,000 cavalry and 2,000 infantry
27 November 1463 – George Kastriot (Skanderbeg) declares war on Ottomans and attacks Ohrid
1466 – Sultan Mehmed II leads 30,000 men into Albania and begins the Second Siege of Krujë
23 April 1467 – Skanderbeg attacks Ottoman forces laying siege to Krujë; siege of Krujë broken
17 January 1468 – Skanderbeg fell ill with malaria and died
10 November 1444 – battle of Varna

6 June 1446 – John Hunyadi becomes regent of Hungary

27 September 1446 – Ottoman defeat in the Battle of Otonetë in Albania

1447–1448 – Albanian–Venetian War

4 October 1448 – peace treaty signed between Skanderbeg and Venice

17 October 1448 – second battle of Kosovo

31 October 1448 – death of John VIII Palaiologos, the Byzantine emperor

1449–29 May 1453 – reign of Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos (son of Manuel II)

1450s
1450
25 March 1450–8 March 1466 – Francesco Sforza is Duke of Milan:
Dukes of Milan
House of Visconti

5 September 1395–3 September 1402 – Gian Galeazzo Visconti
3 September 1402–16 May 1412 – Giovanni Maria Visconti
16 May 1412–13 August 1447 – Filippo Maria Visconti

1447–1450 – Golden Ambrosian Republic

House of Sforza
25 March 1450–8 March 1466 – Francesco Sforza
8 March 1466–26 December 1476 – Galeazzo Maria Sforza
26 December 1476–21 October 1494 – Gian Galeazzo Sforza
21 October 1494–6 September 1499 – Ludovico Sforza
House of Valois-Orléans
6 September 1499–16 June 1512 – Louis XII of France
Sforza
9 January 1513–5 October 1515 – Massimiliano Sforza
Valois-Angoulême
11 October 1515–19 November 1521 – Francis I of France
Sforza
4 April 1522–24 October 1535 – Francesco II Sforza
Habsburg-Spain
11 October 1540–13 September 1598 – Philip II of Spain
1451
3 February 1451–3 May 1481 – Mehmed II (second reign):
25 June 1421–1444 – Murad II
1444–1446 – Mehmed II (first rule; son of Murad II)
1446–3 February 1451 – Murad II
3 February 1451–3 May 1481 – Mehmed II (second reign)
19 May 1481–25 April 1512 – Bayezid II (son of Mehmed II)
25 April 1512–21 September 1520 – Selim I (son of Bayezid II)
30 September 1520–6/7 September 1566 – Suleiman I (son of Selim I)
3 February 1451–3 May 1481 – second reign of Mehmed II:
28 November 1443–17 January 1468 – Skanderbeg’s war against Ottomans
1447–1448 – Albanian–Venetian War
May–June 1451 – Mehmed II’s Karaman campaign of 1451
6 April–29 May 1453 – siege of Constantinople
29 May 1453 – fall of Constantinople
4–22 July 1456 – siege of Belgrade by Mehmed II
May 1460 – Mehmed II conquers the Morea
31 May 1460 – Ottoman conquest of Mistra, capital of Despotate of Morea
1460 – Mehmed II conquers Genoese colony of Amasra
15 August 1461 – Mehmed II conquers Trebizond and annexes Black Sea coast
November 1461–August 1462 – Vlad III’s war with the Ottomans
June–July 1462 – Mehmed II’s invasion of Wallachia
September 1462 – conquest of Lesbos by Mehmed II
28 July 1463–25 January 1479 – Ottoman–Venetian War
27 November 1463 – Skanderbeg declares war on Ottomans and attacks Ohrid
July–September 1464 – Ottoman siege of Jajce held by Hungarians fails
June 1466–23 April 1467 – second siege of Krujë, Albania, by Mehmed II
17 January 1468 – death of Skanderbeg
1468 – Mehmed II’s Karaman campaign of 1468
10 July–5 August 1470 – the siege of Negroponte and conquest of Negroponte and Euboea
11 August 1473 – battle of Otlukbeli (or Otluk Beli) in which Mehmed II defeats the Aq Qoyunlu (White Sheep Turkomans) led by Uzun Hasan
June–August 1476 – Sultan Mehmed II invades Moldavia
1478–1479 – Mehmed II leads the siege of Shkodra
25 January 1479 – Treaty of Constantinople signed between Venice and Ottomans
23 May–17 August 1480 – Ottoman siege of Rhodes (under Knights Hospitaller)
11 August 1480–August 1481 – Ottoman occupation of Otranto in Italy
3 May 1481 – death of Sultan Mehmed II
1452 – John Hunyadi is Perpetual Count of Beszterce

