Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Chronology from 1945 to 1990s

1945
1945 – Karl Popper publishes The Open Society and Its Enemies

1945 – Bertrand Russell’s A History of Western Philosophy is published by Allen & Unwin

1945–1969 – Ludwig von Mises is a visiting professor at New York University

7 May 1945 – SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany’s surrender

8 May 1945 – Victory in Europe Day

5 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election of 1945; some polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks:
Party | Leader | Seats | Vote
Labour | Clement Attlee | 393 | 47.7%
Conservative | Winston Churchill | 197 | 36.2%
Liberal | Sir Archibald Sinclair, Bt | 12 | 9.0%
Liberal National | Ernest Brown | 11 | 2.9%
Communist | Harry Pollitt | 2 | 0.4
17 July–2 August 1945 – Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany

26 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election results counted and declared on 26 July owing in part to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas

26 July 1945 – Churchill resigns as British Prime Minister

26 July 1945–26 October 1951 – Clement Attlee as British Prime Minister

15 August 1945 – Emperor Hirohito issues a radio broadcast announcing the Surrender of Japan

17 August 1945 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Animal Farm: A Fairy Story in Britain; on 26 August 1946 in the US

2 September 1945 – The Japanese Instrument of Surrender is signed on the deck of the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay

2 September 1945 – formal end of WWII

5 September 1945 – Singapore is officially liberated by British and Indian troops

9 September 1945 – Japanese troops in China formally surrender, end of the Second Sino-Japanese War

24 October 1945 – the United Nations officially comes into existence on the ratification of the UN Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council (France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the UK and the US) and a majority of the other 46 signatories

22 December 1945 – death of Otto Neurath in Britain

1946
January 1946 – Karl Popper arrives back in England from New Zealand

6 January 1946 – the first meeting of the UN General Assembly (with 51 nations present) and the Security Council takes place in London (the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the United Nations; the facility was completed in 1952)

20 January 1946 – de Gaulle abruptly resigned

5 March 1946 – Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri

21 April 1946 – John Maynard Keynes dies at his home Tilton in Firle, Sussex

4 June 1946–21 September 1955 – Juan Perón is President of Argentina

22 July 1946 – release date of the film Beware of Pity, starring Lilli Palmer, Albert Lieven and Cedric Hardwicke

13 August 1946 – death of H. G. Wells

20 December 1946 – release date of Frank Capra’s film It’s a Wonderful Life

1947
1947–1953 – Karl Polanyi teaches at Columbia University as Professor of Economics in New York; he retired in 1953

1947 – Eric Hobsbawm appointed as Lecturer in History at Birkbeck College, London

10 April 1947 – creation of The Mont Pelerin Society at a conference organized by Friedrich Hayek at Mont Pèlerin, the Swiss resort

26 May 1947 – release date of the film Black Narcissus, starring Deborah Kerr

18 July 1947 – the Indian Independence Act 1947 is given royal assent; the act partitioned British India into India and Pakistan

15 August 1947 – India partitioned British India into India and Pakistan

September–November 1947 – the 1947 Jammu massacres in the Jammu region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India

October 1947 – the House on Un-American Activities Committee holds nine days of hearings in Los Angeles about communists in Hollywood

22 October 1947–1 January 1949 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948

1948
4 January 1948 – Burma’s declaration of independence from the UK

30 January 1948 – assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

26 May 1948 – the 1948 parliamentary election of South Africa, in which The United Party (led by the incumbent Prime Minister Jan Smuts) was defeated by the Reunited National Party (Herenigde Nasionale Party in Afrikaans), led by Daniel Francois Malan

30 June 1948 – UK release date of film Oliver Twist, starring Alec Guinness

30 July 1948 – royal assent given to the British Nationality Act 1948, which creates the status of “Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies” (CUKC) as the national citizenship of the United Kingdom and its colonies

