Thursday, May 24, 2018

Chronology of 1800–1850

1810s
25 October 1760–29 January 1820 – reign of George III

1805–1807 – Lord Byron at Trinity College, Cambridge

1809–July 1811 – Lord Byron goes on a Grand Tour of Europe, to Spain and Greece, Malta

12 February 1809 – birth of Charles Darwin in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England

2 October 1809 – the British defeat the French fleet in Zakynthos and capture Kefallonia, Kythera and Zakynthos

5 February 1811 – the Prince of Wales George becomes the Prince Regent

25 March 1811 – Percy Bysshe Shelley expuled from Oxford

1814 – Samuel Marsden acquires land at Kerikeri from Hongi Hika for the use of the Church Missionary Society

6 April 1814 – Napoleon abdicated his throne

28 July 1814–13 September 1814 – Percy Bysshe Shelley elopes with Mary Godwin to the Continent, with Claire Clairmont; they travel to France and Switzerland

November 1814–9 June 1815 – the Congress of Vienna held in Vienna under Klemens Wenzel von Metternich

1815
2 January 1815 – Lord Byron marries Annabella Millbanke; their daughter, Ada, was born in December of that year

20 March 1815–8 July 1815 – Hundred Days

9 June 1815 – signing of treaties of the Congress of Vienna

18 June 1815 – Battle of Waterloo

15 July 1815 – Napoleon demands asylum from British Captain Frederick Maitland on the HMS Bellerophon

16 October 1815 – Napoleon lands at St. Helena

20 November 1815–21 May 1864 – the British control the Ionian Islands, including Kerkyra (Corfu), Ithaki (Ithaca), Lefkada (Lefkas), Kefalonia (Cephalonia), Zakynthos (Zante), Paxi (Paxos), Kythira (Cythera). Corfu becomes the seat of the British Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. Chronology:
January 1817 – Britain grants the Ionian Islands a new constitution
November 1858–March 1859 – William Ewart Gladstone is Lord High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands
29 March 1864 – representatives of the United Kingdom, Greece, France, and Russia sign the Treaty of London, which pledges the transfer of the Ionian Islands to Greece upon ratification
2 May 1864 – the British leave the Ionian Islands
21 May 1864 – the Ionian Islands officially reunite with Greece.
1816
25 April 1816 – Lord Byron left England forever

25 May 1816 – Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary met Lord Byron in Geneva

25 May 1816–28 August 1816 – famous summer at the Villa Diodati by Lake Geneva, Switzerland, where Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley and Lord Byron meet:
night 14–15 June – the group recounts ghost stories and this is the origin of Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein
30 December 1816 – Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin married

1818
11 March 1818 – Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelley, Claire Clairmont, and Claire’s daughter, Allegra, leave England, in order to take Allegra to her father Byron, who had taken up residence in Venice

March 1818 – Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein, or, The modern Prometheus published

5 May 1818 – Karl Marx born to Heinrich Marx (a middle class lawyer) and Henrietta Pressburg in Trier

September 1818 – Charles Darwin begins his study as a boarder at the Shrewsbury School, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England

1819
1819–1821 – Lord Byron lived in Ravenna

1820s
1820
1820–1830s – King George IV renovates The Queen’s House, which becomes Buckingham Palace

29 January 1820–26 June 1830 – reign of George IV

1821
22 February 1821–12 September 1829 – the Greek War of Independence, a war of independence by the Greek revolutionaries against the Ottoman Empire

23 February 1821 – death of John Keats

5 May 1821 – death of Napoléon Bonaparte on the island of Saint Helena

1822
8 July 1822 – Percy Bysshe Shelley drowned in the Gulf of Spezia while returning from Leghorn (Livorno)

1823
16 July 1823 – Byron left Genoa for Greece

1824
1824 – Marx was baptised as a Christian

19 April 1824 – death of Lord Byron

1825
October 1825–April 1827 – Charles Darwin studies medicine at Edinburgh University

1826
1826 – University of Ingolstadt moved to Munich by King Ludwig I (with new name Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich)

1827
July 1827 – Charles Darwin returns to Shrewsbury, Shropshire, from France

5 October 1827 – Charles Darwin accepted into Christ’s College, Cambridge; Darwin does not come into residence in Cambridge until 26 January 1828

1828
January 1828–June 1831 – Charles Darwin at Christ’s College, Cambridge

25 January 1828 – death of Lady Caroline Lamb (wife of the Hon. William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne)