16–19 March 1452 – Frederick III is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Nicholas V in Rome, the last Emperor to be crowned in Rome

19 March 1452–19 August 1493 – Frederick III is Holy Roman Emperor:
House of Habsburg
1433–1437 – Sigismund is Holy Roman Emperor
2 February 1440–19 August 1493 – Frederick III is King of the Romans
19 March 1452–19 August 1493 – Frederick III is Holy Roman Emperor
16 February 1486–12 January 1519 – Maximilian I is King of the Romans
4 February 1508–12 January 1519 – Maximilian I is Holy Roman Emperor
30 January 1453 – John Hunyadi appointed captain general of the kingdom

6 April–29 May 1453 – the last siege of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror, sultan of the Ottoman Empire

29 May 1453 – fall of Constantinople to Mehmed the Conqueror; death of the last Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos

29 May 1453 – death of Constantine XI Dragases Palaeologus (son of Manuel II)

29 September 1454 – Ottoman force defeated at Kruševac

1455
1455–1456 – rule of Francesco II Acciaioli, last Duke of Athens:
Duchy of Athens
Florentine Acciaioli
1388–1394 – Nerio I Acciaioli
1394–1395 – Antonio I Acciaioli
1395–1402 – Venetian control
1402–1435 – Antonio I Acciaioli (restored)
1435–1439 – Nerio II Acciaioli
1439–1441 – Antonio II Acciaioli
1441–1451 – Nerio II Acciaioli
1451–1454 – Chiara Zorzi (duchess consort)
1451–1454 – Francesco I Acciaioli
1455–1456 – Francesco II Acciaioli
1455–1485 – the Wars of the Roses in England, a civil war between two rival branches of the royal House of Plantagenet, (1) the House of Lancaster (associated with a red rose), and (2) the House of York (whose symbol was a white rose):
House of Lancaster
30 September 1399–20 March 1413 – Henry IV
20 March 1413–31 August 1422 – Henry V
31 August 1422–4 March 1461 – Henry VI

1455–1485 – the Wars of the Roses

House of York
4 March 1461–3 October 1470 – Edward IV

House of Lancaster
3 October 1470–11 April 1471 – Henry VI

House of York
11 April 1471–9 April 1483 – Edward IV (second reign)
9 April 1483–25 June 1483 – Edward V
26 June 1483–22 August 1485 – Richard III

House of Tudor
22 August 1485–21 April 1509 – Henry VII
21 April 1509–28 January 1547 – Henry VIII
1456
c. May 1456 – Lemnos surrenders to the Ottomans:
autumn 1456–1458 – Papal force controls Lemnos
1458 – Ottoman conquest of Lemnos
1460–1464 – Demetrius Palaeologus rules Lemnos as an Ottoman vassal
1464 – Lemnos conquered by Venetians
1464–1479 – Venice controls Lemnos
1479 – Venice cedes Lemnos to the Sultan
4 June 1456 – Turahanoğlu Ömer Bey takes Athens and duchy of Athens; he besieges Duke Francesco II Acciaioli in the Athenian Acropolis (surrendered in June 1458)

4–22 July 1456 – siege of Belgrade by Sultan Mehmed II:
4 July 1456 – siege of Belgrade begins
14 July 1456 – Hunyadi arrives at Belgrade with his flotilla on the Danube
21 July 1456 – Mehmed II begins assault on Belgrade
22 July 1456 – John of Capistrano and Hunyadi counterattack and rout Ottoman army
22 July 1456 – John Hunyadi’s victory at Belgrade

c. August 1456–c. August 1462 – second reign of Vlad III Drăculea

11 August 1456 – death of John Hunyadi at Belgrade

1457
12 April 1457 – Ștefan cel Mare routes Peter Aaron at Doljești

c. 12 April 1457–2 July 1504 – Stephen III of Moldavia (Ștefan cel Mare) rules Moldavia:
1504–1517 – Bogdan III The One-Eyed
1514 – Moldavia submitted to Ottoman rule
1458
24 January 1458–6 April 1490 – Matthias Corvinus I is king of Hungary

