Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Chronology from 1945 to 1990s

1945
1945–1950 – George Shackle at the Economic Section of the Cabinet Office

1945 – Karl Popper publishes The Open Society and Its Enemies

1945 – Bertrand Russell’s A History of Western Philosophy is published by Allen & Unwin

1945–1969 – Ludwig von Mises is a visiting professor at New York University

7 May 1945 – SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany’s surrender

8 May 1945 – Victory in Europe Day

25 June 1945–9 November 1951 – Einar Gerhardsen is Prime Minister of Norway (Labour Party)

5 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election of 1945; some polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks:
Party | Leader | Seats | Vote
Labour | Clement Attlee | 393 | 47.7%
Conservative | Winston Churchill | 197 | 36.2%
Liberal | Sir Archibald Sinclair, Bt | 12 | 9.0%
Liberal National | Ernest Brown | 11 | 2.9%
Communist | Harry Pollitt | 2 | 0.4
13 July 1945–19 December 1949 – Ben Chifley (Joseph Benedict Chifley) is Prime Minister of Australia (Labour)

17 July–2 August 1945 – Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany

26 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election results counted and declared on 26 July owing in part to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas

26 July 1945 – Churchill resigns as British Prime Minister

26 July 1945–26 October 1951 – Clement Attlee as British Prime Minister

15 August 1945 – Emperor Hirohito issues a radio broadcast announcing the Surrender of Japan

17 August 1945 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Animal Farm: A Fairy Story in Britain; on 26 August 1946 in the US

2 September 1945 – The Japanese Instrument of Surrender is signed on the deck of the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay

2 September 1945 – formal end of WWII

5 September 1945 – Singapore is officially liberated by British and Indian troops

9 September 1945 – Japanese troops in China formally surrender, end of the Second Sino-Japanese War

24 October 1945 – the United Nations officially comes into existence on the ratification of the UN Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council (France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the UK and the US) and a majority of the other 46 signatories

22 December 1945 – death of Otto Neurath in Britain

1946
1946 – Ernst Badian completes degree at Canterbury University College: BA in Classics (1944), MAs in French and Latin (1945, 1946)

1946 – Christopher Lee retires from the RAF

January 1946 – Karl Popper arrives back in England from New Zealand

January 1946–1949 – Karl Popper a reader in logic and scientific method at the London School of Economics

6 January 1946 – the first meeting of the UN General Assembly (with 51 nations present) and the Security Council takes place in London (the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the United Nations; the facility was completed in 1952)

15 January 1946–January 1952 – Heinrich Harrer in Tibet

20 January 1946 – de Gaulle abruptly resigned

5 March 1946 – Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri

21 April 1946 – John Maynard Keynes dies at his home Tilton in Firle, Sussex

24 April 1946 – cremation of John Maynard Keynes in Brighton; his ashes were scattered on the Downs above Tilton

2 May 1946 – a memorial service held at Westminster Abbey for John Maynard Keynes

4 June 1946–21 September 1955 – Juan Perón is President of Argentina

22 July 1946 – release date of the film Beware of Pity, starring Lilli Palmer, Albert Lieven and Cedric Hardwicke

13 August 1946 – death of H. G. Wells

11 October 1946–14 October 1969 – Tage Erlander is Prime Minister of Sweden (Social Democrat)

20 December 1946 – release date of Frank Capra’s film It’s a Wonderful Life

1947
1947–1948 – Ernst Badian is Junior lecturer in classics, Victoria University, New Zealand

1947–1953 – Karl Polanyi teaches at Columbia University as Professor of Economics in New York; he retired in 1953

1947–1982 – Eric Hobsbawm at Birkbeck College, London, as lecturer in history 1947–1959; reader 1959; professor 1970

January 1947–18 April 1958 – Ezra Pound held in St. Elizabeths Hospital, Chestnut Ward, US

10 April 1947 – creation of The Mont Pelerin Society at a conference organized by Friedrich Hayek at Mont Pèlerin, the Swiss resort

26 May 1947 – release date of the film Black Narcissus, starring Deborah Kerr

18 July 1947 – the Indian Independence Act 1947 is given royal assent; the act partitioned British India into India and Pakistan

15 August 1947 – India partitioned British India into India and Pakistan

15 August 1947–27 May 1964 – Jawaharlal Nehru is 1st Prime Minister of India, which becomes a new independent state

September–November 1947 – the 1947 Jammu massacres in the Jammu region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India

October 1947 – the House on Un-American Activities Committee holds nine days of hearings in Los Angeles about communists in Hollywood

22 October 1947–1 January 1949 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948

November 1947 – Orson Welles’s arrival in Rome to star in the movie Black Magic

November 1947–1956 – Orson Welles in Europe

30 December 1947 – forced abdication of King Michael I in Romania:
6 March 1945–2 June 1952 – Petru Groza is Prime Minister of Romania
30 December 1947–13 April 1948 – Constantin Ion Parhon is President of the Provisional Presidium of the Republic
13 April 1948–12 June 1952 – Constantin Ion Parhon is President of the Presidium of the Great National Assembly
2 June 1952–2 October 1955 – Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej is Prime Minister
1955–19 March 1965 – Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party
1948
c. 1948 – Ernst Badian leaves New Zealand for University College, Oxford

c. 1948–1950 – Ernst Badian at University College, Oxford

1948–1972 – Ludwig Lachmann is Professor of Economics and Economic History at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa

4 January 1948 – Burma’s declaration of independence from the UK

30 January 1948 – assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

February 1948–1973 – period of the Union Movement (renamed the Action Party in 1973), founded by Oswald Mosley

c. 14 February 1948–February 1949 – Old Vic (Laurence Olivier’s repertory theatre company) on a year-long tour of Australasia, in Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Hobart, Tasmania, Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch and Dunedin

4 May 1948 – release date of the British film Hamlet, directed by Sir Laurence Olivier, starring Laurence Olivier, Peter Cushing, Christopher Lee

14 May 1948 – 4 pm: the Israeli Declaration of Independence by David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization and Chairman of the Jewish Agency for Palestine

15 May 1948 – midnight: British Mandate for Palestine expires

15 May 1948–10 March 1949 – the 1948 Arab–Israeli War (the Israeli War of Independence) between Israel and the Arab League (Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Yemen)

26 May 1948 – the 1948 parliamentary election of South Africa, in which The United Party (led by the incumbent Prime Minister Jan Smuts) was defeated by the Reunited National Party (Herenigde Nasionale Party in Afrikaans), led by Daniel Francois Malan

4 June 1948–30 November 1954 – Daniel François Malan is Prime Minister of South Africa (National Party)

21 June 1948 – the Empire Windrush (from Kingston, Jamaica) docks at the Port of Tilbury, near London, with 1027 passengers began disembarking the next day, including around 400 West Indian immigrants

24 June 1948–12 May 1949 – the Berlin Blockade: the Soviet Union blocks the Western Allies’ railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control

26 June 1948–30 September 1949 – the Western Allies organise the Berlin airlift (to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin)

30 June 1948 – UK release date of film Oliver Twist, starring Alec Guinness

July 1948–March 1953 – Peter Byrne works for the Dooars Tea Company, at Bhogotpore T E, Ghatia, Tondoo (in the Nagarakata district)

30 July 1948 – royal assent given to the British Nationality Act 1948, which creates the status of “Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies” (CUKC) as the national citizenship of the United Kingdom and its colonies