22 November 1948 – release of the British anthology film Quartet, adapted from W. Somerset Maugham stories

1949
1949 – Ludwig Lachmann appointed to a chair in Economics and Economic History at the University of Wittwatersrand in South Africa

1949 – Paul M. Sweezy publishes Karl Marx and the Close of His System and Böhm-Bawerk’s Criticism of Marx (August M. Kelley, New York)

1949 – Ronald Syme elected as Camden Professor of Ancient History at Oxford; he retired in 1970

May 1949 – the first issue of Paul M. Sweezy and Leo Huberman’s Monthly Review

June 1949 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Nineteen Eighty-Four

October 1949 – Kim Philby arrives in Washington as British intelligence liaison to the US intelligence agencies

c. October 1949 – Nicholas Kaldor appointed as a fellow and lecturer of King’s College, Cambridge

October 1949 – Theodor W. Adorno left America and returns to Germany, where he teaches at Frankfurt University

1950s
1950
8 January 1950 – death of Joseph Schumpeter

21 January 1950 – death of George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair)

23 February 1950 – British general election gave Labour a massively reduced majority of five

February 1950 – Friedrich Hayek submits a letter of resignation to the London School of Economics (LSE); Hayek teaches at the University of Chicago (from 1950–1962)

25 June 1950–27 July 1953 – Korean War

1 August 1950 – release of the British anthology film Trio, based on three short stories by W. Somerset Maugham

September 1950 – The Authoritarian Personality is published, by Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson, and Nevitt Sanford, who were working at the University of California, Berkeley

October 1950 – China invades Tibet

16 October 1950 – C. S. Lewis publishes The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (the novel is set in 1940)

2 November 1950 – death of George Bernard Shaw at the age of 94 at Shaw’s Corner, Ayot St Lawrence, in Hertfordshire, England

1951
25 May 1951 – Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean flee from Britain to Russia

July 1951 – Kim Philby resigns from MI6

27 August 1951–21 November 1951 – the 1951 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition led by Eric Shipton reconnoitres possible routes for climbing Mount Everest from Nepal; the best one found was through the Khumbu Icefall, Western Cwm and South Col; Edmund Hillary is part of the expedition

15 October 1951 – C. S. Lewis publishes Prince Caspian, second volume of the The Chronicles of Narnia

25 October 1951 – United Kingdom general election. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Labour | Clement Attlee | 295
Conservative | Winston Churchill | 302
National Liberal | James Stuart | 19
Liberal | Clement Davies | 6.
The Conservatives won.

26 October 1951 – Winston Churchill as British Prime Minister (26 October 1951–6 April 1955)

November 1951 – the Himalayan expedition of Eric Shipton (with Michael Ward, Bill Murray, and Tom Bourdillon), while scouting for a new route to Everest, discover so-called “yeti” tracks in the snow near the head of Menlung Glacier

14 November 1951 – release of the British anthology film Encore, an adaptation of three short stories by W. Somerset Maugham

1952
1952 – John Cairncross resigns from the government

6 February 1952 – death of George VI; accession of Elizabeth II

August 1952 – C. S. Lewis first meets Joy Davidman Gresham

18 September 1952 – Charlie Chaplin boards the RMS Queen Elizabeth with his family but the next day has his re-entry revoked

15 December 1952 – Bertrand Russell marries Edith Finch, his fourth wife

1953
1953 – Noam Chomsky and his wife Carol Doris Schatz visit England, France, Switzerland and Italy, and 6 weeks at a kibbutz in Israel

January 1953 – Charlie Chaplin and his family move to Manoir de Ban, overlooking Lake Geneva in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland

20 January 1953–20 January 1961 – Dwight D. Eisenhower is President of the United States

5 March 1953 – death of Stalin

29 May 1953 – Edmund Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers to reach the summit of Mount Everest

2 June 1953 – coronation of Queen Elizabeth II as monarch of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon

18 June 1953 – the Egyptian Republic was declared

27 July 1953 – end of the Korean War

15–19 August 1953 – the 1953 Iranian coup d’état, the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of the shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, with help from the United Kingdom and the United States