1830s
1830
1830–1835 – Marx attended Trier High School

26 June 1830–20 June 1837 – reign of William IV (son of George III)

1831
27 December 1831–2 October 1836 – the famous voyage of the Beagle of Charles Darwin
27 December 1831 – Charles Darwin sets sail from Devonport, Plymouth
23 July–10 November 1834 – Charles Darwin visits Valparaiso
5 April–25 June 1832 – Charles Darwin visits Rio de Janeiro
26 July 1832 – Charles Darwin visits Montevideo
March 1833 – Charles Darwin visits the Falklands Islands
January 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Strait of Magellan
March 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Falklands Islands
May–June 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Strait of Magellan
15 September–20 October 1835 – Charles Darwin visits Galapagos Islands
15–26 November 1835 – Charles Darwin visits Tahiti
21–30 December 1835 – Charles Darwin visits the Bay of Islands in the north island of New Zealand
12–30 January 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Sydney, Australia
15–17 February 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Hobart, Tasmania
6–14 March 1836 – Charles Darwin visits King George Sound, Western Australia
1–12 April 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Cocos Keeling Islands
24 April–9 May 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Mauritius
31 May–15 June 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Cape of Good Hope, South Africa
8–14 July 1836 – Charles Darwin visits St Helena
19–23 July 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Ascension Island
1–6 August 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Bahia
20–24 September 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Azores
2 October 1836 – Charles Darwin arrives back in England at Falmouth, Cornwall
1832
May 1832 – the British Foreign Secretary Palmerston convenes the London Conference of 1832 that decides that Greece should be a monarchy

27 May 1832 – beginning of the reign of Otto of Greece:
Kings of Greece
27 May 1832 – 23 October 1862 – Otto of Greece (deposed)
1834 – Athens becomes the capital of independent Greece
30 March 1863 – 18 March 1913 – George I of Greece
30 August 1832 – the borders of Greece confirmed in the London Protocol signed by the Great Powers

1833
28 August 1833 – Slavery Abolition Act 1833 abolished slavery throughout the British Empire (expanding the jurisdiction of the Slave Trade Act 1807), making the purchase or ownership of slaves illegal within the British Empire, with the exception “of the Territories in the Possession of the East India Company,” Ceylon, and Saint Helena

1834
January 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Strait of Magellan

March 1834 – Charles Darwin visits the Falklands Islands

16 October 1834 – fire destroys Palace of Westminster including both Houses of Parliament and most buildings except Westminster Hall

14 November–10 December 1834 – Arthur Wellesley (1st Duke of Wellington) is UK Prime Minister

1835
1835–1836 – Marx attended the University of Bonn to study law

18 April 1835–30 August 1841 – William Lamb (2nd Viscount Melbourne) is UK Prime Minister (Whig)

15 September–20 October 1835 – Charles Darwin visits Galapagos Islands

15–26 November 1835 – Charles Darwin visits Tahiti

21–30 December 1835 – Charles Darwin visits the Bay of Islands in the north island of New Zealand

1836
1836 – before leaving for Berlin Marx became engaged to Jenny von Westphalen

1836–1840 – Marx attended the University of Berlin and joined the Young Hegelians

12–30 January 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Sydney, Australia

15–17 February 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Hobart, Tasmania

23 February–6 March 1836 – battle of the Alamo: after a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launch assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar, killing the Texian defenders

6–14 March 1836 – Charles Darwin visits King George Sound, Western Australia

1–12 April 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Cocos Keeling Islands

21 April 1836 – Texian army defeats the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto

24 April–9 May 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Mauritius

8–14 July 1836 – Charles Darwin visits St Helena

19–23 July 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Ascension Island

1–6 August 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Bahia

20–24 September 1836 – Charles Darwin visits Azores

2 October 1836 – Charles Darwin arrives back in England at Falmouth, Cornwall

1837
1837 – Marx was a follower of Hegel and neglected his studies, all to his father’s intense disapproval

6 March 1837 – Charles Darwin moves from Cambridge to 36 Great Marlborough Street, London

March 1837–September 1842 – Charles Darwin lives at 36 Great Marlborough Street, London (March 1837–January 1839), and 12 Upper Gower Street in London (January 1839–September 1842)

20 June 1837 – accession of Queen Victoria (reigned from 1837–1901)

20 June 1837–22 January 1901 – reign of Queen Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria, 24 May 1819–22 January 1901), Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