2 September 1948–10 March 1949 – Golda Meir is Israel’s minister plenipotentiary to the Soviet Union

16 October 1948 – Golda Meir visits a Moscow synagogue during Rosh Hashanah (New Year) and is greeted by 10,000 Jewish Russians

November 1948 – the Soviet Union launches a campaign against bourgeois nationalism in the Soviet Union and Jewish culture

22 November 1948 – release of the British anthology film Quartet, adapted from W. Somerset Maugham stories

1949
1949–1969 – Karl Popper is professor of logic and scientific method at the University of London

1949 – Paul M. Sweezy publishes Karl Marx and the Close of His System and Böhm-Bawerk’s Criticism of Marx (August M. Kelley, New York)

1949 – Ronald Syme elected as Camden Professor of Ancient History at Oxford; he retired in 1970

May 1949 – the first issue of Paul M. Sweezy and Leo Huberman’s Monthly Review

23 May 1949 – creation of the Federal Republic of Germany

June 1949 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Nineteen Eighty-Four

13 June 1949 – release date of Kind Hearts and Coronets, directed by Robert Hamer, starring Dennis Price, Joan Greenwood, Valerie Hobson and Alec Guinness

14 August 1949 – federal elections held in West Germany to elect the first Bundestag

19 August 1949 – US release date of the movie Black Magic, directed by Gregory Ratoff, starring Orson Welles

15 September 1949–11 October 1963 – Konrad Adenauer is first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany

October 1949 – Kim Philby arrives in Washington as British intelligence liaison to the US intelligence agencies

c. October 1949 – Nicholas Kaldor appointed as a fellow and lecturer of King’s College, Cambridge

October 1949 – Theodor W. Adorno left America and returns to Germany, where he teaches at Frankfurt University

December 1949–September 1951 – Pitești Prison reeducation experiments, in Pitești, Romania

10 December 1949 – the Australian federal election of 1949; Ben Chifley defeated by Robert Menzies

13 December 1949 – Peter Fraser leaves office as Prime Minister of New Zealand (27 March 1940–13 December 1949 for Labour)

13 December 1949–20 September 1957 – Sidney Holland is Prime Minister of New Zealand (National)

19 December 1949–26 January 1966 – Robert Menzies is Prime Minister of Australia

31 December 1949 – Cunard acquired Cunard-White Star’s assets and operations, and reverted to the name “Cunard” on January 1, 1950

1950s
1950
1950–1952 – Ernst Badian holds a scholarship at the British School at Rome

1950–1960 – construction of a dam north of the town of Bicaz, creating Lake Izvorul Muntelui (Lake Bicaz)

8 January 1950 – death of Joseph Schumpeter

21 January 1950 – death of George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair)

February 1950 – Friedrich Hayek submits a letter of resignation to the London School of Economics (LSE); Hayek teaches at the University of Chicago (from 1950–1962)

23 February 1950 – British general election gave Labour a massively reduced majority of five

23 February 1950 – Enoch Powell elected as Conservative MP for Wolverhampton South West in the UK general election 1950

16 March 1950 – Enoch Powell made his maiden speech in parliament

19 April 1950 – Ludwig Lachmann gives inaugural lecture at the University of the Witwatersrand

25 June 1950–27 July 1953 – Korean War

1 August 1950 – release of the British anthology film Trio, based on three short stories by W. Somerset Maugham

September 1950 – The Authoritarian Personality is published, by Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson, and Nevitt Sanford, who were working at the University of California, Berkeley

October 1950 – China invades Tibet

16 October 1950 – C. S. Lewis publishes The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (the novel is set in 1940)

2 November 1950 – death of George Bernard Shaw at the age of 94 at Shaw’s Corner, Ayot St Lawrence, in Hertfordshire, England

7 November 1950–7 January 1951 – Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah is king of Nepal

17 November 1950 – Tenzin Gyatso becomes the 14th Dalai Lama

1951
7 January 1951–13 March 1955 – Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah is king of Nepal

March 1951 – Oswald Mosley leaves Britain for Ireland

March 1951–1953 – Oswald Mosley lives Eyrecourt in Galway

by May 1951–1969 – George L. S. Shackle is Brunner Professor Economics Science, University of Liverpool (Emeritus Professor after 1969)

25 May 1951 – Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean flee from Britain to Russia

23 May 1951 – signing of the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet by Ngapoi Ngawang in Beijing

July 1951 – Kim Philby resigns from MI6

27 August–21 November 1951 – the 1951 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition led by Eric Shipton reconnoitres possible routes for climbing Mount Everest from Nepal; the best one found was through the Khumbu Icefall, Western Cwm and South Col; Edmund Hillary is part of the expedition

15 October 1951 – C. S. Lewis publishes Prince Caspian, second volume of the The Chronicles of Narnia

25 October 1951 – United Kingdom general election. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Labour | Clement Attlee | 295
Conservative | Winston Churchill | 302
National Liberal | James Stuart | 19
Liberal | Clement Davies | 6.
The Conservatives won.

26 October 1951–6 April 1955 – Winston Churchill is British Prime Minister

November 1951 – the Himalayan expedition of Eric Shipton (with Michael Ward, Bill Murray, and Tom Bourdillon), while scouting for a new route to Everest, discover so-called “yeti” tracks in the snow near the head of Menlung Glacier

9 November 1951–22 January 1955 – Oscar Torp is Prime Minister of Norway (Labour Party)

14 November 1951 – release of the British anthology film Encore, an adaptation of three short stories by W. Somerset Maugham

1952
1952–1954 – Ernst Badian is assistant lecturer at the University of Sheffield

1952–1954 – John Tyndall undertakes his national service in West Germany

1952 – Heinrich Harrer Seven Years in Tibet: My Life Before, During and After (Sieben Jahre in Tibet. Mein Leben am Hofe des Dalai Lama) published in Vienna

1952–1953 – Stalin orders a campaign to remove Jews from positions of authority, including the state security services

1952 – John Cairncross resigns from the government

6 February 1952 – death of George VI; accession of Elizabeth II

15 February 1952 – funeral of George VI at St George’s Chapel, Windsor Castle

May 1952 – purge of Romanian communist Ana Pauker and her allies in the Secretariat (Vasile Luca and Teohari Georgescu)

August 1952 – C. S. Lewis first meets Joy Davidman Gresham

12–13 August 1952 – the “Night of the Murdered Poets” in the Soviet Union, 13 of the most prominent Yiddish writers of the Soviet Union executed on the orders of Stalin

18 September 1952 – Charlie Chaplin boards the RMS Queen Elizabeth with his family but the next day has his re-entry revoked

3 October 1952–January 1960 – the Mau Mau Uprising in the British Kenya Colony (1920–1963)

3 October 1952 – British nuclear weapon detonated in Australia: the UK the third nuclear weapons state

20 November 1952 – the Prague Trial: Rudolf Slánský (General Secretary of the KSČ) and 13 leading party members accused of Trotskyite conspiracy and convicted in Czechoslovakia

5–9 December 1952 – Great Smog of London, caused by cold weather, an anticyclone and windless conditions, and airborne pollutants (from the use of coal) from Friday, 5 December to Tuesday, 9 December 1952

15 December 1952 – Bertrand Russell marries Edith Finch, his fourth wife

1953
1953 – Noam Chomsky and his wife Carol Doris Schatz visit England, France, Switzerland and Italy, and 6 weeks at a kibbutz in Israel