14 September 1953–14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

1954
January 1954 – Daily Mail Snowman Expedition leaves Katmandu

7 June 1954 – death of Alan Turing

18–27 June 1954 – the 1954 Guatemalan coup d’état, a covert operation CIA to depose the democratically-elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz; it installs the military dictatorship of Carlos Castillo Armas

29 July 1954 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Fellowship of the Ring, the first volume of The Lord of the Rings

11 November 1954 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Two Towers, the second volume of The Lord of the Rings

1955
6 April 1955 – Winston Churchill steps down as British Prime Minister

6 April 1955–10 January 1957 – Anthony Eden (Conservative) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

June 1955 – Bertrand Russell leases Plas Penrhyn in Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire, Wales; from 5 July 1956 this is his principal home

October 1955 – Kim Philby officially cleared by Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan

20 October 1955 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Return of the King, the third volume of The Lord of the Rings

1956
25 February 1956 – Nikita Khrushchev gives a secret speech denouncing Stalin at the 20th Soviet Party Congress

23 April 1956 – Helen Joy Davidman marries C. S. Lewis in a civil marriage at the register office, 42 St Giles’, Oxford

13 June 1956 – British forces complete their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone

19 July 1956 – the US State Department rejects American financial assistance for the Egyptian High Dam

26 July 1956 – Nasser nationalised the Suez Canal

5 October 1956 – release date of the film The Ten Commandments, directed by Cecil B. DeMille and starring Charlton Heston and Yul Brynner

29 October 1956–7 November 1956 – the Suez Crisis (Tripartite Aggression), the invasion of Egypt by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France

1957
1957 – Noam Chomsky is promoted to the position of associate professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

1957 – Ayn Rand publishes Atlas Shrugged

10 January 1957–19 October 1963 – Harold Macmillan (Conservative) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

February 1957 – publication of Syntactic Structures by Noam Chomsky, which introduces the idea of transformational generative grammar

2 May 1957 – release date of the film The Curse of Frankenstein, directed by Terence Fisher, and starring Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee

26 August 1957 – release date of the film The Abominable Snowman, starring Peter Cushing and Forrest Tucker

31 August 1957 – Federation of Malaya’s independence from the British Empire

1958
February–June 1958 – the Slick-Johnson Snowman Expedition, led by Gerald Russell and Peter and Bryan Byrne

20 February 1958 – Italian release date of the film Le fatiche di Ercole (The Labours of Hercules or Hercules), starring Steve Reeves; US release date 22 July 1959

27 March 1958–14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union

8 May 1958 – release date of the film UK Dracula, directed by Terence Fisher and starring Christopher Lee and Peter Cushing

1 June 1958 – de Gaulle became Premier and was given emergency powers for six months by the National Assembly, fulfilling his desire for parliamentary legitimacy

1 June 1958–8 January 1959 – de Gaulle Prime Minister of France

17 September 1958–25 November 1959 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story Tintin in Tibet in Tintin magazine

28 September 1958 – a French referendum took place and 79.2 percent of those who voted supported the new constitution and the creation of the Fifth Republic

1959
8 January 1959–28 April 1969 – de Gaulle President of the French Republic

18 November 1959 – release date of the film Ben-Hur, directed by William Wyler and starring Charlton Heston

December 1959 – Slick-Johnson Snowman Expedition, with Peter Byrne

1960
February 1960 – Friedrich Hayek publishes The Constitution of Liberty

27 May 1960 – Piero Sraffa publishes The Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities; Italian publication on 6 June 1960

13 July 1960 – death of Helen Joy Davidman

September 1960–June 1961 – the World Book Encyclopedia scientific expedition to the Himalayas, led by Sir Edmund Hillary and Marlin Perkins, to study adaptation to high altitude and to search for the yeti