20 June 1837–18 November 1851 – Ernest Augustus (German: Ernst August, 5 June 1771–18 November 1851) is King of Hanover (5th son of King George III, and from 1799 Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale)

c. June 1837 – Buckingham Palace becomes the London residence of Victoria

c. June 1837 – Melbourne given a private apartment at Windsor Castle as tutor of Victoria

20 June 1837 – Hanover separated from kingdom of England

28 June 1837 – King Ernest of Hanover enters his new domain

1838
1838 – Marx visited his family in Trier to find his father on his death bed

28 June 1838 – coronation of Queen Victoria

c. 28 September 1838 – Charles Darwin reads Malthus’s Essay on the Principle of Population

1839
29 January 1839 – Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood married at Maer; they move to 12 Upper Gower Street in London

March 1839–October 1842 – the First Anglo-Afghan War between British India and the Emirate of Afghanistan:
December 1838 – the Army of the Indus under John Keane (1st Baron Keane) set out from Punjab
25 April–27 June 1839 – the army set up camp at Kandahar
22 July 1839 – British forces capture the fortress of Ghazni
August 1839 – Shuja Shah Durrani enthroned in Kabul
April–October 1841 – Afghan tribes north of the Hindu Kush mountains rebel
1 January 1842 – British garrison withdraws from Kabul; army attacked as it withdraws through snowbound passes
spring 1842 – Akbar Khan defeated near Jalalabad
August 1842 – General Nott advances from Kandahar and seizes Ghazni
September 1842 – British forces defeat all opposition and occupy Kabul
c. October 1842 – British forces withdraw from Afghanistan.
3 May 1839 – Jamaica Government Bill in the House of Commons

7 May 1839 – Jamaica Government Bill (opposed by Peel) carried by only five votes in the Commons

7 May 1839 – the Bedchamber Crisis: Lord Melbourne wishes to resign as Prime Minister after a bill was passed by a very narrow margin of only 5 votes in the House of Commons; Victoria asked the Duke of Wellington to form a new government, and then Conservative leader Robert Peel; Peel accepts on the condition that Victoria dismiss some of her Ladies of the Bedchamber; she refused the request, and Melbourne was stays on as Prime Minister

22 July 1839 – British forces capture the fortress of Ghazni

October 1839 – Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha returns to England to visit Victoria

15 October 1839 – Victoria proposes to Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg

3 November 1839–29 August 1842 – First Opium War fought between the UK and the Qing dynasty of China

late 1839 – Marx embarked on his Doctoral dissertation called The Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature

1840s
1840
1840 – reconstruction of the Palace of Westminster began; Lords Chamber completed 15 April 1847; Commons Chamber first used 30 May 1850 and permanently occupied from 3 February 1852

1840–1844 – Francis Galton studies mathematics at Trinity College, University of Cambridge

14 January 1840–3 May 1841 – Captain William Hobson is Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand under Governor of New South Wales

6 February 1840 – signing of the Treaty of Waitangi by British Crown and various Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand

10 February 1840 – wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (later Prince Consort) at Chapel Royal, St. James’s Palace, London:
Queen’s Private Secretary
1837–1840 – Viscount Melbourne (informal)
1840–1861 – Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg (informal)
1861–1866 – Sir Charles Phipps
1861–1870 – Sir Charles Grey
1870–1895 – Sir Henry Ponsonby
1895–1901 – Sir Arthur Bigge
May 1840 – formation of the British and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, with Samuel Cunard (1787–1865) as leading manager

May 1840 – Captain William Hobson (appointed as Lieutenant-Governor over New Zealand as acquired from the Māori chiefs) proclaims British sovereignty over the South Island of New Zealand

1 June 1840 – Buxton’s Society for the Extinction of the Slave Trade and for the Civilisation of Africa holds its first anniversary meeting at Exeter Hall, The Strand, London, under its new president, Prince Albert

10 June 1840 – Edward Oxford shot at Albert and Queen Victoria hundred yards from Buckingham Palace in Hyde Park

October 1840–June 1844 – Francis Galton attends Trinity College, Cambridge

21 November 1840 – birth of Queen Victoria’s daughter Victoria (21 November 1840–5 August 1901), wife of German Emperor Frederick III and mother of Wilhelm II

1841
April 1841 – Marx was awarded his PhD from the University of Jena called The Difference between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature

April–October 1841 – Afghan tribes north of the Hindu Kush mountains rebel

June 1841 – Marx returned to Trier, and had firm plans to be an academic, but the Prussian state had entered a period of pronounced hostility to the Young Hegelians

21 June 1841 – launch of HMS Trafalgar at Woolwich Dockyard, London

29 June–22 July 1841 – United Kingdom general election 1841:
Party | Seats
Conservative | 367
Whig | 271
Irish Repeal | 20
30 August 1841 – William Lamb (2nd Viscount Melbourne) leaves office as UK Prime Minister (Whig)

30 August 1841–29 June 1846 – Sir Robert Peel (2nd Baronet) is UK Prime Minister (Conservative)

October 1841–c. May 1845 – Edward Augustus Freeman at Trinity College, Oxford; graduates with a second class in literae humaniores

9 November 1841 – birth of Edward VII (Albert Edward) in Buckingham Palace

1842
1842 – Marx moved to Cologne in 1842, and became a journalist, often writing for Rheinische Zeitung

1 January 1842 – British garrison withdraws from Kabul; army attacked as it withdraws through snowbound passes

May 1842 – Queen Victoria shot at by John Francis while riding in her carriage

18 June 1842 – Richard Francis Burton sails for India

29 August 1842 – signing of the Treaty of Nanking (or Nanjing), a peace treaty which ended the First Opium War (1839–42) between the UK and the Qing dynasty (effective 26 June 1843)

September 1842 – Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visit Edinburgh

14 September 1842 – Charles Darwin and his family move to Down house (at Down now renamed Downe), Kent

23 September 1842 – Baroness Louise Lehzen leaves for Germany

October 1842–February 1843 – Marx is the informal editor of the Rheinische Zeitung

October 1842 – Luigi Federico Menabrea writes a paper on Babbage’s difference engine in a Swiss academic journal

October 1842 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in India

October 1842–March 1849 – Richard Francis Burton in India

1843
1843–1845 – Marx embarks on a reading of political economy, and in particular the works of Adam Smith, David Ricardo, and James Mill in French translation, Jean-Baptiste Say and Wilhelm Schulz

2 January 1843 – premiere of Richard Wagner’s opera The Flying Dutchman at the Semper Oper in Dresden

20 January 1843 – Daniel McNaughton shoots Edward Drummond (Private Secretary to Robert Peel) in assassination attempt on Sir Robert Peel

April 1843 – the Rheinische Zeitung was banned by the government and ceased publication

21 April 1843 – death of Prince Augustus Frederick (Duke of Sussex), uncle of Queen Victoria

25 April 1843 – launching of the HMY Victoria and Albert, the first royal yacht to be steam powered

19 June 1843 – Marx marries Jenny von Westphalen

August 1843 – Lady Lovelace’s translation of Menabrea’s paper is published with extensive notes of her own in Taylor’s Scientific Memoirs as “Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage”

2–7 September 1843 – Queen Victoria travels to the Château d’Eu, France to visit Louis Philippe I

October 1843–April 1845 – Marx moves to Paris and writes for the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher (German-French Annals) and then Vorwärts! (Forward!)

1844
29 January 1844 – death of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (ruled 9 December 1806–1844), father of prince Albert

29 January 1844–22 August 1893 – Ernest II (brother of Prince Albert) is Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

February 1844 – the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher publishes Marx’s “A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right,” and “On the Jewish Question.”

28 August 1844 – Marx meets Friedrich Engels in Paris

1844 – Marx wrote extended papers running to about 50,000 words called the “Paris Manuscripts” or “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844,” which were only published well after his death in 1927

September 1844 – Queen Victoria and Albert stay at Blair Castle, Perthshire for three weeks lent to them by Lord Glenlyon

23 October 1844 – death of Samuel Tertius Galton, father of Francis Galton

1845
1845–1847 – Marx and Engels wrote The German Ideology, but this was never published in Marx’s lifetime

1845–1847 – Marx lives in Brussels in Belgium

January 1845 – the Prussian government demanded Marx’s expulsion and the French government agreed to this

February 1845 – Marx and Engels publish The Holy Family in Frankfort

April 1845 – Marx moves from Paris to Brussels

April 1845 – Helene “Lenchen” Demuth (1820–1890), a von Westphalen family servant, joined Marx’s household as a housekeeper and maid