January 1953 – Charlie Chaplin and his family move to Manoir de Ban, overlooking Lake Geneva in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland

5 January 1953 – first public stage première of Samuel Beckett’s play Waiting for Godot (“En attendant Godot”) at the Théâtre de Babylone, Paris

13 January 1953 – the Soviet newspaper Pravda reports the “Doctors’ plot”

14 January 1953–4 May 1980 – Josip Broz Tito President of Yugoslavia

20 January 1953 – Dwight D. Eisenhower sworn in as 34th President of the US

20 January 1953–20 January 1961 – Dwight D. Eisenhower is President of the United States

18 February 1953 – arrest of Ana Pauker

28 February 1953 – James Watson and Francis Crick (University of Cambridge) announce discovery of the structure of the DNA molecule

5 March 1953 – death of Stalin

14 March 1953 – Nikita Khrushchev selected as First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party

c. 31 March 1953 – Peter Byrne resigns from the Dooars Tea Company and takes a concession at the western end of Kanchanpur, Nepal

12 April–30 May 1953 – the 1953 British Mount Everest expedition, led by Colonel John Hunt, with Charles Evans, Tom Bourdillon, Alfred Gregory, Edmund Hillary, George Lowe and Tenzing Norgay

13 April 1953 – publication of Casino Royale by Ian Fleming

29 May 1953 – Edmund Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers to reach the summit of Mount Everest

2 June 1953 – coronation of Queen Elizabeth II as monarch of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon

18 June 1953 – the Egyptian Republic was declared

19 June 1953 – execution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg at Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York

10 July 1953 – Soviet newspaper Pravda announces that Lavrentiy Beria deposed as head of the NKVD

27 July 1953 – end of the Korean War

15–19 August 1953 – the 1953 Iranian coup d’état, the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of the shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, with help from the United Kingdom and the United States

14 September 1953–14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

c. December 1953 – Oswald Mosley moves to France

1954
1954–1965 – Ernst Badian is a lecturer at University of Durham

January 1954 – Daily Mail Snowman Expedition leaves Kathmandu

January–June 1954 – Daily Mail Snowman Expedition in Nepal

7 January 1954 – UK release date of the film The Million Pound Note, directed by Ronald Neame, starring Gregory Peck, Ronald Squire, and Wilfrid Hyde-White

23 February 1954 – first mass vaccination of children against polio in Pittsburgh, US

25 February 1954–8 March 1954 – Gamal Abdel Nasser is Prime Minister of Egypt

1 March–22 May 1954 – Billy Graham in London for evangelical preaching at Harringay Arena and Wembley Stadium

13 March–7 May 1954 – Battle of Dien Bien Phu, last battle of First Indochina War between the French Union’s French Far East Expeditionary Corps and the Viet Minh communist-nationalists

13 April 1954 – Arthur Chesterton founds the League of Empire Loyalists (LEL) at Caxton Hall in London

13 April 1954–7 February 1967 – period of the League of Empire Loyalists (LEL)

18 April 1954–29 September 1962 – Gamal Abdel Nasser is Prime Minister of Egypt

26 April–20 July 1954 – the Geneva Conference in Geneva, Switzerland to settle issues resulting from the Korean War and the First Indochina War

7 June 1954 – death of Alan Turing

18–27 June 1954 – the 1954 Guatemalan coup d’état, a covert operation CIA to depose the democratically-elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz; it installs the military dictatorship of Carlos Castillo Armas

29 July 1954 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Fellowship of the Ring, the first volume of The Lord of the Rings

1 August 1954 – end of the First Indochina War

1 November 1954–19 March 1962 – the Algerian War, between France and the Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN)

11 November 1954 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Two Towers, the second volume of The Lord of the Rings

24 December 1954 – Laos’s full independence from France

1955
1955 – Peter Byrne ends his career as big game hunter

1955–1957 – Tom Baker undertakes national service in the Royal Army Medical Corps

22 January 1955–28 August 1963 – Einar Gerhardsen is Prime Minister of Norway (Labour Party)

10 February 1955 – US Seventh Fleet helps the Republic of China evacuate Chinese Nationalist army from the Tachen Islands to Taiwan

14 March 1955–31 January 1972 – Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah is king of Nepal

6 April 1955 – Winston Churchill steps down as British Prime Minister

6 April 1955–10 January 1957 – Anthony Eden (Conservative) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

21 May 1955 – Billy Graham preaches by royal invitation in the private chapel of Windsor Castle and meets the Queen

June 1955 – Bertrand Russell leases Plas Penrhyn in Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire, Wales; from 5 July 1956 this is his principal home

October 1955 – Kim Philby officially cleared by Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan

20 October 1955 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Return of the King, the third volume of The Lord of the Rings

3 November 1955–26 June 1963 – David Ben-Gurion is Prime Minister of Israel (Mapai)

1956
25 February 1956 – Nikita Khrushchev gives a secret speech denouncing Stalin at the 20th Soviet Party Congress

March 1956 – Peter Byrne travels to the Rathong valley, Sikkim, where he meets Tenzing Norgay; he returns to Gangtok

23 April 1956 – Helen Joy Davidman marries C. S. Lewis in a civil marriage at the register office, 42 St Giles’, Oxford

c. April 1956 – Peter Byrne learns of Tom Slick in Darjeeling from Tenzing Norgay’s wife

c. June 1956–1962 – Tibetan guerillas begin warfare in Tibet in the Kham and Amdo regions, which later spreads to other areas of Tibet

13 June 1956 – British forces complete their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone

19 July 1956 – the US State Department rejects American financial assistance for the Egyptian High Dam

26 July 1956 – Nasser nationalised the Suez Canal

October 1956–May 1959 – David Irving at the Imperial College (Royal College of Science) studying physics

5 October 1956 – release date of the film The Ten Commandments, directed by Cecil B. DeMille and starring Charlton Heston and Yul Brynner

23 October–10 November 1956 – Hungarian Revolution of 1956:
18 April 1955–24 October 1956 – András Hegedüs is Prime Minister of Hungary
23 October 1956 – 20,400 protesters convene next to the statue of József Bem and move to the Parliament Building
24 October 1956–4 November 1956 – Imre Nagy is Prime Minister of Hungary
1 November 1956 – Soviet forces enter Hungary
4 November 1956 – Soviet tanks enter Budapest
4 November 1956–28 January 1958 – János Kádár Prime Minister of Hungary
11 November 1956 – last insurgents defeated
29 October 1956–7 November 1956 – the Suez Crisis (Tripartite Aggression), the invasion of Egypt by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France

31 October 1956–1 January 1958 – serialisation of Hergé’s The Red Sea Sharks in Tintin magazine

1957
1957 – Noam Chomsky is promoted to the position of associate professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

1957 – Ayn Rand publishes Atlas Shrugged

January 1957 – Peter Byrne meets Tom Slick in Delhi

10 January 1957–19 October 1963 – Harold Macmillan (Conservative) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

February 1957 – publication of Syntactic Structures by Noam Chomsky, which introduces the idea of transformational generative grammar

9 March 1957 – Peter Byrne and his party leave Darjeeling for Nepal

14 March–10 April 1957 – Tom Slick and Peter Byrne carry out reconnaissance in the Arun Khola Valley: Dharan, Dara Pani (day 1), Dhankuta (day 2), Pokribas (17 March), Legua Ghat, Kathia Ghat (19 March), Tumlingtar, the Arun river crossed at Sati Ghat (20 March), Choyang, confluence of the Arun and Choyang Khola (23 March), Walung, Kampalung, confluence of the Sangkua and Arun (10 April); they discover 3 sets of bipedal tracks, one of which they follow for 4 miles near the Chhoyang Khola Valley, Nepal