June 1458 – Duke Francesco II Acciaioli surrenders the Athenian Acropolis to the Ottomans

27 June 1458–25 January 1494 – Ferdinand I is king of Naples:
Kings of Naples
Anjou
24 February 1386 – 6 August 1414 – Ladislaus the Magnanimous is king of Naples
6 August 1414 – 2 February 1435 – Joanna II is queen of Naples
Bourbon
c. 1416 – James II (Count of La Marche)
Valois-Anjou
2 February 1435–2 June 1442 – René of Anjou is king of Naples
Trastámara
2 June 1442–27 June 1458 – Alfonso the Magnanimous is king of Naples
27 June 1458–25 January 1494 – Ferdinand I is king of Naples
25 January 1494–23 January 1495 – Alfonso II
23 January 1495–7 September 1496 – Ferdinand II
7 September 1496–1 August 1501 – Frederick I
1501–1504 – union with France
1504–1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon is King of Naples
27 June 1458–20 January 1479 – John II of Aragon and Navarre:
27 June 1458–20 January 1479 – king of Aragon
8 September 1425–20 January 1479 – king of Navarre
king of Sicily
27 June 1458–19 January 1479 – John II the Great is king of Aragon:
Kings of Aragon
House of Barcelona 1164–1410
19 May 1396–31 May 1410 – Martin

Trastámara 1412–1516
24 June 1412–2 April 1416 – Ferdinand I the Honest
2 April 1416–27 June 1458 – Alfonso V the Magnanimous
27 June 1458–19 January 1479 – John II the Great
19 January 1479–23 January 1516 – Ferdinand II the Catholic
23 January 1516–12 April 1555 – Joanna I the Mad

Habsburg 1516–1700
23 January 1516 – 16 January 1556 – Charles I the Emperor
19 August 1458–14 August 1464 – Pope Pius II

1458–September 1462 – Niccolò Gattilusio is the final Lord of Lesbos:
Lord of Lesbos
1384–26 October 1403/1404 – Francesco II Gattilusio
26 October 1404–1428 – Jacopo Gattilusio
1428–30 June 1455 – Dorino Gattilusio
1455–1458 – Domenico Gattilusio
1458–September 1462 – Niccolò Gattilusio
1459
summer 1459 – Ahmed Bey and Hamza Pasha attack the Morea

1 June 1459–January 1460 – the council of Mantua of 1459, convened by Pope Pius II, who calls for crusade against the Ottomans

26 September 1459 – Pope Pius II calls for a new crusade

1460s
1460
14 January 1460 – Pope Pius II proclaims a crusade against the Ottomans

29 May 1460 – Thomas Palaeologus flees to Corfu and then Italy during Ottoman invasion of Morea:
Despots of the Morea
1354–1380 – Manuel Kantakouzenos (restored)
1380–1383 – Matthew Kantakouzenos
1383 – Demetrios I Kantakouzenos
1383–1407 – Theodore I Palaiologos
1407–1443 – Theodore II Palaiologos
1428–1449 – Constantine Palaiologos (from 1449 emperor)
1428–1460 – Thomas Palaiologos
1449–1460 – Demetrios II Palaiologos.
May 1460 – Mehmed II conquers the Byzantine despotate of the Morea

1461
July 1461 – fall of Salmeniko Castle, Morea, and its defender Graitzas Palaiologos to the Ottomans

10 July 1461–25 May 1463 – Stephen Tomašević is the last king of Bosnia

August 1461 – Skanderbeg landed in Apulia with an expeditionary force of 1,000 cavalry and 2,000 infantry