19 May 1845 – Edward Augustus Freeman elected fellow of Trinity College, Oxford

July 1845 – Marx and Engels visit Britain

September 1845–1852 – the Great Famine in Ireland (Irish Potato Famine), a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849, in which 1 million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland (with population fall of 20–25%)

October 1845 – Queen Victoria and Prince Albert buy Osborne House on the Isle of Wight from Lady Isabella Blachford

1845–1851 – construction of new Osborne House in the style of the Italian Renaissance

October 1845–November 1846 – Francis Galton visits Egypt, Berber, Khartoum, Cairo, Alexandria, Beirut, Damascus, Jerusalem, Jordan valley

1846
1846 – Marx and Engels formed the Communist Correspondence Committee of Brussels

25 April 1846–3 February 1848 – Mexican–American War, between the US and Mexico after the 1845 American annexation of the independent Republic of Texas

15 May 1846 – third reading of Peel’s Bill of Repeal (Importation Act 1846) passes by 327 votes to 229 (a majority of 98) to repeal the Corn Laws

30 June 1846–21 February 1852 – John Russell (1st Earl Russell) is UK Prime Minister (Whig and Liberal)

1847
13 April 1847 – Edward Augustus Freeman marries Eleanor Gutch (1818–1903), daughter the Reverend Robert Gutch, at Seagrave, Leicestershire; he loses his fellowship

15 April 1847 – Lords Chamber first occupied in the completed Palace of Westminster

May 1847 – the British Government agreed to take over the debts of the New Zealand Company and to buy out their interests in the Colony

June 1847 – the London-based “League of the Just” held a meeting in London in which it decided to merge with Marx and Engels’ Communist Corresponding Committee. The new organisation was called the “Communist League” (1847–1852)

4 June 1847 – present Whitby station built by York and North Midland Railway (prior station opened in 8 June 1835)

July 1847 – Marx publishes The Poverty of Philosophy in French, an attack on Pierre-Joseph Proudhon’s The System of Economic Contradictions, or The Philosophy of Poverty. Marx also set out his materialist view of history in this work, in which he had moved on from both Hegel and Ludwig von Feuerbach

December 1847–January 1848 – Marx and Engels write The Communist Manifesto

1848
1848–1849 – Marx in Cologne

February 1848 – Prince Albert acquires the lease on Balmoral, together with its furniture and staff

21 February 1848 – The Communist Manifesto first published

22 February–2 December 1848 – 1848 Revolution in France (February Revolution) ends the Orléans monarchy (1830–1848) followed by French Second Republic:
23 February 1848 – Prime Minister Guizot resigns
24 February 1848 – Louis Philippe I abdicates in favour of his nine-year-old grandson, Philippe, comte de Paris
26 February 1848 – the liberal opposition organises a provisional government; Second Republic proclaimed
10 December 1848 – Louis Napoléon Bonaparte was elected President
2 December 1852 – Louis Napoléon Bonaparte becomes emperor
March 1848 – Belgium expels Marx after putting him in jail for a night

23 March 1848–24 March 1849 – First Italian War of Independence fought between the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Austrian Empire

1848 – Marx in France

15 March 1848–4 October 1849 – Hungarian Revolution of 1848

23 March 1848 – the first settler ship the John Wickliffe arrives in Port Chalmers

27 March 1848 – foundation of the Canterbury Association (1848–1853), which is incorporated by Royal Charter on 13 November 1849; this was led by Edward Gibbon Wakefield and John Robert Godley. Wakefield was involved in the New Zealand Company, which by that time had already established four other colonies in New Zealand

April 1848 – Marx moved to Cologne

10 April 1848 – Chartist march in London to Kennington Common

15 April 1848 – the second settler ship the Philip Laing arrives in Port Chalmers, New Zealand

1 May 1848 – election of the Frankfurt Parliament held from 18 May 1848 to 31 May 1849, in the Paulskirche at Frankfurt am Main

29 June 1848 – Edward Augustus Freeman leaves Oxford

July 1848–c. August 1855 – Edward Augustus Freeman lives in the Oaklands, valley of the Cam, Dursley, Gloucestershire

September 1848 – there was an insurrection in Cologne but this was suppressed by the Prussians and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung was shut down in October

September 1848 – Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood founded at the home of John Millais’s parents on Gower Street, London by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, and William Holman Hunt