2 May 1957 – release date of the film The Curse of Frankenstein, directed by Terence Fisher, and starring Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee

1 August 1957 – release of the volume of German Foreign Office documents relating to Edward VIII’s time in Spain

26 August 1957 – release date of the film The Abominable Snowman, starring Peter Cushing and Forrest Tucker

31 August 1957 – Federation of Malaya’s independence from the British Empire

12 December 1957–12 December 1960 – Walter Nash is Prime Minister of New Zealand (Labour)

1958
February–June 1958 – the Slick-Johnson Snowman Expedition, led by Gerald Russell and Peter and Bryan Byrne

20 February 1958 – Italian release date of the film Le fatiche di Ercole (The Labours of Hercules or Hercules), starring Steve Reeves; US release date 22 July 1959

27 March 1958–14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union

April 1958 – John Bean and John Tyndall form the National Labour Party (NLP) based in Thornton Heath, Croydon, after leaving the League of Empire Loyalists

April 1958–27 February 1960 – period of the National Labour Party (NLP)

8 May 1958 – release date of the film UK Dracula, directed by Terence Fisher and starring Christopher Lee and Peter Cushing

1 June 1958 – release date of The Revenge of Frankenstein, directed by Terence Fisher, starring Peter Cushing

1 June 1958 – de Gaulle became Premier and was given emergency powers for six months by the National Assembly, fulfilling his desire for parliamentary legitimacy

1 June 1958–8 January 1959 – de Gaulle Prime Minister of France

7 June 1958 – Ian Donald, Tom Brown and John MacVicar report use of ultrasound on live patients in “Investigation of Abdominal Masses by Pulsed Ultrasound” published in The Lancet

16 June 1958 – execution of Imre Nagy

July 1958 – Ezra Pound arrived in Naples from America

30 August–5 September 1958 – Notting Hill race riots in Notting Hill, England

2 September 1958–6 September 1966 – Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd is Prime Minister of South Africa (National Party)

17 September 1958–25 November 1959 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story Tintin in Tibet in Tintin magazine

28 September 1958 – a French referendum took place and 79.2 percent of those who voted supported the new constitution and the creation of the Fifth Republic

1959
1959 – Peter Cushing and Helen Beck move to Whitstable

early 1959 – Peter Byrne obtains pieces of the Pangboche Hand from Pangboche, Nepal

8 January 1959–28 April 1969 – de Gaulle President of the French Republic

March 1959 – George Lincoln Rockwell begins his National Socialist movement

10–21 March 1959 – the 1959 Tibetan uprising in Lhasa, the capital of the Tibet Area

17 March 1959 – Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) flees Lhasa

30 March 1959 – Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) flees Tibet crossing into India

18 April 1959 – Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) reaches Tezpur in Assam

19 August 1959 – the “Radcliffe Report” is published on British monetary policy by the Committee on the Working of the Monetary System, under Lord Radcliffe

8 October 1959 – the UK general election:
Party | Leader | Seats
Conservative | Harold Macmillan | 365
Labour | Hugh Gaitskell | 258
Liberal | Jo Grimond | 6
Independent Conservative | - | 1.
Harold Macmillan (Conservative) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (10 January 1957–19 October 1963)

18 November 1959 – release date of Ben-Hur, directed by William Wyler, produced by Sam Zimbalist for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, starring Charlton Heston

December 1959 – Slick-Johnson Snowman Expedition, with Peter Byrne

1960
1960 – Piero Sraffa publishes The Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities

January 1960 – Peter Byrne arrives in America

February 1960 – Friedrich Hayek publishes The Constitution of Liberty

27 February 1960 – British National Party (BNP) founded after the merger of the National Labour Party (NLP) with the White Defence League

27 February 1960–7 February 1967 – British National Party

3 April 1960 – George Lincoln Rockwell makes his first public address delivered on the Mall, in Washington

27 May 1960 – Piero Sraffa publishes The Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities; Italian publication on 6 June 1960

16 June 1960 – suicide of Francis Parker Yockey in a jail cell in San Francisco

13 July 1960 – death of Helen Joy Davidman

September 1960–1 October 1961 – Luigi Pasinetti is at Nuffield College, Oxford

September 1960–June 1961 – the World Book Encyclopedia scientific expedition to the Himalayas, led by Sir Edmund Hillary and Marlin Perkins, to study adaptation to high altitude and to search for the yeti

2 September 1960 – establishment of the Assembly of Tibetan Peoples’ Deputies (ATPD)

5 October 1960 – South African republic referendum; 52.29% of voters endorse withdrawal from the British Commonwealth and the establishment of a Republic of South Africa

7 October 1960 – US release date of the film Spartacus, directed by Stanley Kubrick, starring Kirk Douglas and Laurence Olivier

24 October 1960 – Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) and his entourage move to Dharamsala

12 December 1960–7 February 1972 – Keith Holyoake is Prime Minister of New Zealand (National)

1960s
1961
1961–1963 – David Irving registered as a student at University College, studying political science and economics; he dropped out by 1962

1961–1975 – University of Canterbury is moved to the Christchurch suburb of Ilam

January 1961 – Oswald Mosley debates the issue of Commonwealth immigration at a University College, London, seconded by David Irving

8 January 1961 – referendum on self-determination for Algeria was held in France

20 January 1961 – John F. Kennedy inaugurated as US president (in office 20 January 1961–22 November 1963)

17 March 1961 – marriage of Christopher Lee and Birgit “Gitte” Krøncke

4 April 1961 – John F. Kennedy approves the Bay of Pigs final invasion plan

17 April 1961 – the Bay of Pigs Invasion, failed military invasion of Cuba by the CIA-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 from 17–20 April

5 May 1961 – the first US astronaut, Alan Shepard, launched on a suborbital flight aboard Freedom 7 on a Mercury-Redstone rocket

30 May 1961 – John F. Kennedy meets Ben-Gurion to discuss the nuclear issue at the Waldorf Astoria hotel in New York

31 May 1961 – establishment of the republic of South Africa

1 October 1961–September 1976 – Luigi Pasinetti is an Assistant Lecturer and Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge

1962
1962 – Joan Robinson elected a fellow of Newnham College, University of Cambridge (lecturer 1931; full lecturer in 1937; reader 1949; professor 1965)

18 April 1962 – royal assent given to Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962

20 April 1962 – John Tyndall founded National Socialist Movement (NSM)

1 June 1962 – Friedrich Hayek leaves New York for Naples (arriving on 13 June)

c. 15 June 1962–July 1968 – Friedrich Hayek is professor at the University of Freiburg, Germany

3 July 1962 – France recognised Algerian independence

October 1962 – Cuban missile crisis

5 October 1962 – release date of the James Bond film Dr. No in the United Kingdom

6 October 1962 – Tom Slick, Texas-based businessman, dies in an airplane crash in Montana

11 October 1962–8 December 1965 – the Second Vatican Council (Vatican II), 21st ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, held at St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican

10 December 1962 – release date of the film Lawrence of Arabia, directed by David Lean and starring Peter O’Toole

1963
1963 – Meyerdirk & Wright begins production of first commercial hand-held articulated arm compound contact B-mode scanner; ultrasound becomes generally available for medical use