5 October 1960 – South African republic referendum; 52.29% of voters endorse withdrawal from the British Commonwealth and the establishment of a Republic of South Africa

1960s
1961
8 January 1961 – referendum on self-determination for Algeria was held in France

20 January 1961 – John F. Kennedy inaugurated as US president (in office 20 January 1961–22 November 1963)

31 May 1961 – establishment of the republic of South Africa

1962
18 April 1962 – royal assent given to Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962

1 June 1962 – Friedrich Hayek leaves New York for Naples (arriving on 13 June)

c. 15 June 1962–July 1968 – Friedrich Hayek is professor at the University of Freiburg, Germany

3 July 1962 – France recognised Algerian independence

October 1962 – Cuban missile crisis

5 October 1962 – release date of the James Bond film Dr. No in the United Kingdom

10 December 1962 – release date of the film Lawrence of Arabia, directed by David Lean and starring Peter O’Toole

1963
January 1963 – Gore Vidal and Austen leave for Italy; they take an apartment on Via Giulia in Rome

23 January 1963 – Kim Philby vanishes from Beirut

June 1963 – John F. Kennedy visits Ireland

1 July 1963 – Kim Philby’s flight to Moscow officially confirmed

28 August 1963 – the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, at which Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his 17-minute speech, later known as “I Have a Dream”

11 October 1963 – release date of the James Bond film From Russia with Love in the United Kingdom

22 November 1963 – the assassination of John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, at 12:30 pm Central Standard Time on Friday; Lyndon B. Johnson sworn in as President on Air Force One in Dallas on 22 November 1963

22 November 1963 – death of C. S. Lewis

23 November 1963 – broadcast date of the first Doctor Who TV program An Unearthly Child in the UK

25 November 1963 – a Requiem Mass held for John F. Kennedy at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle

21 December 1963–1 February 1964 – broadcast dates of the Doctor Who TV program The Daleks in the UK

1964
23 April 1964 – Anthony Blunt secretly confessed to MI5 about his spying

18 September 1964 – release date of the James Bond film Goldfinger in the United Kingdom

14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is forced to resign as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union

14 October 1964–10 November 1982 – Leonid Brezhnev is General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Brezhnev becomes Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union on 16 June 1977

1965
24 January 1965 – death of Winston Churchill

30 January 1965 – the state funeral service of Winston Churchill held at St Paul’s Cathedral

23 August 1965 – release date of the film Dr. Who and the Daleks, starring Peter Cushing

22 September 1965 – the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (or the Hart–Celler Act) is passed in the US Senate (25 August 1965 in the House); effective from 30 June 1968

8 December 1965 – royal assent given to the UK Race Relations Act 1965, the first legislation to outlaw discrimination on the grounds of colour, race, or ethnic or national origins in public places

21 December 1965 – release date of the James Bond film Thunderball in the United States; released in the UK on 29 December 1965

1966
1966 – Gore Vidal and Austen take the Via di Torre Argentina, Rome, Italy (their residence in Rome until 1993 when he lives year round in La Rondinaia)

1966 – Paul A. Baran and Paul M. Sweezy publish Monopoly Capital: An Essay on the American Economic and Social Order (Monthly Review Press)

5 August 1966 – release date of the film Daleks – Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D., starring Peter Cushing

1967
5–10 June 1967 – the Six-Day War

8 June 1967 – the USS Liberty incident, during the Six-Day War (5–10 June 1967)

1 July 1967–7 August 1970 – the War of Attrition between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, the PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970

25 August 1967 – murder of George Lincoln Rockwell while leaving a laundromat in Arlington, Virginia

October 1967–February 1970 – the US experiences a spike in inflation owing to bidding up of wages with low unemployment

1968
31 January 1968 – the Viet Cong launch the Tet Offensive

1 March 1968 – royal assent to the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968, which reduced the rights of citizens of the Commonwealth of Nations countries to migrate to the UK; the 1968 Act was superseded by the Immigration Act 1971