8 September 1848 – Queen Victoria travels to Aberdeen on the royal yacht

18 September 1848 – Queen Victoria first visits Balmoral

24 November 1848 – death of William Lamb (2nd Viscount Melbourne) at Brocket Hall, Hertfordshire

2 December 1848–21 November 1916 – reign of Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria

1849
February 1849 – Marx was indicted for incitement to rebellion in Cologne, but in a trial was acquitted

March 1849 – Richard Francis Burton sails from Bombay

19 May 1849 – Marx left Cologne

29 July 1849 – Max Nordau born in Pest (with the name Simon Maximilian, or Simcha Südfeld)

August 1849 – Queen Victoria and Albert visit to Ireland in the royal yacht

27 or 28 August 1849 – Marx arrived in London

12 November 1849 – Engels arrived in London

1849–1883 – Marx lives in London

1850
1850 – Marx had an affair with Helene “Lenchen” Demuth (1820–1890) and an illegitimate son Frederick Demuth was born in 1851

January 1850 – Britain blockades Athens to force Greece to settle Pacifico’s claims

January 1850 – Royal Commission formed to organise the Great Exhibition with Prince Albert as the chair, Lord John Russell, Peel, Henry Labouchere (President of the Board of Trade), architects Barry and Cubitt

5 April 1850–April 1852 –Francis Galton visits Cape Town, Walfish Bay (August 1850), Barmen, Lake Omanbonde, Damaraland, Barmen (August 1851), Tounobis, Walfish Bay

8 May–2 December 1850 – Marx lived at 64 Dean Street, Soho

30 May 1850 – Commons Chamber first used completed Palace of Westminster; permanently occupied from 3 February 1852

June 1850 – Marx acquired an admission card to the library of the British Museum

25 June 1850 – Lord Palmerston’s speech to Parliament on the Don Pacifico affair (using the phrase Civis romanus sum)

2 July 1850 – death of Sir Robert Peel

c. November 1850 – Engels moves to Manchester to serve as a clerk in his father’s business Ermen and Engels

December 1850–September 1856 – Marx family lives at 28 Dean Street, Soho

December 1850–August 1864 – Taiping Rebellion, civil war in China between the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan

16 December 1850 – first ships of settlers arrived in Canterbury, New Zealand

1850s
1851
12 February 1851 – Edward Hargraves discovers gold at Ophir, Lewis Ponds Creek, tributary of the Macquarie River, Bathurst

April 1851 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1 May–11 October 1851 – Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or The Great Exhibition, in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London

14 May 1851–c. 1880 – New South Wales gold rush starting in the Macquarie River, Bathurst

23 June 1851 – Marx’s illegitimate child Henry Frederick was born

October 1851–July 1853 – William Stanley Jevons at University College, London; he leaves without degree

November 1851 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1852
26 May–26 June 1852 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1852 – Marx published The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, an analysis of the French revolution of 1848 and the rise of the emperor Louis Napoleon III

3 February 1852 – Commons Chamber permanently occupied in the completed Palace of Westminster

June 1852 – Albert buys Balmoral for £32,000

30 June 1852 – New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, which grants self-government to the Colony of New Zealand

14 September 1852 – death of Arthur Wellesley (1 May 1769–14 September 1852; 1st Duke of Wellington) at Walmer Castle in Deal

October–November 1852 – the Cologne communist trial saw a number of the members of the Communist league connected with Marx and Willich jailed as seditious revolutionaries, and Marx agreed to the dissolution of the league

18 November 1852 – state funeral of the Duke of Wellington, buried in a sarcophagus of luxulyanite in St Paul’s Cathedral next to Lord Nelson

27 November 1852 – death of Ada Lovelace (Augusta Ada King-Noel, Countess of Lovelace) from uterine cancer

20 December 1852 – Lower Burma was formally annexed by the British empire

1853
2 February 1853 – Edward Gibbon Wakefield arrives in Christchurch; after a month goes to Wellington

6 July–September 1853 – Richard Francis Burton’s journey to Suez (July), Yambu (18 July), Medina, Mecca (11–12 September 1853), Jeddah (26 September)

1 August 1853 – marriage of Francis Galton and Louisa Jane Butler (1822–1897)

August 1853–c. spring 1854 – Francis Galton and Louisa Jane Butler visit Switzerland, Florence, and Rome

October 1853–30 March 1856 – Crimean war

1853–1862 – Marx turned to journalism in papers in England, the US, Prussia, Austria and South Africa, but mostly in the New York Tribune