January 1963 – Gore Vidal and Austen leave for Italy; they take an apartment on Via Giulia in Rome

23 January 1963 – Kim Philby vanishes from Beirut

4 May 1963 – civil rights protesters dispersed in Birmingham, Alabama

26–29 June 1963 – John F. Kennedy visits Ireland

26 June 1963 – David Ben-Gurion steps down as Prime Minister of Israel:
Prime Ministers of Israel
3 November 1955–26 June 1963 – David Ben-Gurion (Mapai)
26 June 1963–26 February 1969 – Levi Eshkol (Mapai)
26 February–17 March 1969– Yigal Allon (Alignment Labor)
17 March 1969–3 June 1974 – Golda Meir (Alignment Labor)
3 June 1974–20 June 1977 – Yitzhak Rabin (Alignment Labor)
20 June 1977–10 October 1983 – Menachem Begin (Likud)
10 October 1983–13 September 1984 – Yitzhak Shamir (Likud)
1 July 1963 – Kim Philby’s flight to Moscow officially confirmed

28 August 1963 – the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, at which Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his 17-minute speech, later known as “I Have a Dream”

11 October 1963 – release date of the James Bond film From Russia with Love in the United Kingdom

22 November 1963 – the assassination of John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, at 12:30 pm Central Standard Time on Friday; Lyndon B. Johnson sworn in as President on Air Force One in Dallas on 22 November 1963

22 November 1963 – death of C. S. Lewis

23 November 1963 – broadcast date of the first Doctor Who TV program An Unearthly Child in the UK

25 November 1963 – a Requiem Mass held for John F. Kennedy at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle

12 December 1963 – independence of Republic of Kenya from Britain (formerly the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya)12 December 1963 – independence of Republic of Kenya from Britain (formerly the Colony and Protectorate of Kenya)

21 December 1963–1 February 1964 – broadcast dates of the Doctor Who TV program The Daleks in the UK

1964
23 April 1964 – Anthony Blunt secretly confessed to MI5 about his spying

8 May 1964 – release date of The Evil of Frankenstein directed by Freddie Francis, starring Peter Cushing

27 May 1964 – Italian release date of Terror in the Crypt, directed by Camillo Mastrocinque and starring Christopher Lee

12 June 1964 – Nelson Mandela and two of his co-accused found guilty on four charges, condemned to life imprisonment

12 June 1964–11 February 1990 – Nelson Mandela imprisoned

2 July 1964 – the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, and outlawed racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations, is signed by Lyndon B. Johnson:
10 February 1964 – Civil Rights Act passes in the House
19 June 1964 – passes in the Senate
2 July 1964 – House agrees to Senate amendment
18 September 1964 – release date of the James Bond film Goldfinger in the United Kingdom

17 September 1964–25 March 1972 – broadcast dates of Bewitched on ABC, starring Elizabeth Montgomery and Dick York

14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is forced to resign as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union

14 October 1964–10 November 1982 – Leonid Brezhnev is General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Brezhnev becomes Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union on 16 June 1977

1965
1965–1969 – Ernst Badian is professor of ancient history, University of Leeds

24 January 1965 – death of Winston Churchill

30 January 1965 – the state funeral service of Winston Churchill held at St Paul’s Cathedral

23 August 1965 – release date of the film Dr. Who and the Daleks, starring Peter Cushing

25 August 1965 – Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (the Hart–Celler Act) passed in the House:
22 September 1965 – Hart–Celler Act passes the Senate (76–18) with amendment
30 September 1965 – House agrees to Senate amendment (320–70)
3 October 1965 – signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson
30 June 1968 – Hart–Celler Act effective
22 September 1965 – the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (or the Hart–Celler Act) is passed in the US Senate (25 August 1965 in the House); effective from 30 June 1968

3 October 1965 – the Hart–Celler Act signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson

18 September 1965–26 May 1970 – broadcast dates of I Dream of Jeannie on NBC, starring Barbara Eden and Larry Hagman

8 December 1965 – royal assent given to the UK Race Relations Act 1965, the first legislation to outlaw discrimination on the grounds of colour, race, or ethnic or national origins in public places

21 December 1965 – release date of the James Bond film Thunderball in the United States; released in the UK on 29 December 1965

1966
1966 – Gore Vidal and Austen take the Via di Torre Argentina, Rome, Italy (their residence in Rome until 1993 when he lives year round in La Rondinaia)

1966 – Paul A. Baran and Paul M. Sweezy publish Monopoly Capital: An Essay on the American Economic and Social Order (Monthly Review Press)

August 1966 – George Lincoln Rockwell holds a rally in Chicago against a desegregation effort led by Martin Luther King, Jr.

5 August 1966 – release date of the film Daleks – Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D., starring Peter Cushing

8 September–29 December 1966 – 1966 episodes of Season 1 of Star Trek: The Original Series:
8 September 1966 – “The Man Trap”
15 September 1966 – “Charlie X”
22 September 1966 – “Where No Man Has Gone Before”
29 September 1966 – “The Naked Time”
6 October 1966 – “The Enemy Within”
13 October 1966 – “Mudd’s Women”
20 October 1966 – “What Are Little Girls Made of?”
27 October 1966 – “Miri”
3 November 1966 – “Dagger of the Mind”
10 November 1966 – “The Corbomite Maneuver”
17 and 24 November 1966 – “The Menagerie”
8 December 1966 – “The Conscience of the King”
15 December 1966 – “Balance of Terror”
29 December 1966 – “Shore Leave”
6 September 1966 – Hendrik Verwoerd assassinated in Cape Town, after entering the House of Assembly

13 September 1966–2 October 1978 – Balthazar Johannes “B. J.” Vorster is Prime Minister of South Africa

1967
5 January–13 April 1967 – 1967 episodes of Season 1 of Star Trek: The Original Series:
5 January 1967 – “The Galileo Seven”
12 January 1967 – “The Squire of Gothos”
19 January 1967 – “Arena”
26 January 1967 – “Tomorrow is Yesterday”
2 February 1967 – “Court Martial”
9 February 1967 – “The Return of the Archons”
16 February 1967 – “Space Seed”
23 February 1967 – “A Taste of Armageddon”
2 March 1967 – “This Side of Paradise”
9 March 1967 – “The Devil in the Dark”
23 March 1967 – “Errand of Mercy”
30 March 1967 – “The Alternative Factor”
6 April 1967 – “The City on the Edge of Forever”
13 April 1967 – “Operation: Annihilate!”
7 February 1967 – foundation of the National Front (NF) by A. K. Chesterton, after the merger of the League of Empire Loyalists and the British National Party

5–10 June 1967 – the Six-Day War

8 June 1967 – the USS Liberty incident, during the Six-Day War (5–10 June 1967)

1 July 1967–7 August 1970 – the War of Attrition between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, the PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970

29 July 1967 – the USS Forrestal fire in the Gulf of Tonkin, caused by an electrical anomaly firing a Zuni rocket on a McDonnell Douglas F-4B Phantom, which struck an external fuel tank of a A-4 Skyhawk; flammable jet fuel spilled across the flight deck, ignited, and triggered a chain-reaction of explosions killing 134 sailors and injured 161