April 1968 – UK Race Relations Bill

4 April 1968 – murder of Martin Luther King

20 April 1968 – Enoch Powell’s notorious address to the General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Centre, which became known as the “Rivers of Blood” speech

30 May 1968 – President Charles de Gaulle disbands the French parliament

6 June 1968 – death of Randolph Spencer-Churchill (1911–1968), son of Winston

6 June 1968 – death of Robert F. Kennedy after being shot in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California by Sirhan Bishara Sirhan

25 October 1968 – royal assent given to Race Relations Act 1968, which makes it illegal to refuse housing, employment, or public services to a person on the grounds of colour, race, ethnic or national origins (repealed by the Race Relations Act 1976)

5 November 1968 – the United States presidential election of 1968. Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew (Republican) defeat Vice President Hubert Humphrey (Democratic). The results:
Candidate | Electoral Votes
Richard Nixon | 301
Hubert Humphrey | 191
George Wallace | 46.
1969
20 January 1969 – Richard Nixon inaugurated as US president. Nixon’s cabinet appointments:
Vice President
20 January 1969–10 October 1973 – Spiro Agnew
6 December 1973–9 August 1974 – Gerald Ford
White House Chief of Staff
20 January 1969–30 April 1973 – Harry R. Haldeman
4 May 1973–21 September 1974 – Alexander Haig
21 September 1974–20 November 1975 – Donald Rumsfeld
20 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Dick Cheney
White House Domestic Affairs Advisor
4 November 1969–30 April 1973 – John Ehrlichman
1 May 1973–8 January 1974 – Melvin Laird
White House Adviser and Speechwriter
Patrick Buchanan
White House Counsel
20 January 1969–4 November 1969 – John Ehrlichman
6 November 1969–9 July 1970 – Charles Colson
9 July 1970–30 April 1973 – John Dean
30 April 1973–9 August 1974 – Leonard Garment
National Security Advisor
20 January 20 1969–3 November 1975 – Henry Kissinger
3 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Brent Scowcroft
US Secretary of State
22 January 1969–3 September 1973 – William P. Rogers
22 September 1973–20 January 1977 – Henry Kissinger
US Secretary of the Treasury
22 January 1969–11 February 1971 – David M. Kennedy
11 February 1971–12 June 1972 – John Connally
12 June 1972–8 May 1974 – George P. Shultz
9 May 1974–20 January 1977 – William E. Simon
Secretary of Defense
22 January 1969–29 January 1973 – Melvin Laird
30 January 1973–24 May 1973 – Elliot Richardson
2 July 1973–19 November 1975 – James R. Schlesinger
20 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Donald Rumsfeld
US Attorney General
21 January 1969–1 March 1972 – John N. Mitchell
12 June 1972–30 April 1973 – Richard Kleindienst
25 May 1973–20 October 1973 – Elliot Richardson (resigned)
4 January 1974–2 February 1975 – William B. Saxbe
2 February 1975–20 January 1977 – Edward H. Levi
Chair of the Federal Reserve
2 April 1951–1 February 1970 – William M. Martin
1 February 1970–31 January 1978 – Arthur F. Burns
Director of Central Intelligence
30 June 1966–2 February 1973 – Richard Helms
2 February 1973–2 July 1973 – James R. Schlesinger
2 July 1973–4 September 1973 – Vernon A. Walters (acting)
4 September 1973–30 January 1976 – William Colby
30 January 1976–20 January 1977 – George H. W. Bush
Director of FBI
1 July 1935–2 May 1972 – J. Edgar Hoover
3 May 1972–27 April 1973 – L. Patrick Gray
30 April 1973–9 July 1973 – William Ruckelshaus
9 July 1973–15 February 1978 – Clarence M. Kelley
20 January 1969–9 August 1974 – Richard Nixon is US president