30 April–May 1853 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1854
1854 – Marx befriended by David Urquhart (1805–1877)

1854–1862 – Alfred Russel Wallace travels through the Malay Archipelago or East Indies

18 April 1854–April 1862 – Alfred Russel Wallace travels through the Malay Archipelago or East Indies

2 May 1854–1858 – Samuel Butler at St John, Cambridge

24 May 1854 – 12 noon: 1st New Zealand Parliament opened in Auckland

29 June 1854 – William Stanley Jevons sails from Britain to Sydney, Australia

September 1854 – Richard Francis Burton first meets John Hanning Speke in Aden

6 October 1854–March 1859 – William Stanley Jevons in Australia as assayer to the new mint; Hunter River (May 1865); Wollongong (April 1857); Melbourne (March 1859)

29 October 1854–9 February 1855 – Richard Francis Burton makes an expedition to Harar (in present-day Ethiopia)

1855
2 March 1855–13 March 1881 – reign of Alexander II of Russia

April 1855 – Marx’s son Edgar died

16 April–May 1855 – Marx and his wife visit Engels in Manchester

15 May–15 November 1855 – the Exposition Universelle of 1855, held in the Palais de l’Industrie, the Champs-Élysées in Paris

June–30 September 1855 – Richard Francis Burton rejoins the army and travels to the Crimea to fight in the Crimean War

c. August 1855–June 1860 – Edward Augustus Freeman lives in Llanrumney Hall, Cardiff

September–c.November 1855 – Marx and his wife visit Engels in Manchester

15 September 1855 – Edward Gibbon Wakefield retired from the Hutt seat and leaves political life

1856
1856–1863 – pea plant experiments conducted by Gregor Johann Mendel (20 July 1822–6 January 1884) on the rules of heredity at the Augustinian St Thomas’s Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia

29 September 1856–April 1864 – Marx family lives at 9 Grafton Terrace, Haverstock Hill, Kentish Town
8 May–2 December 1850 – Marx family lives at 64 Dean Street, Soho
December 1850–September 1856 – Marx family lives at 28 Dean Street, Soho
29 September 1856–April 1864 – Marx family lives at 9 Grafton Terrace, Haverstock Hill, Kentish Town
March 1864–March 1875 – Marx family lives at 1 Modena Villas (now 1 Maitland Park) in North London
March 1875–14 March 1883 – Marx lives at 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street) until he died
1856–1859 – the Second Opium War

6 May 1856 – birth of Sigmund Freud

c. July 1856 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

8 October 1856–24 October 1860 – Second Anglo-Chinese War (the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China), a war between the United Kingdom (with the French Empire) and the Qing dynasty of China

1857
1857 – Francis Galton and his wife move to 42 Rutland Gate, where he lives until his death in 1911

27 June 1857–February 1859 – John Hanning Speke and Richard Francis Burton set out from Zanzibar and discover Lake Tanganyika February 1858) and Lake Victoria, the source of the Nile

1857 – UK recession

1857–1858 – Marx writes Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie (Outlines of the Critique of Political Economy), which were not even published until 1939

May 1857–June 1858 – Indian mutiny

2 May 1857 – the Reading Room extension of the British Library officially opened; from 8–16 May, the library was opened for a special public viewing

1858
31 January 1858 – launch of the SS Great Eastern at the Isle of Dogs, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel

1 May–c. late May 1858 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1 July 1858 – papers by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace on natural selection are read to the Linnean Society of London

23 July 1858 – UK parliament passes Jewish Relief Act, which allows Jews to enter Parliament

2 August 1858 – Government of India Act 1858, the company was formally dissolved and its ruling powers over India were transferred to the British Crown

27 October 1858 – Theodore Roosevelt born at East 20th Street in New York City, New York

autumn 1858–spring 1859 – Samuel Butler moves to Heddon Street, London, to work as an assistant to Reverend Philip Perring

1859
March–September 1859 – William Stanley Jevons returns to Britain via Peru, Panama, Havana, and the United States

June 1859 – Marx published A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy

c.June–July 1859 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels and Dundee to see Peter Imandt and Heise

9 June 1859 – emergence of the British Liberal Party. British Prime Ministers:
Liberal
12 June 1859–18 October 1865 – Henry John Temple (3rd Viscount Palmerston)
29 October 1865–28 June 1866 – John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
Conservative
28 June 1866–25 February 1868 – Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby
27 February 1868–1 December 1868 – Benjamin Disraeli is British Minister
Liberal
3 December 1868–17 February 1874 – William Ewart Gladstone is British Minister
30 September 1859 – Samuel Butler leaves England for New Zealand on board the Roman Emperor at Gravesend