25 August 1967 – murder of George Lincoln Rockwell while leaving a laundromat in Arlington, Virginia

15 September–29 December 1967 – 1967 episodes of Season 2 of Star Trek: The Original Series:
15 September 1967 – “Amok Time”
22 September 1967 – “Who Mourns for Adonais?”
29 September 1967 – “The Changeling”
6 October 1967 – “Mirror, Mirror”
13 October 1967 – “The Apple”
20 October 1967 – “The Doomsday Machine”
27 October 1967 – “Catspaw”
3 November 1967 – “I, Mudd”
10 November 1967 – “Metamorphosis”
17 November 1967 – “Journey to Babel”
1 December 1967 – “Friday’s Child”
8 December 1967 – “The Deadly Years”
15 December 1967 – “Obsession”
22 December 1967 – “Wolf in the Fold”
29 December 1967 – “The Trouble with Tribbles”
October 1967–February 1970 – the US experiences a spike in inflation owing to bidding up of wages with low unemployment

26 October 1967 – John McCain shot down over Hanoi, North Vietnam

1968
5 January–29 March 1968 – 1968 episodes of Season 2 of Star Trek: The Original Series:
5 January 1968 – “The Gamesters of Triskelion”
12 January 1968 – “A Piece of the Action”
19 January 1968 – “The Immunity Syndrome”
2 February 1968 – “A Private Little War”
9 February 1968 – “Return to Tomorrow”
16 February 1968 – “Patterns of Force”
23 February 1968 – “By Any Other Name”
1 March 1968 – “The Omega Glory”
8 March 1968 – “The Ultimate Computer”
15 March 1968 – “Bread and Circuses”
29 March 1968 – “Assignment: Earth”
31 January 1968 – the Viet Cong launch the Tet Offensive

1 March 1968 – royal assent to the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968, which reduced the rights of citizens of the Commonwealth of Nations countries to migrate to the UK; the 1968 Act was superseded by the Immigration Act 1971

April 1968 – UK Race Relations Bill

4 April 1968 – murder of Martin Luther King

20 April 1968 – Enoch Powell’s notorious address to the General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Centre, which became known as the “Rivers of Blood” speech

30 May 1968 – President Charles de Gaulle disbands the French parliament

6 June 1968 – death of Randolph Spencer-Churchill (1911–1968), son of Winston

6 June 1968 – death of Robert F. Kennedy after being shot in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California by Sirhan Bishara Sirhan

25 October 1968 – royal assent given to Race Relations Act 1968, which makes it illegal to refuse housing, employment, or public services to a person on the grounds of colour, race, ethnic or national origins (repealed by the Race Relations Act 1976)

5 November 1968 – the United States presidential election of 1968. Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew (Republican) defeat Vice President Hubert Humphrey (Democratic). The results:
Candidate | Electoral Votes
Richard Nixon | 301
Hubert Humphrey | 191
George Wallace | 46.
1969
1969–1971 – Ernst Badian is State professor of classics at University of New York, Buffalo

20 January 1969 – Richard Nixon inaugurated as US president. Nixon’s cabinet appointments:
Vice President
20 January 1969–10 October 1973 – Spiro Agnew
6 December 1973–9 August 1974 – Gerald Ford
White House Chief of Staff
20 January 1969–30 April 1973 – Harry R. Haldeman
4 May 1973–21 September 1974 – Alexander Haig
21 September 1974–20 November 1975 – Donald Rumsfeld
20 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Dick Cheney
White House Domestic Affairs Advisor
4 November 1969–30 April 1973 – John Ehrlichman
1 May 1973–8 January 1974 – Melvin Laird
White House Adviser and Speechwriter
Patrick Buchanan
White House Counsel
20 January 1969–4 November 1969 – John Ehrlichman
6 November 1969–9 July 1970 – Charles Colson
9 July 1970–30 April 1973 – John Dean
30 April 1973–9 August 1974 – Leonard Garment
National Security Advisor
20 January 20 1969–3 November 1975 – Henry Kissinger
3 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Brent Scowcroft
US Secretary of State
22 January 1969–3 September 1973 – William P. Rogers
22 September 1973–20 January 1977 – Henry Kissinger
US Secretary of the Treasury
22 January 1969–11 February 1971 – David M. Kennedy
11 February 1971–12 June 1972 – John Connally
12 June 1972–8 May 1974 – George P. Shultz
9 May 1974–20 January 1977 – William E. Simon
Secretary of Defense
22 January 1969–29 January 1973 – Melvin Laird
30 January 1973–24 May 1973 – Elliot Richardson
2 July 1973–19 November 1975 – James R. Schlesinger
20 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Donald Rumsfeld
US Attorney General
21 January 1969–1 March 1972 – John N. Mitchell
12 June 1972–30 April 1973 – Richard Kleindienst
25 May 1973–20 October 1973 – Elliot Richardson (resigned)
4 January 1974–2 February 1975 – William B. Saxbe
2 February 1975–20 January 1977 – Edward H. Levi
Chair of the Federal Reserve
2 April 1951–1 February 1970 – William M. Martin
1 February 1970–31 January 1978 – Arthur F. Burns
Director of Central Intelligence
30 June 1966–2 February 1973 – Richard Helms
2 February 1973–2 July 1973 – James R. Schlesinger
2 July 1973–4 September 1973 – Vernon A. Walters (acting)
4 September 1973–30 January 1976 – William Colby
30 January 1976–20 January 1977 – George H. W. Bush
Director of FBI
1 July 1935–2 May 1972 – J. Edgar Hoover
3 May 1972–27 April 1973 – L. Patrick Gray
30 April 1973–9 July 1973 – William Ruckelshaus
9 July 1973–15 February 1978 – Clarence M. Kelley
20 January 1969–9 August 1974 – Richard Nixon is US president

23 February–2 March 1969 – Richard Nixon’s state visit to Europe:
23–24 February 1969 – Brussels, Belgium to the 23rd meeting of North Atlantic Council
24–26 February 1969 – informal visit to London, United Kingdom
26–27 February 1969 – West Berlin and Bonn, West Germany; address to the Bundestag
27–28 February 1969 – Rome, Italy
28 February–2 March 1969 – Paris, France; meeting with President Charles de Gaulle
2 March 1969 – Vatican City; audience with Pope Paul VI
2–15 March 1969 – the Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969: Chinese and Soviet troops fight on Zhenbao (Damansky) Island on the Ussuri (Wusuli) River

5 March 1969 – Arthur Kinsella (New Zealand Minister of Education) formally opens the Burns Building (Arts Building), University of Otago

19 April 1969–21 June 1969 – UK broadcast date of “The War Games,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Patrick Troughton

28 April 1969 – President Charles de Gaulle resigns the presidency at noon

20 July 1969 – 20:18 UTC, Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin land the lunar module Eagle on the moon at the Sea of Tranquility, as part of the United States Apollo 11 first manned mission to land on the Moon

26 July–3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon’s state visits to Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, South Vietnam, India, Pakistan, Romania, and the UK:
26–27 July 1969 – visit to Manila, Philippines to meet with President Ferdinand Marcos
27–28 July 1969 – visit to Jakarta, Indonesia, to meet with President Suharto
28–30 July 1969 – visit to Bangkok, Thailand
30 July 1969 – visit to Saigon, South Vietnam to meet with President Nguyen Van Thieu
31 July–1 August 1969 – visit to New Delhi, India
1–2 August 1969 – visit to Lahore, Pakistan
2–3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon visits Bucharest, Romania, to meet with President Nicolae Ceaușescu
3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon meets Prime Minister Harold Wilson in Britain
August 1969 – the Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 along the western section of the Sino-Soviet border in Xinjiang; the Tasiti incident; the Bacha Dao incident; the Tielieketi Incident