November 1461–August 1462 – Vlad III’s war with the Ottomans:
4 June 1462 – Ottoman army under Mehmed II crosses the Danube at Nicopolis
17 June 1462 – the night attack at Târgoviște between Vlad III and Mehmed II
July 1462 – Radu at Brăila attempts to incite defection of boyars
July 1462 – Matthias Corvinus leaves Buda for Transylvania
July/August – Matthias Corvinus makes peace with Stephen
August/September 1462 – Matthias’ envoy meets with Pope Pius II at Abbadia
c. 30 September 1462 – Matthias Corvinus arrives in Sibiu
November–December 1462 – Matthias Corvinus in Braşov
November 1462 – Vlad visits Matthias Corvinus in Braşov
c.25/26 November 1462 – Dracula arrested at Piatra Craiului
1462
5 April 1462–6 November 1505 – Ivan III is Grand Prince of Moscow:
Grand Princes of Moscow
19 May 1389–27 February 1425 – Vasily I
27 February 1425–30 March 1434 – Vasily II
31 March 1434–5 June 1434 – Yury of Zvenigorod
5 June 1434–1435 – Vasily Kosoy
1435–1446 – Vasily II
1446–26 March 1447 – Dmitry Shemyaka
27 February 1447–27 March 1462 – Vasily II
5 April 1462–6 November 1505 – Ivan III
6 November 1505–13 December 1533 – Vasily III
4 June 1462 – Ottoman army under Mehmed II crosses the Danube at Nicopolis

17 June 1462 – the night attack at Târgoviște between Vlad III and Mehmed II

July 1462 – Radu at Brăila attempts to incite defection of boyars

July 1462 – Matthias Corvinus leaves Buda for Transylvania

July/August – Matthias Corvinus makes peace with Stephen

August/September 1462 – Matthias’ envoy meets with Pope Pius II at Abbadia

1 September 1462 – Mehmed II met at Assos by a fleet and crosses to Lesbos

September 1462 – conquest of Lesbos by Mehmed II

c. 30 September 1462 – Matthias Corvinus arrives in Sibiu

November–December 1462 – Matthias Corvinus in Braşov

November 1462 – Vlad visits Matthias Corvinus in Braşov

c.25/26 November 1462 – Dracula arrested at Piatra Craiului

1463
1463–1477 – Genoa under the rule of Milan (no doge)

28 July 1463–25 January 1479 – Ottoman–Venetian War:
November 1462 – Turahanoğlu Ömer Bey (Ottoman commander in central Greece) attacks the Venetian fortress of Lepanto (Nafpaktos)
1463
3 April 1463 – Isa-Beg Ishaković (governor of the Morea) takes Venetian Argos by treason
28 July 1463 – the Venetian Senate votes for war on the Sultan
August 1463 – Venice retakes Argos and refortified the Isthmus of Corinth, restoring the Hexamilion wall
12 September 1463 – Venice and Matthias Corvinus sign an alliance
23 September–25 December 1463 – siege of Jajce by Matthias Corvinus
19 October 1463 – Venice concludes alliance with the Pope and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy
20 October 1463 – Venetians suffer major defeat during siege of Acrocorinth and retreat to the Hexamilion and to Nauplia (Nafplion)
16 December 1463 – Matthias Corvinus takes Jajce, capital of Bosnia
1464
April–18 May 1464 – the Venetian admiral Orsato Giustinian attacks Lesbos and lays siege to Mytilene
18 May 1464 – Orsato Giustinian forced to end siege of Mytilene
June 1464 – Orsato Giustinian’s second failed attack on Lesbos
July–September 1464 – Ottoman siege of Jajce held by Hungarians fails
11 July 1464 – death of Orsato Giustinian at Modon
14 August 1464 – death of Pope Pius II at Ancona with a crusading army
summer 1464 – Sigismondo Malatesta is Venetian commander in the Morea
August–October 1464 – Venetian siege of Mistra
1465
early 1465 – Mehmed II sent a peace offer to the Venetian Senate
1466
c. April 1466 – Vettore Cappello captures Imbros, Thasos and Samothrace
June 1466–23 April 1467 – the second siege of Krujë, Albania, by Mehmed II
12 July 1466 – Vettore Cappello lands at Piraeus and attacks Athens
1467
23 April 1467 – Skanderbeg attacked the Ottoman forces laying siege to Krujë.
1468
17 January 1468 – Skanderbeg fell ill with malaria and died
1470
10 July–5 August 1470 – the siege of Negroponte