October 1859–October 1860 – William Stanley Jevons returns to University College, London, to finish his BA degree

24 November 1859 – Origin of Species published

1860
1860 – Marx became anathema to the German émigré community in London when Karl Vogt accused Marx of being a police informer and having sold out his political allies

c. January 1860 – Julius von Haast moves to Canterbury; he becomes the provincial geologist at Canterbury from 1861 to 1868

27 January 1860 – Samuel Butler arrives in Lyttleton, New Zealand

27 January 1860–15 June 1864 – the novelist Samuel Butler in New Zealand
1860
c. March–April 1860 – Samuel Butler travels up the Waimakariri and sees Arthur’s Pass by looking up the Bealey River
April 1860 – Samuel Butler rides up the Rangitata River
6 September 1860 – Samuel Butler registered his claim to Run 387 between Bush Stream and Forest Creek overlooking the Rangitata River; on 22 September Run 242 is given to him
2 October 1860 – Samuel Butler sets off to the future site of Mesopotamia station from Christchurch
25 December 1860 – Christmas at Mesopotamia

1861
15 February 1861 – Julius von Haast officially becomes Canterbury’s Provincial Geologist
January–February 1861 – Samuel Butler and John Holland Baker explore the sources of the Lawrence, Havelock, Clyde, and Rangitata rivers; this trip is re-told in the beginning of Erewhon
March 1861 – Samuel Butler’s holdings amount to over 40,000 acres, with 2000 sheep; he has 6 workers
April 1861 – Julius von Haast stays with Samuel Butler at Mesopotamia while surveying the region around the Rangitata River, New Zealand
25 May 1861 – the Christchurch The Press begins under the ownership of James Edward Fitzgerald
September 1861 – Samuel Butler’s second hut at Mesopotamia finished; in this year he rides to Mount Somers to visit the Tripps

1862
March 1862 – Samuel Butler takes John Brabazon as a partner
August 1862 – Samuel Butler starts to shift to Christchurch; he corrects proofs of A First Year in Canterbury Settlement
August 1862 – Samuel Butler renounces Christianity
20 December 1862 – Samuel Butler publishes “Darwin on the Origin of Species, A Dialogue” in the Christchurch The Press

1863
13 June 1863 – Samuel Butler publishes “Darwin among the Machines” in The Press newspaper in Christchurch, New Zealand
September 1863 – Samuel Butler mainly based in Christchurch and staying at Carlton Hotel on the Papanui Road; he first meets Charles Paine Pauli
December 1863 – Samuel Butler rides with William Parkerson to Mesopotamia

1864
March 1864 – Arthur Dudley Dobson and his brother Edward find Arthur’s Pass
May 1864 – William Parkerson takes Mesopotamia
9 June 1864 – Samuel Butler says farewell to Julius von Haast
15 June 1864 – Samuel Butler and Charles Paine Pauli sail from Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, to return to England, via Callao, Panama, and St Thomas
16 February–23 March 1860 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

11 May–30 September 1860 – Garibaldi’s Redshirts invade Sicily and Naples

June 1860–c. February 1884 – Edward Augustus Freeman lives year round in Somerleaze, north-west of Wells, Somerset

16 June 1860 – first voyage of the SS Great Eastern to North America

30 June 1860 – famous debate on Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species between Samuel Wilberforce and Thomas Henry Huxley at Oxford University Museum, during the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

6 September 1860 – Samuel Butler registered his claim to Run 387 between Bush Stream and Forest Creek overlooking the Rangitata River; this becomes the Mesopotamia run

2 October 1860 – Samuel Butler sets off to the future site of Mesopotamia station from Christchurch, New Zealand

November 1860 – Marx’s wife Jenny fell seriously ill with smallpox; Marx read Darwin’s revolutionary book On the Origin of Species

6 November 1860 – United States presidential election of 1860; Abraham Lincoln elected

December 1860 – Marx published Karl Vogt

1 December 1860–3 August 1861 – Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations published in the journal All the Year Round in the UK

1861
16 March 1861 – death of Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (17 August 1786–16 March 1861), later Duchess of Kent and Strathearn, mother of Queen Victoria

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