23 February–2 March 1969 – Richard Nixon’s state visit to Europe:
23–24 February 1969 – Brussels, Belgium to the 23rd meeting of North Atlantic Council
24–26 February 1969 – informal visit to London, United Kingdom
26–27 February 1969 – West Berlin and Bonn, West Germany; address to the Bundestag
27–28 February 1969 – Rome, Italy
28 February–2 March 1969 – Paris, France; meeting with President Charles de Gaulle
2 March 1969 – Vatican City; audience with Pope Paul VI
2–15 March 1969 – the Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969: Chinese and Soviet troops fight on Zhenbao (Damansky) Island on the Ussuri (Wusuli) River

19 April 1969–21 June 1969 – UK broadcast date of “The War Games,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Patrick Troughton

28 April 1969 – President Charles de Gaulle resigns the presidency at noon

20 July 1969 – 20:18 UTC, Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin land the lunar module Eagle on the moon at the Sea of Tranquility, as part of the United States Apollo 11 first manned mission to land on the Moon

26 July–3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon’s state visits to Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, South Vietnam, India, Pakistan, Romania, and the UK:
26–27 July 1969 – visit to Manila, Philippines to meet with President Ferdinand Marcos
27–28 July 1969 – visit to Jakarta, Indonesia, to meet with President Suharto
28–30 July 1969 – visit to Bangkok, Thailand
30 July 1969 – visit to Saigon, South Vietnam to meet with President Nguyen Van Thieu
31 July–1 August 1969 – visit to New Delhi, India
1–2 August 1969 – visit to Lahore, Pakistan
2–3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon visits Bucharest, Romania, to meet with President Nicolae Ceaușescu
3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon meets Prime Minister Harold Wilson in Britain
August 1969 – the Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 along the western section of the Sino-Soviet border in Xinjiang; the Tasiti incident; the Bacha Dao incident; the Tielieketi Incident

8 September 1969 – Richard Nixon visits Mexico for the dedication of Amistad Dam with President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz

December 1969–1977 – Friedrich Hayek is professor at the University of Salzburg, Austria

1970
3 January 1970 – UK broadcast date of “Spearhead from Space,” the first serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee:
3, 10, 17, 24 January 1970 – “Spearhead from Space”
31 January 1970, 7, 14, 21, and 28 February 1970, 7, 14 March 1970 – “Doctor Who and the Silurians”
21, 28 March 1970, 4, 11, 18, 25 April 1970 and 2 May 1970 – “The Ambassadors of Death”
9, 16, 23, 30 May 1970, 6, 13, 20 June 1970 – “Inferno”
2 February 1970 – death of Bertrand Russell in Penrhyndeudraeth, Wales

15 March 1970 – the first operational Soviet SAM site in Egypt completed

9 May 1970–20 June 1970 – UK broadcast date of “Inferno,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

18 June 1970 – the United Kingdom general election of 1970. The Conservatives under Edward Heath won:
Party | Candidate | Seats
Conservative | Edward Heath | 330
Labour | Harold Wilson | 288
Liberal | Jeremy Thorpe | 6
SNP | William Wolfe | 1.
19 June 1970–4 March 1974 – Edward Heath is British Prime Minister. Prime Ministers:
Labour
16 October 1964–19 June 1970 – Harold Wilson
Conservative
19 June 1970–4 March 1974 – Edward Heath
Labour
4 March 1974 – 5 April 1976 – Harold Wilson
5 April 1976 – 4 May 1979 – James Callaghan
Conservative
4 May 1979–28 November 1990 – Margaret Thatcher.
August 1970 – Senator Ted Kennedy introduces a bipartisan bill for universal national health insurance

7 August 1970 – a cease-fire agreement between Israel and Egypt; Egypt begins to move SAM batteries into the zone

1971
1971 – Gore Vidal buys the “La Rondinaia” (“Swallow’s Nest”), a villa in Ravello on the Amalfi coast, Italy, built by Lord Grimthorpe