1479
25 January 1479 – signing of the Treaty of Constantinople between Venice and the Sultan; Venice cedes Shkodra, territories on the Dalmatian coastline, Negroponte (Euboea) and Lemnos; end of the First Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479).
3 April 1463 – Isa-Beg Ishaković (governor of the Morea) takes Venetian Argos by treason

May 1463 – conquest of Bosnia by Mehmed II

28 July 1463 – the Venetian Senate votes for war on the Sultan

August 1463 – Venice retakes Argos and refortified the Isthmus of Corinth, restoring the Hexamilion wall

12 September 1463 – Venice and Matthias Corvinus sign an alliance

23 September–25 December 1463 – siege of Jajce by Matthias Corvinus

19 October 1463 – Venice concludes alliance with the Pope and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy

20 October 1463 – Venetians suffer major defeat during siege of Acrocorinth and retreat to the Hexamilion and to Nauplia (Nafplion)

27 November 1463 – George Kastriot (Skanderbeg) declares war on the Ottomans and attacks Ohrid

16 December 1463 – Matthias Corvinus takes Jajce, capital of Bosnia

1464
29 April 1464 – Matthias Corvinus crowned king of Hungary in Székesfehérvár

18 May 1464 – Orsato Giustinian forced to end siege of Mytilene

July–September 1464 – Ottoman siege of Jajce held by Hungarians fails

11 July 1464 – death of Orsato Giustinian at Modon

14 August 1464 – death of Pope Pius II at Ancona with a crusading army

30 August 1464–26 July 1471 – Pope Paul II
8 April 1455–6 August 1458 – Callixtus III
19 August 1458–15 August 1464 – Pius II
30 August 1464–26 July 1471 – Paul II
August–October 1464 – Venetian siege of Mistra

1465
24–25/26 January 1465 – Ștefan cel Mare besieges and takes Chilia

12 May 1465 – death of Thomas Palaiologos in exile in Rome

1466
June 1466–23 April 1467 – the second siege of Krujë, Albania, by Mehmed II with an army of 30,000

1467
23 April 1467 – Skanderbeg attacked the Ottoman forces besieging Krujë and ends siege

November–December 1467 – Matthias I Corvinus invades Moldavia and is defeated at the battle of Baia on 15 December

15 December 1467 – the battle of Baia between Stephen the Great and Matthias Corvinus; Corvinus was defeated

1468
17 January 1468 – Skanderbeg fell ill with malaria and died

19 October 1469 – Ferdinand II and Isabella I married in the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid

1469
2 December 1469–8 April 1492 – Lorenzo de’ Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent) rules Florence:
Lord of Florence
5 September 1434–1 August 1464 – Cosimo di Giovanni de’ Medici (the Elder)
1 August 1464–2 December 1469 – Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici (the Gouty)
2 December 1469–8 April 1492 – Lorenzo de’ Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent)
9 April 1492–9 November 1494 – Piero di Lorenzo de’ Medici (Piero the Unfortunate)
November 1494–23 May 1498 – Girolamo Savonarola
Gonfaloniere for life
1502–1512 – Piero Soderini
1470s
1470
3 June 1470 – the Ottoman fleet sails out of the Dardanelles

June 1470 – the Ottoman fleet takes Imbros (but not Lemnos and Skyros)

10 July–5 August 1470 – the siege of Negroponte between the forces of Sultan Mehmed II and the garrison of the Venetian colony of Negroponte (Chalcis), the capital of the Venetian possession of Euboea; the Ottomans conquer Negroponte and Euboea

20 August 1470 – the battle of Lipnic between Stephen the Great and the Volga Tatars of the Golden Horde led by Ahmed Khan; Stephen defeats the Tatars