8 September 1969 – Richard Nixon visits Mexico for the dedication of Amistad Dam with President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz

December 1969–1977 – Friedrich Hayek is professor at the University of Salzburg, Austria

1970
3 January 1970 – UK broadcast date of “Spearhead from Space,” the first serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee:
3, 10, 17, 24 January 1970 – “Spearhead from Space”
31 January 1970, 7, 14, 21, and 28 February 1970, 7, 14 March 1970 – “Doctor Who and the Silurians”
21, 28 March 1970, 4, 11, 18, 25 April 1970 and 2 May 1970 – “The Ambassadors of Death”
9, 16, 23, 30 May 1970, 6, 13, 20 June 1970 – “Inferno”
2 February 1970 – death of Bertrand Russell in Penrhyndeudraeth, Wales

15 March 1970 – the first operational Soviet SAM site in Egypt completed

9 May 1970–20 June 1970 – UK broadcast date of “Inferno,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

18 June 1970 – the United Kingdom general election of 1970. The Conservatives under Edward Heath won:
Party | Candidate | Seats
Conservative | Edward Heath | 330
Labour | Harold Wilson | 288
Liberal | Jeremy Thorpe | 6
SNP | William Wolfe | 1.
19 June 1970–4 March 1974 – Edward Heath is British Prime Minister. Prime Ministers:
Labour
16 October 1964–19 June 1970 – Harold Wilson
Conservative
19 June 1970–4 March 1974 – Edward Heath
Labour
4 March 1974 – 5 April 1976 – Harold Wilson
5 April 1976 – 4 May 1979 – James Callaghan
Conservative
4 May 1979–28 November 1990 – Margaret Thatcher.
August 1970 – Senator Ted Kennedy introduces a bipartisan bill for universal national health insurance

7 August 1970 – a cease-fire agreement between Israel and Egypt; Egypt begins to move SAM batteries into the zone

1971
1971 – Gore Vidal buys the “La Rondinaia” (“Swallow’s Nest”), a villa in Ravello on the Amalfi coast, Italy, built by Lord Grimthorpe

10 April–15 May 1971 – UK broadcast date of “Colony in Space,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

22 May–19 June 1971 – UK broadcast date of “The Daemons,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

13 August 1971 – Richard Nixon ends Bretton Woods by suspending the convertibility of the dollar into gold; he freezes wages and prices for 90 days to combat inflation and imposes an import surcharge of 10 percent

autumn 1971 – Gore Vidal first visits “La Rondinaia” (“Swallow’s Nest”), a villa in Ravello on the Amalfi coast, Italy, built by Lord Grimthorpe

30 September 1971 – foundation of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) by the Protestant fundamentalist leader Ian Paisley at the height of the Troubles

28 October 1971 – royal assent given to the Immigration Act 1971

1972
1 January–22 January 1972 – UK broadcast date of “Day of the Daleks,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

21–28 February 1972 – US President Richard Nixon’s 1972 visit to China

15 May 1972 – George Wallace is shot five times by Arthur Bremer while campaigning at the Laurel Shopping Center in Laurel, Maryland

June 1972 – Gore Vidal moves into “La Rondinaia” (“Swallow’s Nest”), a villa in Ravello on the Amalfi coast, Italy, built by Lord Grimthorpe

June 1972–August 2004 – Gore Vidal lives in “La Rondinaia” (“Swallow’s Nest”), a villa in Ravello on the Amalfi coast, Italy

June 1972–December 1974 – spike in US inflation from (1) an explosion in commodity prices from 1972; (2) wage–price spirals, and (3) the first oil shock

17 June 1972 – Virgilio González, Bernard Barker, James McCord, Eugenio Martínez, and Frank Sturgis arrested at the Watergate Complex in the DNC office

June 1972–January 1973 – secret meetings between Bob Woodward and “Deep Throat” (W. Mark Felt, deputy director of the FBI) take place at an underground parking garage in Rosslyn

23 June 1972 – Nixon orders that administration officials should make Richard Helms (Director of the CIA) and Vernon A. Walters (Deputy Director) request that L. Patrick Gray (Acting Director of the FBI) end the FBI’s investigation into the Watergate break-in on the grounds of national security; the tape of this is latter known as the “smoking gun” tape

4 August 1972 – Idi Amin (President of Uganda) orders the expulsion of Asian minorities

21–23 August 1972 – the 1972 US Republican National Convention, held at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida

1 November 1972 – death of Ezra Pound in Civil Hospital of Venice

7 November 1972 – the United States presidential election of 1972, between Republican incumbent President Richard Nixon and Senator George McGovern of South Dakota (Democrat). The results:
Candidate | Electoral Votes
Richard Nixon | 520
George McGovern | 17.
30 December 1972–20 January 1973 – UK broadcast date of “The Three Doctors,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

1973
1 January 1973 – the UK enters the European Communities (EC) (or “Common Market”)

7 April–12 May 1973 – broadcast date of “Planet of the Daleks,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

30 April 1973 – Nixon fires John Ehrlichman and John Dean; H. R. Haldeman resigns

October 1973–March 1974 – first oil shock: Middle Eastern producers of oil institute an embargo on oil exports

6–25 October 1973 – the Yom Kippur War, between a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel; fighting mostly takes place in the Sinai and the Golan Heights (territories occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War of 1967)

10 October 1973 – Vice President Agnew resigns amid allegations of bribery, tax evasion and money laundering from his time as governor of Maryland

10 October 1973 – death of Ludwig von Mises at the age of 92 in New York

20 October 1973 – the Saturday Night Massacre: Richard Nixon fires independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox and resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus

1974
1974–1987 – Ludwig Lachmann travels to New York City each year and collaborates on research with Israel Kirzner

23 February 1974 – the MP Enoch Powell announces his resignation from the Conservative Party

4 May 1974–8 June 1974 – broadcast date of “Planet of the Spiders,” the final serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who with Jon Pertwee

9 May 1974 – the US House Judiciary Committee opens impeachment hearings against the President Nixon, televised on the major networks

1 July 1974 – death of Juan Perón

24 July 1974 – the US Supreme Court rules unanimously that the full White House tapes must be released

5 August 1974 – Nixon’s “smoking gun” White House tape is made public

9 August 1974 – the resignation of Richard Nixon as US president, after an address to the nation on television the previous evening

8 September 1974 – Gerald Ford’s presidential pardon of Richard Nixon

9 October 1974 – announcement of the award of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics to Friedrich Hayek and the Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal

10 October 1974 – the UK general election of October 1974 to elect 635 members of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom:
Party | Leader | MPs
Labour | Harold Wilson | 319
Conservative | Edward Heath | 277
Liberal | Jeremy Thorpe | 13
SNP | William Wolfe | 11
UUP | Harry West | 6
Plaid Cymru | Gwynfor Evans | 3
DUP | Ian Paisley | 1
National Front | John Kingsley Read | 0.
10 October 1974 – Harold Wilson re-elected as Labour PM:
UK Prime Ministers
16 October 1964–19 June 1970 – Harold Wilson (Labour)
19 June 1970–4 March 1974 – Edward Heath (Conservative)
4 March 1974–5 April 1976 – Harold Wilson (Labour)
5 April 1976–4 May 1979 – James Callaghan (Labour)
10 October 1974–11 June 1987 – Enoch Powell returns to Parliament as Ulster Unionist MP for South Down, Northern Ireland