10 April–15 May 1971 – UK broadcast date of “Colony in Space,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

22 May–19 June 1971 – UK broadcast date of “The Daemons,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

13 August 1971 – Richard Nixon ends Bretton Woods by suspending the convertibility of the dollar into gold; he freezes wages and prices for 90 days to combat inflation and imposes an import surcharge of 10 percent

30 September 1971 – foundation of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) by the Protestant fundamentalist leader Ian Paisley at the height of the Troubles

28 October 1971 – royal assent given to the Immigration Act 1971

1972
1 January–22 January 1972 – UK broadcast date of “Day of the Daleks,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

21–28 February 1972 – US President Richard Nixon’s 1972 visit to China

15 May 1972 – George Wallace is shot five times by Arthur Bremer while campaigning at the Laurel Shopping Center in Laurel, Maryland

June 1972–December 1974 – spike in US inflation from (1) an explosion in commodity prices from 1972; (2) wage–price spirals, and (3) the first oil shock

17 June 1972 – Virgilio González, Bernard Barker, James McCord, Eugenio Martínez, and Frank Sturgis arrested at the Watergate Complex in the DNC office

June 1972–January 1973 – secret meetings between Bob Woodward and “Deep Throat” (W. Mark Felt, deputy director of the FBI) take place at an underground parking garage in Rosslyn

23 June 1972 – Nixon orders that administration officials should make Richard Helms (Director of the CIA) and Vernon A. Walters (Deputy Director) request that L. Patrick Gray (Acting Director of the FBI) end the FBI’s investigation into the Watergate break-in on the grounds of national security; the tape of this is latter known as the “smoking gun” tape

21–23 August 1972 – the 1972 US Republican National Convention, held at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida

7 November 1972 – the United States presidential election of 1972, between Republican incumbent President Richard Nixon and Senator George McGovern of South Dakota (Democrat). The results:
Candidate | Electoral Votes
Richard Nixon | 520
George McGovern | 17.
30 December 1972–20 January 1973 – UK broadcast date of “The Three Doctors,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

1973
1 January 1973 – the UK enters the European Communities (EC) (or “Common Market”)

7 April–12 May 1973 – broadcast date of “Planet of the Daleks,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

30 April 1973 – Nixon fires John Ehrlichman and John Dean; H. R. Haldeman resigns

October 1973–March 1974 – first oil shock: Middle Eastern producers of oil institute an embargo on oil exports

6–25 October 1973 – the Yom Kippur War, between a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel; fighting mostly takes place in the Sinai and the Golan Heights (territories occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War of 1967)

10 October 1973 – Vice President Agnew resigns amid allegations of bribery, tax evasion and money laundering from his time as governor of Maryland

10 October 1973 – death of Ludwig von Mises at the age of 92 in New York

20 October 1973 – the Saturday Night Massacre: Richard Nixon fires independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox and resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus

1974
23 February 1974 – the MP Enoch Powell announces his resignation from the Conservative Party

4 May 1974–8 June 1974 – broadcast date of “Planet of the Spiders,” the final serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who with Jon Pertwee

9 May 1974 – the US House Judiciary Committee opens impeachment hearings against the President Nixon, televised on the major networks

1 July 1974 – death of Juan Perón

24 July 1974 – the US Supreme Court rules unanimously that the full White House tapes must be released

5 August 1974 – Nixon’s “smoking gun” White House tape is made public

9 August 1974 – the resignation of Richard Nixon as US president, after an address to the nation on television the previous evening

8 September 1974 – Gerald Ford’s presidential pardon of Richard Nixon

October 1974 – Enoch Powell returns to Parliament as Ulster Unionist MP for South Down, Northern Ireland

9 October 1974 – announcement of the award of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics to Friedrich Hayek and the Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal

10 October 1974–11 June 1987 – Enoch Powell is MP for South Down, Northern Ireland

1975
13 April 1975–13 October 1990 – the Lebanese Civil War

5 June 1975 – United Kingdom European Communities referendum of 1975, a referendum held on support for UK membership of the European Communities (EC) (or “Common Market”); it had entered on 1 January 1973 under Edward Heath

1976
2 November 1976 – the United States presidential election of 1976 between Jimmy Carter with Walter Mondale and President Gerald Ford with Bob Dole (the U.S. Senator from Kansas). The results:
Candidate | Electoral vote
Jimmy Carter | 297
Gerald Ford | 240.
1977
25 May 1977 – US release date of the film Star Wars directed by George Lucas

1978
2 January 1978–21 December 1981 – broadcast dates of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

2 January–27 March 1978 – broadcast dates of Series 1 of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

1979
9 January–3 April 1979 – broadcast dates of Series 2 of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

1980
7 January–31 March 1980 – broadcast dates of Series 3 of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

4 November 1980 – the United States presidential election of 1980 between the Democratic incumbent President Jimmy Carter (with Vice President Walter Mondale from Minnesota) and the Republican Ronald Reagan (former Governor from California) with George H. W. Bush. The results:
Candidate | Electoral vote
Ronald Reagan | 489
Jimmy Carter | 49.
1981
1981 – Stephen Jay Gould publishes The Mismeasure of Man

20 January 1981 – inauguration of Ronald Reagan as US president

20 January 1981–20 January 1989 – Ronald Reagan is US president

30 March 1981 – release date of the film Chariots of Fire, directed by Hugh Hudson

12 June 1981 – US release date of the film Raiders of the Lost Ark, directed by Steven Spielberg, and starring Harrison Ford, Karen Allen, John Rhys-Davies, and Denholm Elliott

19 June 1981 – release date of the film The Cannonball Run, directed by Hal Needham, and starring Burt Reynolds, Jackie Chan, and Roger Moore

24 June 1981 – release date of the film For Your Eyes Only, directed by John Glen

21 August 1981 – release date of the film An American Werewolf in London, directed by John Landis, and starring David Naughton, Jenny Agutter and Griffin Dunne

28 September–21 December 1981 – broadcast dates of Series 4 of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

6 November 1981 – US release date of the film Time Bandits, directed by Terry Gilliam and starring Sean Connery, John Cleese, Ian Holm, Michael Palin, and Peter Vaughn

1982
4 June 1982 – US release date of the film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, directed by Nicholas Meyer

6 June 1982–June 1985 – the 1982 Lebanon War (First Lebanon War), a war between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in Lebanon

11 June 1982 – US release date of the film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg

14 June–21 August 1982 – Israeli forces lay siege to Beirut

25 June 1982 – US release date of the film Blade Runner, directed by Ridley Scott, and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, and Sean Young

July 1982 – Stephen Jay Gould diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma, a form of cancer

12 August 1982 – President Ronald Reagan calls Menachem Begin and insists that attacks on Beirut be halted

17 December 1982 – US release date of the film Tootsie, directed by Sydney Pollack, and starring Dustin Hoffman and Bill Murray

17 December 1982 – US release date of the film The Dark Crystal, directed by Jim Henson and Frank Oz

1985
spring 1985 – David Horowitz publishes an article for The Washington Post Magazine entitled “Lefties for Reagan”

15 November 1985 – signing of the Anglo-Irish Agreement at Hillsborough Castle by Margaret Thatcher and the Irish Taoiseach, Garret FitzGerald

1986
1986 – David Horowitz publishes “Why I Am No Longer a Leftist” in The Village Voice

1988
6 September 1988–16 February 1993 – broadcast date of Count Duckula, a British animated television series created by British studio Cosgrove Hall Films

1989
4 September 1989 – death of Ronald Syme from cancer after collapsing in his room in August in Wolfson College, Oxford

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