1471
9 August 1471–12 August 1484 – Pope Sixtus IV:
8 April 1455–6 August 1458 – Callixtus III
19 August 1458–15 August 1464 – Pius II
30 August 1464–26 July 1471 – Paul II
9 August 1471–12 August 1484 – Sixtus IV
29 August 1484–25 July 1492 – Innocent VIII
11 August 1492–18 August 1503 – Alexander VI
1473
11 August 1473 – Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens at the battle of Otlukbeli at Otlukbeli, Erzincan

1475
10 January 1475 – the battle of Vaslui between Stephen III of Moldavia and the Ottoman governor of Rumelia, Hadım Suleiman Pasha, at Podul Înalt near Vaslui; the Ottomans were defeated

15 January 1475 – Ferdinand II of Aragon becomes jure uxoris King of Castile:
1468–23 January 1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon (king of Sicily)
19 October 1469 – Ferdinand II and Isabella I married in the Palacio de los Vivero in the city of Valladolid
11 December 1474–26 November 1504 – Isabella I of Castile
15 January 1475–26 November 1504 – Ferdinand II of Aragon jure uxoris King of Castile
20 January 1479–23 January 1516 – Ferdinand II, King of Aragon
1504–1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon is King of Naples
26 November 1504 – death of Isabella I of Castile in in Medina del Campo
26 November 1504–12 April 1555 – Joanna of Castile the Mad (queen of Castile)
12 July–25 September 1506 – Philip I of Castile (King of Castile)
23 January 1516–16 January 1556 – Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (King of Spain)
1476
March 1476 – Vlad III returns to Transylvania

June–August 1476 – Sultan Mehmed II invades Moldavia

26 July 1476 – the battle of Valea Albă (battle of Războieni) at Războieni between Ştefan cel Mare and an Ottoman army under Sultan Mehmed II; Ştefan was defeated and fled north

August 1476 – Sultan Mehmed II is defeated at the battle of Siret River by a coalition force under the command of Vlad III and Stephen Báthory

November 1476 – Vlad III the Impaler invades Wallachia from southern Transylvania

8 November 1476 – Vlad III captures the capital of Târgovişte; he meets with Ştefan cel Mare

22 December 1476 – Beatrice of Naples (daughter of Ferdinand I of Naples and Isabella of Clermont) marries Matthias Corvinus

12 December 1476 – Beatrice of Naples is crowned queen of Hungary at Székesfehérvár

December 1476/January 1477 – death of Vlad the Impaler:
Princes of Wallachia
1456–1462 – Vlad III Drăculea
1462–1473 – Radu III the Fair
1473 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
1473–1474 – Radu III the Fair
1474 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
1474 – Radu III the Fair
1474 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
1474–1475 – Radu III the Fair
January 1475–before 8 November 1476 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
c. 8 November–December 1476 – Vlad III the Impaler
December 1476–November 1477 – Basarab III Laiotă the Old
November 1477–September 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger (Little Impaler)
spring 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger attacks Moldavia
August 1481 – Mircea III
c. August 1481–before c. 16 November 1481 – Vlad IV the Monk
c. November 1481–c. 23 March 1482 – Basarab IV the Younger (Little Impaler)
13 July 1482 – Basarab IV the Younger is killed by boyars in Glogova
summer 1482–November 1495 – Vlad IV the Monk
1495–1508 – Radu IV the Great
1508–1509 – Mihnea I the Bad
1477
5 January 1477 – the battle of Nancy, the final battle of the Burgundian Wars, at Nancy between Charles the Bold (Duke of Burgundy) and René II (Duke of Lorraine) and the Swiss Confederacy; Charles is defeated

March 1477 – Matthias Corvinus makes an alliance with the Teutonic Knights and the Bishopric of Ermland against Poland

c. March 1477–1488 – the Austrian–Hungarian war between Mathias Corvinus (the king of Hungary) and the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III, the Habsburg Archduch of Austria

November 1477–September 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger (Little Impaler) is prince of Wallachia

1478
24 June 1478 – Juan Rejón conquers the Grand Canary island for Isabel and Fernando