10 October 1974–11 June 1987 – Enoch Powell is MP for South Down, Northern Ireland

1975
1975–1987 – Ludwig Lachmann (as visiting professor) organises the Austrian Economics Seminar at New York University each winter semester

13 April 1975–13 October 1990 – the Lebanese Civil War

1 May 1975 – relocation of the University of Canterbury to the Christchurch suburb of Ilam completed

5 June 1975 – United Kingdom European Communities referendum of 1975, a referendum held on support for UK membership of the European Communities (EC) (or “Common Market”); it had entered on 1 January 1973 under Edward Heath

1976
21 March–4 April 1976 – filming of Star Wars in Tunisia

7 April–13–18 May 1976 – filming of Star Wars in Elstree Studios, England

13–18 May–16 July 1976 – filming of Star Wars in Shepperton Studios, England

September 1976 – Luigi Pasinetti returns to the Università Cattolica Milano

2 November 1976 – the United States presidential election of 1976 between Jimmy Carter with Walter Mondale and President Gerald Ford with Bob Dole (the U.S. Senator from Kansas). The results:
Candidate | Electoral vote
Jimmy Carter | 297
Gerald Ford | 240.
1977
March 1977 – filming of Star Wars at the Mayan Tikal city in Guatemala

17 April 1977–1 March 1982 – broadcast dates of In Search of..., narrated by Rod Serling and Leonard Nimoy, and created by Alan Landsburg

25 May 1977 – US release date of Star Wars: Episode IV: A New Hope directed by George Lucas

26 September 1977 – live action filming of the BBC series Blake’s 7 begins at Ealing film studios (continues until 15 March 1978)

1978
2 January 1978–21 December 1981 – broadcast dates of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

2 January–27 March 1978 – broadcast dates of Series 1 of the TV series Blake’s 7:
Series 1:
2 January 1978 – “The Way Back”
9 January 1978 – “Space Fall”
16 January 1978 – “Cygnus Alpha”
23 January 1978 – “Time Squad”
30 January 1978 – “The Web”
6 February 1978 – “Seek-Locate-Destroy”
13 February 1978 – “Mission to Destiny”
20 February 1978 – “Duel”
27 February 1978 – “Project Avalon”
6 March 1978 – “Breakdown”
13 March 1978 – “Bounty”
20 March 1978 – “Deliverance”
27 March 1978 – “Orac.”
1979
9 January–3 April 1979 – broadcast dates of Series 2 of Blake’s 7:
9 January 1979 – “Redemption”
16 January 1979 – “Shadow”
23 January 1979 – “Weapon”
30 January 1979 – “Horizon”
6 February 1979 – “Pressure Point”
13 February 1979 – “Trial”
20 February 1979 – “Killer”
27 February 1979 – “Hostage”
6 March 1979 – “Countdown”
13 March 1979 – “Voice from the Past”
20 March 1979 – “Gambit”
27 March 1979 – “The Keeper”
3 April 1979 – “Star One.”
3 May 1979 – the UK general election of 1979:
Party | Leader | Seats
Conservative | Margaret Thatcher | 339
Labour | James Callaghan | 269
Liberal | David Steel | 11
SNP | William Wolfe | 2
UUP | Harry West | 5
National Front | John Tyndall | 0
Plaid Cymru | Gwynfor Evans | 2
DUP | Ian Paisley | 3.
1980
7 January–31 March 1980 – broadcast dates of Series 3 of the TV series Blake’s 7:
7 January 1980 – “Aftermath”
14 January 1980 – “Powerplay”
21 January 1980 – “Volcano”
28 January 1980 – “Dawn of the Gods”
4 February 1980 – “The Harvest of Kairos”
11 February 1980 – “City at the Edge of the World”
18 February 1980 – “Children of Auron”
25 February 1980 – “Rumours of Death”
3 March 1980 – “Sarcophagus”
10 March 1980 – “Ultraworld”
17 March 1980 – “Moloch”
24 March 1980 – “Death-Watch”
31 March 1980 – “Terminal.”
4 November 1980 – the United States presidential election of 1980 between the Democratic incumbent President Jimmy Carter (with Vice President Walter Mondale from Minnesota) and the Republican Ronald Reagan (former Governor from California) with George H. W. Bush. The results:
Candidate | Electoral vote
Ronald Reagan | 489
Jimmy Carter | 49.
1981
1981 – Stephen Jay Gould publishes The Mismeasure of Man

20 January 1981 – inauguration of Ronald Reagan as US president

20 January 1981–20 January 1989 – Ronald Reagan is US president

30 March 1981 – release date of the film Chariots of Fire, directed by Hugh Hudson

12 June 1981 – US release date of the film Raiders of the Lost Ark, directed by Steven Spielberg, and starring Harrison Ford, Karen Allen, John Rhys-Davies, and Denholm Elliott

19 June 1981 – release date of the film The Cannonball Run, directed by Hal Needham, and starring Burt Reynolds, Jackie Chan, and Roger Moore

24 June 1981 – release date of the film For Your Eyes Only, directed by John Glen

21 August 1981 – release date of the film An American Werewolf in London, directed by John Landis, and starring David Naughton, Jenny Agutter and Griffin Dunne

28 September–21 December 1981 – broadcast dates of Series 4 of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

6 November 1981 – US release date of the film Time Bandits, directed by Terry Gilliam and starring Sean Connery, John Cleese, Ian Holm, Michael Palin, and Peter Vaughn

1982
7 April 1982 – foundation of the far-right British National Party (BNP) at a press conference in Victoria by John Tyndall

4 June 1982 – US release date of the film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, directed by Nicholas Meyer

6 June 1982–June 1985 – the 1982 Lebanon War (First Lebanon War), a war between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) in Lebanon

11 June 1982 – US release date of the film E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, directed by Steven Spielberg

14 June–21 August 1982 – Israeli forces lay siege to Beirut

25 June 1982 – US release date of the film Blade Runner, directed by Ridley Scott, and starring Harrison Ford, Rutger Hauer, and Sean Young

July 1982 – Stephen Jay Gould diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma, a form of cancer

12 August 1982 – President Ronald Reagan calls Menachem Begin and insists that attacks on Beirut be halted

17 December 1982 – US release date of the film Tootsie, directed by Sydney Pollack, and starring Dustin Hoffman and Bill Murray

17 December 1982 – US release date of the film The Dark Crystal, directed by Jim Henson and Frank Oz

1985
spring 1985 – David Horowitz publishes an article for The Washington Post Magazine entitled “Lefties for Reagan”

15 November 1985 – signing of the Anglo-Irish Agreement at Hillsborough Castle by Margaret Thatcher and the Irish Taoiseach, Garret FitzGerald

1986
1986 – David Horowitz publishes “Why I Am No Longer a Leftist” in The Village Voice

9 October 1986 – launch date of Fox Broadcasting Company

1987
11 July 1987–21 August 1988 – broadcast date of the TV series Werewolf

1988
8 August 1988 – release date of Straight Outta Compton, debut studio album of N.W.A on Ruthless Records label

6 September 1988–16 February 1993 – broadcast date of Count Duckula, a British animated television series created by British studio Cosgrove Hall Films

1989
4 September 1989 – death of Ronald Syme from cancer after collapsing in his room in August in Wolfson College, Oxford

December 1989 – Ice Cube leaves hip hop group N.W.A.

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