1478–1479 – Mehmed II leads the siege of Shkodra

1478–1485 – Giovanni Mocenigo is Doge of Venice:
Doges of Venice
1413–1423 – Tommaso Mocenigo
1423–1457 – Francesco Foscari
1457–1462 – Pasquale Malipiero
1462–1471 – Cristoforo Moro
1471–1473 – Nicolò Tron
1473–1474 – Nicolò Marcello
1474–1476 – Pietro Mocenigo
1476–1478 – Andrea Vendramin
1478–1485 – Giovanni Mocenigo
1485–1486 – Marco Barbarigo
1486–1501 – Agostino Barbarigo
1479
1479–1493 – Stephen V Báthory of Ecsed is Voivode of Transylvania:
Voivodes of Transylvania
1468–1474 – Nicholas Csupor of Monoszló
1468–1472 – John Pongrác of Dengeleg
1472–1475 – Blaise Magyar
1475–1476 – John Pongrác of Dengeleg
1478–1479 – Peter Geréb of Vingárt
1479–1493 – Stephen V Báthory of Ecsed
1493–1498 – Bartholomew Drágfi of Béltek
1493–1495 – Ladislaus Losonci, Jr.
1498–1510 – Count Peter Szentgyörgyi
1510–1526 – John Zápolya
25 January 1479 – signing of the Treaty of Constantinople between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire; Venice cedes Shkodra, territories on the Dalmatian coastline, Negroponte (Euboea) and Lemnos; end of the First Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479)

13 October 1479 – the battle of Breadfield on the Breadfield Zsibód (Şibot) near the Mureş River, in which the Hungarian army was led by Pál Kinizsi, István Báthory, Vuk Branković, and Basarab Laiotă cel Bătrân defeat the Turks

1480s
1480
23 May–17 August 1480 – the Ottoman siege of Rhodes, under the rule of the Knights Hospitaller:
23 May 1480 – an Ottoman fleet of 160 ships arrives at Rhodes, at the gulf of Trianda, with 70,000 men
27 July 1480 – the Turks launch an offensive
17 August 1480 – the Ottoman fleet ends the attempt to capture Rhodes
28 July 1480 – the Ottoman invasion of Italy; a Turkish fleet of 128 ships arrives near Otranto

11 August 1480 – Ottoman army takes Otranto in Italy

11 August 1480–August 1481 – Ottoman occupation of Otranto in Italy:
1 May 1481 – the forces of king Ferdinand I of Naples led by his son Alfonso, Duke of Calabria, lay siege to Otranto in Italy
August 1481 – Ottoman surrender of Otranto in Italy
September 1481 – Ottomans evacuate Otranto in Italy
1481
spring 1481 – Basarab IV the Younger attacks Moldavia

3 May 1481 – death of Sultan Mehmed II

19 May 1481–25 April 1512 – reign of the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II

8 July 1481 – the battle of Râmnic in which Stephen the Great defeats Basarab IV the Younger

August 1481 – Ottoman surrender of Otranto in Italy

summer 1482–1495 – Vlad IV Călugărul is Voivode of Wallachia:
1481–1482 – Basarab IV The Younger (Little Impaler)
1482–1495 – Vlad IV the Monk
1495–1508 – Radu IV the Great
1508–1509 – Mihnea I the Bad
February 1482–2 January 1492 – the Granada War, military campaigns during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, against the Nasrid dynasty’s Emirate of Granada

July 1482 – the first siege of Hainburg by Matthias I Corvinus

August–September 1482 – the second siege of Hainburg by Matthias I Corvinus

30 August 1483–7 April 1498 – Charles VIII is king of France
House of Valois (1328–1589)
16 September 1380–21 October 1422 – Charles VI the Beloved
21 October 1422–22 July 1461 – Charles VII
22 July 1461–30 August 1483 – Louis XI
30 August 1483–7 April 1498 – Charles VIII
7 April 1498–1 January 1515 – Louis XII
1 January 1515–31 March 1547 – Francis I
29 January–1 June 1485 – the siege of Vienna during the Austrian–Hungarian War between Frederick III and Matthias Corvinus

1 June 1485 – the fall of Vienna to Matthias Corvinus

1485–1490 – Vienna is the capital of the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus

22 August 1485–21 April 1509 – Henry VII is king of England:
House of York
11 April 1471–9 April 1483 – Edward IV (second reign)
9 April 1483–25 June 1483 – Edward V
26 June 1483–22 August 1485 – Richard III

House of Tudor
22 August 1485–21 April 1509 – Henry VII
21 April 1509–28 January 1547 – Henry VIII
1490s
1490
6 April 1490 – death of Matthias Corvinus in Vienna

April 1491 – the eight-month siege of Granada begins

April 1491–2 January 1492 – the siege of Granada

7 November 1491 – signing of the Peace of Pressburg between the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary

2 January 1492 – the fall of Granada to the Spanish

31 March 1492 – the Alhambra Decree (the Edict of Expulsion) issued by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories by 31 July 1492

3 August 1492 – Columbus departs from Castilian Palos de la Frontera at 8 am on a voyage to find a shorter route to India and the Orient with three ships, the Niña (real name Santa Clara), the Pinta, and the Santa Maria

3 August 1492–4 March 1493 – Columbus’ first voyage of discovery, to the Bahamas or Turks and Caicos, Cuba, and Haiti

11 August 1492–18 August 1503 – Pope Alexander VI

23 September 1492–16 June 1501 – reign of John I Albert as Polish king:
Jagiellonian Kings of Poland
4 March 1386–1 June 1434 – Władysław II Jagiełło
25 July 1434– 10 November 1444 – Władysław III of Poland
25 June 1447–7 June 1492 – Casimir IV Jagiellon
23 September 1492–16 June 1501 – John I Albert
24 September 1493–August 1494 – Columbus’ second voyage of discovery

25 October 1495–13 December 1521 – Emmanuel I is king of Portugal:
Kings of Portugal (House of Aviz 1385–1580)
14 August 1433–9 September 1438 – Edward
13 September 1438–11 November 1477 – Alphonso V
11 November 1477–15 November 1477 – John II
15 November 1477–28 August 1481 – Alphonso V
28 August 1481–25 October 1495 – John II
25 October 1495–13 December 1521 – Emmanuel I
5 December 1496 – King Manuel I of Portugal signs the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims (to take effect by October 1497)

30 May 1498 – Columbus leaves the port of Sanlúcar with a fleet of six ships on his third voyage

1499–1503 – the Second Ottoman–Venetian War between the Ottomans and Venice for control of territories in the Aegean Sea, Ionian Sea and the Adriatic Sea

12, 20, 22, 25 August 1499 – the battle of Zonchio (battle of Sapienza/First Battle of Lepanto) between the Venetians and Ottomans

1500–1510
1500
1504–1516 – Ferdinand II of Aragon is King of Naples

18 April 1506–18 November 1626 – the construction of new St. Peter’s Basilica

20 May 1506 – death of Christopher Columbus in Valladolid, Spain

25 September 1506–25 October 1555 – Charles V is Lord of the Netherlands and Duke of Burgundy:
23 January 1516–16 January 1556 – Charles V is King of Spain
12 January 1519–28 April 1521 – Charles V is Archduke of Austria
28 June 1519–27 August 1556 – Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor
26 October 1520 – Charles V is crowned as King of the Germans in Germany
22 February 1530 – Charles V is crowned King of Italy
24 February 1530 – Charles V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Bologna
1510s
1516–22 January 1517 – the Ottoman–Mamluk War of 1516–1517 between Mameluke Sultanate and the Ottoman Empire

24 January 1517 – the Battle of Ridaniya near Cairo between Selim I and Tuman Bay, in which the Mamelukes were defeated

April 1519 – Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) and 700 soldiers land near Tabasco on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

28 June 1519–27 August 1556 – Charles V is Holy Roman Emperor

1520s
22 May 1520 – massacre in the Great Temple of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan

1 July 1520 – the Aztec emperor Moctezuma was killed

13 August 1521 – the Aztec Empire was captured

1521–1524 – Cortés personally governed Mexico

26 June–22 December 1522 – the second siege of Rhodes of 1522, in which Knights of Rhodes are expelled by Ottomans

29 August 1526 – the battle of Mohács between king Louis II of Hungary and Suleiman the Magnificent, fought near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary